This thesis studies the expansion of workers' collective action and collective bargaining over working conditions in the context of the Spanish Restauracion (1875-1923), in an institutional setting characterised by the absence or little enforcement of legislation concerning industrial conflict and the regulation of working conditions. The thesis addresses two of the main issues in the contemporary and historical debate. The first one addresses the causes of labour unrest and the existence of a weak and politically radical labour movement. A second related issue argues that, had Spanish unions adopted the outlook of more conservative British or German unions, they would have been able to advance the interests of workers more effectively. In the first part of the thesis, I offer a narrative of union development based in coalition-formation. My main argument is that state policy was crucial in shaping the outlook of Spanish unions. I argue that in strike waves, workers in large cities had some degree of political power and were able to obtain the (often only temporary) protection of state officials from employers' counterattacks. Since the state was able to monopolise the repression of the labour movement up to 1919, 'public' lobbying to attract the support of the state radicalised the positions of employers and unions. Severely contested union rights brought about a system of industrial relations that was fragmented and organisationally weak...
The thesis explores the interplay between hegemonic discourses and domestic institutional arrangements. The purpose of the study is twofold. First, to use primary and comparative material in order to shed light on what is a hegemonic discourse, what it does, and how it does it. Second, to examine the role of different political economies and different domestic structures and institutional arrangements in the dissemination and materialisation of hegemonic discourses. To do so the thesis develops a theoretical framework, a 'hegemonic-discourse-communication model', that allows the questions about the nature and the function of hegemonic discourses to be addressed in the framework of comparative institutional analysis. For the purposes of the above research globalisation is taken as an instance of a hegemonic discourse, and Greece and Ireland are selected as countries belonging to different models of political economy (the Mediterranean/Continental and the Anglo- Saxon models respectively). Within this framework the thesis scrutinises the impact that globalisation had on the discourses and policies of key institutional actors, such as political parties, workers' unions, employers' associations, the press and the church, in the two countries...
This thesis examines some issues at the heart of theoretical macroeconomics, namely the possibility of establishing a predictive theory of individual behaviour and transforming it into a theory of the economy using aggregation. As regards individual behaviour, the basic idea in economics is that homo economicus follows the prescriptions of the expected utility theory. The thesis argues that the expected utility theory takes the agent's view of the economy as given, and is silent about how he models his choice situation and defines his decision problem. As a consequence, it is of only a minor contribution to the analysis of economic phenomena. To explain how the agent learns about the economy and thus models his choice situation, new classical economists have relatively recently proposed that the agent behaves like a statistician. That is, like a statistician, he theorises, estimates, and adapts in attempting to learn about the economy. The usefulness of this hypothesis for modelling the economy depends on the existence of a 'tight enough' theory of statistical inference. To address this issue, the thesis proposes a preliminary conjecture about how a statistician perceives and models a choice situation: the statistician regards measurable features of the environment as realisations of some random variables...
This thesis deals with French decolonisation policy towards Tunisia and Morocco and international impacts on the decolonisation process. It is very important to deal with the two countries at the same time, because nationalist movements in each country and French policy responses were closely related. So far, research on French decolonisation has examined the reason why France was forced to retreat from their overseas territories and indicated that nationalist and international pressures largely contributed to this process. This thesis rather aims to clarify how the French tried to maintain their influence in Tunisia and Morocco. In terms of international impact, the existing research has stressed the role of American pressure towards decolonisation but has not referred to British policy. The thesis also focuses on Britain's role in determining French attitudes especially in the UN. Furthermore, this work aims to locate the decolonisation process of both countries in a broader context of post-war French policy towards their overseas territories. The thesis argues that the French accepted Tunisia's internal autonomy because they realised that the Tunisian people's consent was essential to retain influence. Hitherto, the French had been controlling Tunisia through puppet governments...
Providing a socio-legal analysis of the issues, expert evidence and judgment in Reay and Hope v BNFL plc., the thesis offers an insight into the complexity of the toxic tort. Starting with an overview of the history of Sellafield, the thesis reflects on the scientific and epidemiological concerns surrounding the link between childhood cancer and nuclear installations. Drawing on scientific knowledge and epistemological considerations, the thesis moves on to the difficulties of verifying causation in science and the problems of establishing causation in law. Outlining the role of the expert witness and scientific expert evidence, the thesis proceeds with a case analysis, before broaching the thorny issue of judicial decision making and in particular, the difference between the 'discovery' and 'justification' process. Moving on to the Judgment in Reay and Hope, attention is given to the potential application of probability theory to the judicial decision making process. Lasting just short of one hundred days and including the testimony of numerous scientific experts, Reay and Hope marked new ground in a number of ways; it was the first personal injury claim to test the concept of genetic damage from radiation; the only time that a Queen's Bench Division Judge had been allocated a full-time judicial assistant; and one of the first trials to endorse a satellite video link for examination of international expert witnesses. As far as judicial management is concerned...
Why do ethnic groups rebel against the state?While there have been various efforts to answer this question, existing explanations tend to be static and based on the unitary actor assumption. This thesis attempts to make a step forward by relaxing the unitary actor assumption and by introducing dynamic elements into the explanatory framework. In order to do so, it takes a three-step approach, examining (1) the initial intensity of rebellion, (2) the onset of rebellion, and (3) the escalation. As for the methodology, this thesis adopts a mixed-methods approach: for each step, it conducts both large-N analyses and qualitative analyses of ex-Yugoslav countries. This thesis firstly examines the determinants of the initial intensity of rebellion. It presents two ideal-types, "decisions from above" made by ethnic leaders and "decisions from below" made by non-leaders, and will argue that the initial intensity is more likely to be higher if ethnic leaders organise the rebellion, because they can mobilise more resources. Secondly, this thesis examines the causes of the onset of rebellion. It will argue that structural conditions alone do not suffice to explain it, and will argue for the importance of dynamic grievances. In other words, even when structural conditions do not change...
The question raised in this thesis is "In the context of the developmental state, what is the explanation for Korea's financial regulatory failure, which contributed to the 1997 crisis." There have been two dominant explanations, i.e. exogenous and endogenous. The first one cites the exogenous breakdown of the developmental state. Wade (1998, 2000) argues that the Korean government was forced by the US government to remove capital controls. He claims that such financial regulatory liberalization was not consistent with the developmental state model. The second one focuses on endogenous forces, especially the growing influence of business over government (Haggard 2000). The thesis argues that the latter explanation is the more convincing. Three financial liberalization issues, i.e. US pressure on the Korean foreign exchange rate. Financial Policy Talks between the US and Korean governments and multilateral talks surrounding Korea's entry to the OECD, and key prudential regulatory measures before the crisis are investigated. It shows that the exogenous explanation is basically irrelevant in explaining regulatory outcomes. The outcomes are consistent with the preference of the private sector, in particular, chaebol. This thesis differs...
Why does the public so staunchly support harsh criminal justice policies when the social, fiscal and political costs are so great? Individuals in countries such as Canada, the UK and USA continue to want criminal offenders to receive stiffer sentences despite growing prison populations and some indication of lower crime rates (Cullen, Fisher & Applegate, 2000; Donohue, 2007; King, 2008; Raphael, 2009; Tseloni et al., 2010; Useem et al., 2003; Walmsley, 2009). Criminological research has identified cognitive and affective pathways that predict punitiveness toward crime, such as the judged wrongfulness and harmfulness of crime, and moral outrage (Carlsmith & Darley, 2008). The overall contribution of the five papers presented in this thesis is to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural pathways that link social perception of criminals to punitiveness toward crime. Working at the intersection of social psychology and criminology, the thesis applies theoretical frameworks such as the Stereotype Content Model (Fiske, Cuddy, Glick & Xu, 2002) and Behaviour from Intergroup Affect and Stereotypes map (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2007) to identify the functional relation between social perception and punitiveness. Using different methodologies and at different levels of analysis...
This thesis examines settings where multiple decision makers with conﬂicting interests
beneﬁt from cooperation in joint combinatorial optimisation problems. It draws on cooperative game theory, polyhedral theory and graph theory to address cost sharing in
joint single-source shortest path problems and joint weighted minimum colouring problems.
The primary focus of the thesis are problems where each agent corresponds to a
vertex of an undirected complete graph, in which a special vertex represents the common supplier. The joint combinatorial optimisation problem consists of determining the
shortest paths from the supplier to all other vertices in the graph. The optimal solution
is a shortest path tree of the graph and the aim is to allocate the cost of this shortest
path tree amongst the agents. The thesis deﬁnes shortest path tree problems, proposes
allocation rules and analyses the properties of these allocation rules. It furthermore introduces shortest path tree games and studies the properties of these games. Various core
allocations for shortest path tree games are introduced and polyhedral properties of the
core are studied. Moreover, computational results on ﬁnding the core and the nucleolus
of shortest path tree games for the application of cost allocation in Wireless Multihop
Networks are presented.
The secondary focus of the thesis are problems where each agent is interested in
having access to a number of facilities but can be in conﬂict with other agents. If two
agents are in conﬂict...
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how American power is adapting to a changing post-
Cold War global landscape. It is commonly accepted that many of the most visible cultural
expressions of globalisation are American. However, contemporary accounts have proven
inadequate in assessing how such forces have helped provide the infrastructure for
America’s global dominance. With growing debate over the decline of American
influence, the thesis intends to address how American statecraft is attempting to redefine
itself for a digital age.
With the accelerated transmission of information, images and sounds, nation-states are
gradually losing the ability to either dictate their official narrative or control their global
image. The new info-war that lies at the heart of contemporary American statecraft thus
involves the wholesale integration of struggles over information, technology,
communication and culture into the conflict itself. The thesis, therefore, investigates how
American military and diplomatic efforts are both shaping and being reshaped by modern
The thesis pieces together a contemporary genealogy of American cultural diplomacy in
the Middle East from the Cold War through to the “war on terror”. This genealogy pays
particular attention to both the continued hold of civilisationist discourses and the shifting
question of race in American foreign policy – from the instrumentalisation of jazz at the
height of the ideological antagonism of the Cold War...
Impact assessment (IA) has attracted considerable attention in the worlds of research and practice. IA is discussed extensively and promoted widely as a means to enhance the rationalisation, control and coordination of policy-making. However, at the same time, there has also been disagreement based on whether IL is seen to reflect one single, or multiple rationales. This has, in turn, led to debates about whether particular IA experiences reflect one or a mixture
of motives. This thesis therefore explores whether the different ambitions or logics that IA intends to promote can be seen as complementary, whether one dominates, or whether they are contradictory. By looking at the European Union’s IA system — through an in-depth study of five IAS — this thesis finds that while the logic of enhanced control plays a dominant role throughout the policy-making process — particularly during the later policy-making stages —
the ambitions or logics of enhanced rationalisation and coordination also play distinct roles. This thesis thereby contributes to the debates about the use of 'meta-instruments' to address the three policy challenges of how to choose the 'best' policy option; how to steer public administrations; and how to coordinate policies across institutional sub-units. In doing so...
This thesis contributes to understanding two demographically important phenomena: African ageing, and the ageing of the African HIV epidemic. Building on the body of interpretivist demography that privileges context and meanings, it explores older adults’ experiences of becoming old, sexuality and living with HIV in rural Malawi. The research uses a constructivist grounded theory framework. It is based primarily on data produced using repeat dependent interviews (N=135) with older men and women(N=43). These are supplemented by fieldwork observations, as well as data from a three-month multi-site pilot study, interviews with HIV support groups (N=3), and key informant interviews (N=19) and policy documents. The thesis identified sets of meanings surrounding old age and ways of discussing ageing that, taken together, formed an analytical framework. The framework is focused on the importance of maintaining an ‘adult’ identity and draws insights from sociological
and psychological identity theories. The adult identity was aligned with personhood. It was situated within the body-centred livelihood system of rural Malawi, and associated
with physical production. Old age was understood to limit productivity and thereby an individual’s adult identity. This thesis argues that ostensibly contradictory narratives
about ageing experiences can be understood as rhetorical strategies respondents employed to maintain their adult identities. A central tenet of the thesis is that the adult
identity (and its childlike counter identity) influenced older adults’ broader experiences and behaviours. This framework is used to explore ageing...
Relationships of trust are increasingly considered central to the provision of welfare services. This thesis undertakes an empirical exploration of trust within a key welfare field - early years education and care. While trust is often identified as a key dimension when parents use preschool provision, a rigorous investigation of trust - its meaning, its production and its complexity – is lacking. The thesis has in addition a subsidiary focus. Empirical research into trust in welfare services has not adequately addressed organisational form or behaviour as a location of trust production. Within the study there is, therefore, a particular enquiry into trust at the organisational level. Empirical investigation was undertaken through in-depth interviews with parents and
managers across diverse preschool organisations. The thesis identifies how parents gave prominence to their own critical determination of the trustworthiness of provision,
derived from information collected from multiple sources. Parents did not, as some theorists propose, undertake a calculation of the extrinsic constraints and incentives
upon providers’ behaviours. Instead they constructed an inductive portrait of workers’ competence and benevolence through both conscious deliberation and less conscious
intuitive reasoning. Such trust construction was framed by parents’ interpretations of care...
The thesis presents a comparative analysis of the scope and objectives of four EU regions’ European policies and programmes. It evaluates the extent to which regions’ European engagement is targeted to achieving regional economic development on the one hand and European social integration and identity construction on the other hand. The analysis starts with a comparative evaluation of the four case study regions’ European policies and is substantiated by the findings of over 60 interviews with regional political elites and civil servants in the four case study regions: Germany’s Brandenburg; Belgium’s Wallonia; France’s Nord – Pas de Calais; and the South West of England. This thesis advances a more comprehensive understanding of regional governments as European actors, whether political elites and civil servants aim to promote European identity-building through their policies, as well as which regional characteristics further impact the scope and objectives of their European policies. This thesis provides evidence-based answers to the research question posed: What are the scope and objectives of regions’ European policies and what role does European identity play in them?
The thesis research has grown out of the context of regions’ EU integration; the multi-level governance approach; the increase of regions’ political authority vis-à-vis European politics; and the uncertainty on whether regional political actors (political elites and civil servants) aim to foster a European identity. Research has not yet observed...
This thesis examines the American policy of ‘dual containment’: the assumption by the US of a predominant role in the security system of the Persian Gulf in the 1990s, necessitating the simultaneous ‘containment’ of both Iran and Iraq. American policy towards Iran receives special attention thanks to its more unusual aspects, including the vehemence of American attempts to isolate it.
While other scholars have sought to explore the empirical aspects of this policy, this thesis seeks to place it within an overarching theoretical framework derived from
neoclassical realism (NCR). Additionally, the thesis integrates insights drawn from Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA) to explain the impact of domestic variables on the formation of American policy towards Iran and Iraq during this era.
In terms of domestic factors, the thesis identifies three key ‘intervening variables’ and their role in the adoption and evolution of dual containment: perceptions of threat on
the part of policymakers, domestic political structures, and the operation of policy coalitions. In terms of the external, the role of the idiosyncratic ‘tripolar’ dynamics of the Persian Gulf region in shaping American policy is examined, as is the longstanding American interest in the Persian Gulf as an area of important national interest and key importance in the global economy...
How can NGOs contribute to strengthening the democratic legitimacy of international intergovernmental institutions? The thesis pursues two lines of enquiry in order to contribute to this discussion in the context of global environmental politics: it looks at the external claims and
internal practices of NGOs. With regards to external claims the thesis investigates the democratic demands formulated by the NGO communities interacting with the UNFCCC and the CBD respectively. Demands for equitable representation at the intergovernmental level and for participation by civil society stakeholders are especially prominent among the NGOs engaged with the climate convention. The thesis finds a convergence around very similar democratic demands across the NGO community, most
of which draw upon recurrent governance norms and existing instances of good practice within environmental institutions. The thesis then turns to the internal practices of large international environmental NGOs to test
the assumption that these organisations have the potential
to act as “links” or as “transmission belts” between local
communities and global policymaking processes. It proposes the adoption of a representation perspective for analysing the contribution of civil society organisations...
This thesis explores competing meanings of being a woman in Dakar, Senegal. Above all, it is concerned with the relationship between livelihoods – how ordinary Dakarois make ends meet – and women’s gendered identities. It explores the full spectrum of Dakar women’s economic activities, all the while keeping the definition of what, precisely, qualifies as ‘economic’ or as ‘work’ as open as possible. Distancing itself from approaches that privilege the sexual aspects of gender, this thesis asks what kinds of gendered economic identities emerge in the context of the various roles and relationships that constitute women’s everyday lives. What do women do that enables people in this society to get by and to secure their day-‐to-‐day needs? How are these activities experienced, and what kind of values are they imbued with? Based on three years’ fieldwork in low-‐income neighbourhoods across the Dakar region, the thesis advances an ethnographic analysis of women’s roles as wives and girlfriends, sisters and sisters-‐in-‐law, daughters, mothers and grandmothers, and members of extended family and community networks. It explores women’s activities as dependents, consumers, providers and informal-‐sector workers. Together...
The thesis is a socio-legal account of Italian penality between 1970 and 2000. It analyses the
Italian experience as a critical case study with which to test David Garland, Alessandro De
Giorgi and Nicola Lacey’s theories of punishment in contemporary Western polities. It argues
that Italian penality is not sufficiently explained by reference to Garland or De Giorgi’s meta theories of ‘late modern’ and ‘post-Fordist’ punishment. Lacey’s institutional analysis
provides a better framework, if modified to allow for the centrality of political dynamics in
The thesis argues that Italian penality is a ‘volatile penal equilibrium’, whose ‘differential
punitiveness’ is marked by oscillations between repression and leniency. The thesis provides
an institutional analysis of Italian punishment, investigating in turn the Italian political
economy, political culture and state-citizen relations, judicial contributions to penal trends,
and the punishment of non-EU migrants. The thesis argues that Italian penality can be
systematised by reference to political dynamics, in particular political conflict and political
dualisms. Political conflict can broadly be defined as conflict between political interests...
This thesis looks at how ‘the Muslim woman’ is produced in social policy discourses in the
UK. It is a qualitative study based on interviews, observation and interpretive analysis of
policy material. It focuses specifically on initiatives to empower Muslim women in order to
combat terrorism which formed part of the UK’s Preventing Violent Extremism Agenda
(Prevent). In January 2008 the National Muslims Women’s Advisory Group (NMWAG) was
established and Local Authorities were encouraged to fund projects aimed at ‘empowering
Muslim women’. The thesis begins by situating the research within a wider policy
framework. At the national level it relates to debates on community cohesion, Britishness
and multiculturalism; at the global level it relates to the UK’s involvement in the ‘war on
terror’. The research examines local inflections in how the initiatives worked in practice,
considering the impact of diversity within diversity. A key objective of these initiatives was
to ‘give the silent majority a stronger voice’. The thesis considers the extent to which this
objective was achieved, particularly in relation to the establishment of NMWAG. Through
an analysis of the initiatives overseen by NMWAG it considers how empowerment is
This thesis is about a workforce in the midst of regional economic fragmentation. It is an ethnographic study of a commercial farm on South Africa’s border with Zimbabwe, where farmer-landowners are white Afrikaners, and workers black and overwhelmingly Zimbabwean. Fleeing the hyperinflation and violent state oppression of the ‘Zimbabwean crisis’, farm workers encounter South Africa’s neoliberal restructuring, contraction of labour-intensive industry, and land reform. Economic informalisation in both countries – a shift to short-term strategies of ‘making do’ – seems to hail the disappearance of southern Africa’s longer-term patterns of racialised migrant labour systems. This thesis, however, argues for a labour relations or ‘productivist’ perspective on current trends. Agricultural workforces on the Zimbabwean-South African border, with their established forms of everyday organisation and on-site residence, profoundly shape the local setting. Their highly structured arrangements bear the mark of the region’s labour history, yet also reflect the forms of fragmentation currently characterising southern Africa. The thesis begins by exploring white border farmers’ self-understandings through their notions of success. It then offers a wider historical account of the border’s settler capitalists...