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Application of Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography Multiple-Step Tandem Electrospray Mass Spectrometry To Profile Glycoform Expression during Haemophilus influenzae Pathogenesis in the Chinchilla Model of Experimental Otitis Media ▿

Lundström, Susanna L.; Li, Jianjun; Månsson, Martin; Figueira, Marisol; Leroy, Magali; Goldstein, Richard; Hood, Derek W.; Moxon, E. Richard; Richards, James C.; Schweda, Elke K. H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common and recurrent bacterial infection of childhood. The structural variability and diversity of H. influenzae lipopolysaccharide (LPS) glycoforms are known to play a significant role in the commensal and disease-causing behavior of this pathogen. In this study, we determined LPS glycoform populations from NTHi strain 1003 during the course of experimental otitis media in the chinchilla model of infection by mass spectrometric techniques. Building on an established structural model of the major LPS glycoforms expressed by this NTHi strain in vitro (M. Månsson, W. Hood, J. Li, J. C. Richards, E. R. Moxon, and E. K. Schweda, Eur. J. Biochem. 269:808-818, 2002), minor isomeric glycoform populations were determined by liquid chromatography multiple-step tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn). Using capillary electrophoresis ESI-MS (CE-ESI-MS), we determined glycoform profiles for bacteria from direct middle ear fluid (MEF) samples. The LPS glycan profiles were essentially the same when the MEF samples of 7 of 10 animals were passaged on solid medium (chocolate agar). LC-ESI-MSn provided a sensitive method for determining the isomeric distribution of LPS glycoforms in MEF and passaged specimens. To investigate changes in LPS glycoform distribution during the course of infection...

Genetic Inactivation of Poliovirus Infectivity by Increasing the Frequencies of CpG and UpA Dinucleotides within and across Synonymous Capsid Region Codons▿ †

Burns, Cara C.; Campagnoli, Ray; Shaw, Jing; Vincent, Annelet; Jorba, Jaume; Kew, Olen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Replicative fitness of poliovirus can be modulated systematically by replacement of preferred capsid region codons with synonymous unpreferred codons. To determine the key genetic contributors to fitness reduction, we introduced different sets of synonymous codons into the capsid coding region of an infectious clone derived from the type 2 prototype strain MEF-1. Replicative fitness in HeLa cells, measured by plaque areas and virus yields in single-step growth experiments, decreased sharply with increased frequencies of the dinucleotides CpG (suppressed in higher eukaryotes and most RNA viruses) and UpA (suppressed nearly universally). Replacement of MEF-1 capsid codons with the corresponding codons from another type 2 prototype strain (Lansing), a randomization of MEF-1 synonymous codons, increased the %G+C without increasing CpG, and reductions in the effective number of codons used had much smaller individual effects on fitness. Poliovirus fitness was reduced to the threshold of viability when CpG and UpA dinucleotides were saturated within and across synonymous codons of a capsid region interval representing only ∼9% of the total genome. Codon replacements were associated with moderate decreases in total virion production but large decreases in the specific infectivities of intact poliovirions and viral RNAs. Replication of codon replacement viruses...