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- Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
- Brock University
- Electronic Systems Laboratory, Dept. of Electical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Electronic Systems Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Universidade Cornell
- Elsevier
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## Theory and practice of secret commitment

Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Formato: 80 p.

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by Shai Halevi.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1997.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 77-80).

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## Functional compression : theory and application

Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Formato: 77 p.

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#Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.#Technology and Policy Program.#Engineering Systems Division.

We consider the problem of functional compression. The objective is to separately compress possibly correlated discrete sources such that an arbitrary deterministic function of those sources can be computed given the compressed data from each source. This is motivated by problems in sensor networks and database privacy. Our architecture gives a quantitative definition of privacy for database statistics. Further, we show that it can provide significant coding gains in sensor networks. We consider both the lossless and lossy computation of a function. Specifically, we present results of the rate regions for three instances of the problem where there are two sources: 1) lossless computation where one source is available at the decoder, 2) under a special condition, lossless computation where both sources are separately encoded, and 3) lossy computation where one source is available at the decoder. Wyner and Ziv (1976) considered the third problem for the special case f(X, Y) = X and derived a rate distortion function. Yamamoto (1982) extended this result to a general function. Both of these results are in terms of an auxiliary random variable. Orlitsky and Roche (2001), for the zero distortion case, gave this variable a precise interpretation in terms of the properties of the characteristic graph; this led to a particular coding scheme. We extend that result by providing an achievability scheme that is based on the coloring of the characteristic graph. This suggests a layered architecture where the functional layer controls the coloring scheme...

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## Existential Theorems in Computational Complexity Theory: Size and Robustness

Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.

Tipo: Thesis; Technical Report

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#p-selective sets#pseudo-random generator#Kolmogorov complexity#AC^0#NP optimization problems#descriptive complexity#approximation algorithms#computational complexity#abstract complexity#gap theorem#polynomial-degrees

Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Computer Science, 1996. Simultaneously published in the Technical Report series.; How strong are the results in computational complexity that assert, under certain hypotheses, the existence of an object? Are there many such objects, or are there few? To what extent can we relax the hypotheses and still maintain the same conclusions? These are the types of questions that are studied in this thesis. More precisely, we investigate some of the central existential results in computational complexity from the point of view of size and robustness. Below is a sample of the results in the thesis. We show that for any effective enumeration of computational devices that cover the whole set of computable functions and for any complexity measure satisfying a single axiom, neither the set of speedable functions nor the set of functions that generate complexity gaps is small from a topological point of view. We show that, with probability one on the set of oracles, there is a set in NP^A that asymptotically splits in half any infinite set in P^A. This is the strongest currently known relativized separation of NP from P. We also show that most (in the resource-bounded measure sense) sets that are computable in exponential time do not have even very weak membership-related properties that are computable in polynomial time. We prove that in almost all relativized worlds...

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## Redundancy : eliminating it, exploiting it

Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.

Tipo: Technical Report; Thesis
Formato: Number of Pages:xi, 95 leaves

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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Computer Science, 2003.; Redundancy is a basic property of many computational settings. This thesis concerns techniques for eliminating redundancy in some cases, and exploiting it in others. We study one-way functions, i.e., functions that are easy to compute but hard to invert. Such functions were previously studied as cryptographic primitives. Since it remains an open question whether one-way functions exist, we study the question of their existence in relation to a variety of complexity-theoretic hypotheses. Starting with one-way functions in which redundancy in the preimage is absolutely minimal, i.e. one-to-one, we provide the first characterization of the existence of one-way permutations by a complexity class separation hypothesis, namely $P
eq up inter coup$. Next, we study a type of one-way function that provably can never be one-to-one. Strong, total, associative, one-way functions are two-argument, one-way functions that are hard to invert, even if one of their arguments is known. Such special, one-way functions were originally used to construct secret-key agreement and digital signature protocols. We study techniques for creating such functions whose amount of preimage redundancy (as a function of the length of the corresponding image element) is minimized. We show that...

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## Towards a Computational Theory of Grounding in Natural Language Conversation

Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.

Tipo: Relatório

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Theories of speech acts view utterances as actions which attempt to change the mental states of agents participating in a conversation. Recent work in computer science has tried to formalize speech acts in terms of the logic of action in AI planning systems. However most of these planning systems make simplifying assumptions about the world which are too strong to capture many features of conversation. One of these assumptions has been that the intent of an utterance is mutually understood by participants in a conversation, merely in virtue of its having been uttered in their presence. [Clark and Marshall, 1981] have assumptions of attention, rationality, and understandability to accomplish this. [Perrault, 1990] uses an assumption of observability. While these assumptions may be acceptable for processing written discourse without time constraints, they are not able to handle a large class of natural language utterances, including acknowledgements, and repairs. These phenomena have been studied in a descriptive fashion by sociologists and psychologists. I present ideas leading to a computational processing model of how agents come to reach a state of mutual understanding about intentions behind utterances. This involves a richer...

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## Decision Theory and Artificial Intelligence II: the Hungry Monkey

Tipo: Relatório

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This paper describes a problem-solving framework in which aspects of mathematical decision theory are incorporated into symbolic problem-solving techniques currently predominant In artificial intelligence. The utility function of decision theory is used to reveal tradeoffs among competing strategies for achieving various goals, taking into account such factors as reliability, the complexity of steps in the strategy, and the value of the goal. The utility function on strategies can therefore be used as a guide when searching for good strategies. It is also used to formulate solutions to the problems of how to acquire a world model, how much planning effort is worthwhile, and whether verification tests should be performed. These techniques are illustrated by application to the classic monkey and bananas problem.

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## Extending relAPS to first order logic

Fonte: Brock University
Publicador: Brock University

Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

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RelAPS is an interactive system assisting in proving relation-algebraic theorems.
The aim of the system is to provide an environment where a user can perform a
relation-algebraic proof similar to doing it using pencil and paper. The previous version of RelAPS accepts only Horn-formulas. To extend the system to first order logic, we have defined and implemented a new language based on theory of allegories as well as a new calculus. The language has two different kinds of terms; object terms and relational terms, where object terms are built from object constant symbols and
object variables, and relational terms from typed relational constant symbols, typed relational variables, typed operation symbols and the regular operations available in
any allegory. The calculus is a mixture of natural deduction and the sequent calculus.
It is formulated in a sequent style but with exactly one formula on the right-hand side. We have shown soundness and completeness of this new logic which verifies that the underlying proof system of RelAPS is working correctly.

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## Numerical analysis of the Lyapunov equation with application to interconnected power systems

Fonte: Electronic Systems Laboratory, Dept. of Electical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Publicador: Electronic Systems Laboratory, Dept. of Electical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Formato: 111 p.; application/pdf

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by Thomas Mac Athay.; Bibliography: p.109-111.; Prepared under grant ERDA-E(49-18)-2087. Originally presented as the author's thesis, (M.S. and E.E.), M.I.T. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1976.

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## Perturbation methods in decentralized stochastic control

Fonte: Electronic Systems Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Publicador: Electronic Systems Laboratory, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Formato: 197 p.; application/pdf

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by Demosthenis Teneketzis.; Bibliography: p.195-197.; The research was conducted under grant NGL-22-009-124, grant AFOSR-72-2273, and grant ERDA-E (49-18)-2087. Originally presented as the author's thesis, (M.S.), M.I.T. Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1976.

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## Beyond Nash Equilibrium: Solution Concepts for the 21st Century

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 12/06/2008
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#Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory#Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence#Computer Science - Cryptography and Security#Computer Science - Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing#C.2.4#F.0#I.2.11#J.4

Nash equilibrium is the most commonly-used notion of equilibrium in game
theory. However, it suffers from numerous problems. Some are well known in the
game theory community; for example, the Nash equilibrium of repeated prisoner's
dilemma is neither normatively nor descriptively reasonable. However, new
problems arise when considering Nash equilibrium from a computer science
perspective: for example, Nash equilibrium is not robust (it does not tolerate
``faulty'' or ``unexpected'' behavior), it does not deal with coalitions, it
does not take computation cost into account, and it does not deal with cases
where players are not aware of all aspects of the game. Solution concepts that
try to address these shortcomings of Nash equilibrium are discussed.

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## A Qualitative Comparison of the Suitability of Four Theorem Provers for Basic Auction Theory

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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#Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science#Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory#Computer Science - Mathematical Software#68T15, 03B35, 68T35, 91B26, 03B70, 03B10, 03B15#I.2.3#I.2.4#F.4.1#H.1.2#J.4

Novel auction schemes are constantly being designed. Their design has
significant consequences for the allocation of goods and the revenues
generated. But how to tell whether a new design has the desired properties,
such as efficiency, i.e. allocating goods to those bidders who value them most?
We say: by formal, machine-checked proofs. We investigated the suitability of
the Isabelle, Theorema, Mizar, and Hets/CASL/TPTP theorem provers for
reproducing a key result of auction theory: Vickrey's 1961 theorem on the
properties of second-price auctions. Based on our formalisation experience,
taking an auction designer's perspective, we give recommendations on what
system to use for formalising auctions, and outline further steps towards a
complete auction theory toolbox.; Comment: Conference on Intelligent Computer Mathematics, 8-12 July, Bath, UK.
Published as number 7961 in Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence,
Springer

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## Data types with symmetries and polynomial functors over groupoids

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 02/10/2012
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#Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science#Mathematics - Combinatorics#Mathematics - Category Theory#68Q65, 18C50, 20L05, 05E18, 05C05#D.3.3#F.3.2

Polynomial functors are useful in the theory of data types, where they are
often called containers. They are also useful in algebra, combinatorics,
topology, and higher category theory, and in this broader perspective the
polynomial aspect is often prominent and justifies the terminology. For
example, Tambara's theorem states that the category of finite polynomial
functors is the Lawvere theory for commutative semirings. In this talk I will
explain how an upgrade of the theory from sets to groupoids is useful to deal
with data types with symmetries, and provides a common generalisation of and a
clean unifying framework for quotient containers (cf. Abbott et al.), species
and analytic functors (Joyal 1985), as well as the stuff types of Baez-Dolan.
The multi-variate setting also includes relations and spans, multispans, and
stuff operators. An attractive feature of this theory is that with the correct
homotopical approach - homotopy slices, homotopy pullbacks, homotopy colimits,
etc. - the groupoid case looks exactly like the set case. After some standard
examples, I will illustrate the notion of data-types-with-symmetries with
examples from quantum field theory, where the symmetries of complicated tree
structures of graphs play a crucial role...

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## Computer-Aided Discovery and Categorisation of Personality Axioms

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 24/03/2014
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#Computer Science - Computational Engineering, Finance, and Science#Computer Science - Computers and Society#Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science

We propose a computer-algebraic, order-theoretic framework based on
intuitionistic logic for the computer-aided discovery of personality axioms
from personality-test data and their mathematical categorisation into formal
personality theories in the spirit of F.~Klein's Erlanger Programm for
geometrical theories. As a result, formal personality theories can be
automatically generated, diagrammatically visualised, and mathematically
characterised in terms of categories of invariant-preserving transformations in
the sense of Klein and category theory. Our personality theories and categories
are induced by implicational invariants that are ground instances of
intuitionistic implication, which we postulate as axioms. In our mindset, the
essence of personality, and thus mental health and illness, is its invariance.
The truth of these axioms is algorithmically extracted from histories of
partially-ordered, symbolic data of observed behaviour. The personality-test
data and the personality theories are related by a Galois-connection in our
framework. As data format, we adopt the format of the symbolic values generated
by the Szondi-test, a personality test based on L.~Szondi's unifying,
depth-psychological theory of fate analysis.; Comment: related to arXiv:1403.2000

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## From truth to computability I

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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#Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science#Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence#Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory#Mathematics - Logic#F.1.1#F.1.2

The recently initiated approach called computability logic is a formal theory
of interactive computation. See a comprehensive online source on the subject at
http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~giorgi/cl.html . The present paper contains a
soundness and completeness proof for the deductive system CL3 which axiomatizes
the most basic first-order fragment of computability logic called the
finite-depth, elementary-base fragment. Among the potential application areas
for this result are the theory of interactive computation, constructive applied
theories, knowledgebase systems, systems for resource-bound planning and
action. This paper is self-contained as it reintroduces all relevant
definitions as well as main motivations.; Comment: To appear in Theoretical Computer Science

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## On the Theory of Structural Subtyping

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 05/08/2004
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#Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science#Computer Science - Programming Languages#Computer Science - Software Engineering#D.2.4#D.3.1#D.3.3#F.3.1#F.3.2#F.4.1

We show that the first-order theory of structural subtyping of non-recursive
types is decidable. Let $\Sigma$ be a language consisting of function symbols
(representing type constructors) and $C$ a decidable structure in the
relational language $L$ containing a binary relation $\leq$. $C$ represents
primitive types; $\leq$ represents a subtype ordering. We introduce the notion
of $\Sigma$-term-power of $C$, which generalizes the structure arising in
structural subtyping. The domain of the $\Sigma$-term-power of $C$ is the set
of $\Sigma$-terms over the set of elements of $C$. We show that the
decidability of the first-order theory of $C$ implies the decidability of the
first-order theory of the $\Sigma$-term-power of $C$. Our decision procedure
makes use of quantifier elimination for term algebras and Feferman-Vaught
theorem. Our result implies the decidability of the first-order theory of
structural subtyping of non-recursive types.; Comment: 51 page. A version appeared in LICS 2003

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## What Should be Hidden and Open in Computer Security: Lessons from Deception, the Art of War, Law, and Economic Theory

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 24/09/2001
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"What Should be Hidden and Open in Computer Security: Lessons from Deception,
the Art of War, Law, and Economic Theory" Peter P. Swire, George Washington
University.
Imagine a military base. It is defended against possible attack. Do we expect
the base to reveal the location of booby traps and other defenses? No. But for
many computer applications,a software developer will need to reveal a great
deal about the code to get other system owners to trust the code and know how
to operate with it.
This article examines these conflicting intuitions and develops a theory
about what should be open and hidden in computer security. Part I of the paper
shows how substantial openness is typical for major computer security topics,
such as firewalls, packaged software, and encryption. Part II shows what
factors will lead to openness or hiddenness in computer security.
Part III presents an economic analysis of the issue of what should be open in
computer security. The owner who does not reveal the booby traps is like a
monopolist, while the open-source software supplier is in a competitive market.
This economic approach allows us to identify possible market failures in how
much openness occurs for computer security.
Part IV examines the contrasting approaches of Sun Tzu and Clausewitz to the
role of hiddenness and deception in military strategy. The computer security...

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## A DDoS-Aware IDS Model Based on Danger Theory and Mobile Agents

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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#Computer Science - Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing#Computer Science - Artificial Intelligence#Computer Science - Cryptography and Security#Computer Science - Multiagent Systems#C.2.1#C.2.2#I.2.11#C.2.0

We propose an artificial immune model for intrusion detection in distributed
systems based on a relatively recent theory in immunology called Danger theory.
Based on Danger theory, immune response in natural systems is a result of
sensing corruption as well as sensing unknown substances. In contrast,
traditional self-nonself discrimination theory states that immune response is
only initiated by sensing nonself (unknown) patterns. Danger theory solves many
problems that could only be partially explained by the traditional model.
Although the traditional model is simpler, such problems result in high false
positive rates in immune-inspired intrusion detection systems. We believe using
danger theory in a multi-agent environment that computationally emulates the
behavior of natural immune systems is effective in reducing false positive
rates. We first describe a simplified scenario of immune response in natural
systems based on danger theory and then, convert it to a computational model as
a network protocol. In our protocol, we define several immune signals and model
cell signaling via message passing between agents that emulate cells. Most
messages include application-specific patterns that must be meaningfully
extracted from various system properties. We show how to model these messages
in practice by performing a case study on the problem of detecting distributed
denial-of-service attacks in wireless sensor networks. We conduct a set of
systematic experiments to find a set of performance metrics that can accurately
distinguish malicious patterns. The results indicate that the system can be
efficiently used to detect malicious patterns with a high level of accuracy.; Comment: 10 pages...

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## Distributed Computing with Adaptive Heuristics

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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#Computer Science - Distributed, Parallel, and Cluster Computing#Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory

We use ideas from distributed computing to study dynamic environments in
which computational nodes, or decision makers, follow adaptive heuristics (Hart
2005), i.e., simple and unsophisticated rules of behavior, e.g., repeatedly
"best replying" to others' actions, and minimizing "regret", that have been
extensively studied in game theory and economics. We explore when convergence
of such simple dynamics to an equilibrium is guaranteed in asynchronous
computational environments, where nodes can act at any time. Our research
agenda, distributed computing with adaptive heuristics, lies on the borderline
of computer science (including distributed computing and learning) and game
theory (including game dynamics and adaptive heuristics). We exhibit a general
non-termination result for a broad class of heuristics with bounded
recall---that is, simple rules of behavior that depend only on recent history
of interaction between nodes. We consider implications of our result across a
wide variety of interesting and timely applications: game theory, circuit
design, social networks, routing and congestion control. We also study the
computational and communication complexity of asynchronous dynamics and present
some basic observations regarding the effects of asynchrony on no-regret
dynamics. We believe that our work opens a new avenue for research in both
distributed computing and game theory.; Comment: 36 pages...

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## String diagrams for game theory

Fonte: Universidade Cornell
Publicador: Universidade Cornell

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

Publicado em 20/03/2015
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#Computer Science - Computer Science and Game Theory#Computer Science - Logic in Computer Science#Mathematics - Category Theory

This paper presents a monoidal category whose morphisms are games (in the
sense of game theory, not game semantics) and an associated diagrammatic
language. The two basic operations of a monoidal category, namely categorical
composition and tensor product, correspond roughly to sequential and
simultaneous composition of games. This leads to a compositional theory in
which we can reason about properties of games in terms of corresponding
properties of the component parts. In particular, we give a definition of Nash
equilibrium which is recursive on the causal structure of the game.
The key technical idea in this paper is the use of continuation passing style
for reasoning about the future consequences of players' choices, closely based
on applications of selection functions in game theory. Additionally, the clean
categorical foundation gives many opportunities for generalisation, for example
to learning agents.

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## Towards a readable formalisation of category theory

Fonte: Elsevier
Publicador: Elsevier

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica

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#Keywords: Encoding (symbols)#Formal logic#Mathematical techniques#Matrix algebra#Surveys#Theorem proving#Approximates#Category theory#Formalized mathematics#Proof assistants#Computer science Category theory

We formally develop category theory up to Yoneda's lemma, using Isabelle/HOL/Isar, and survey previous formalisations. By using recently added Isabelle features, we have produced a formal text that more closely approximates informal mathematics.

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