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In-Use Evaluation of a Commercially Available Set of Quality Control Cultures

Douglas, George W.; Balows, Albert; Rhoden, Dwane; Tomfohrde, Karla; Smith, Peter B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1973 Português
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Increasing awareness of the need for a uniform quality control program prompted an evaluation of a commercially available set (Bact-Chek) of eight organisms. A protocol was designed in which this set of control cultures was tested simultaneously in the clinical microbiology laboratory of a 400-bed hospital (the Berkshire Medical Center) and in the reference laboratories of the Bacteriology Section of the Center for Disease Control. The results indicate that the Bact-Chek organisms are essentially as advertised: they constitute a basic set of cultures for a quality control program in clinical microbiology. Ninety per cent of the media and reagents (excluding mycobacterial media and reagents) in the clinical laboratory were checked with this set of eight cultures. Additional cultures not in the set were used to check the remaining 10% of the media and reagents.

Accuracy and Appropriateness of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Reporting for Bacteria Isolated from Blood Cultures

Diekema, Daniel J.; Lee, Kathleen; Raney, Patti; Herwaldt, Loreen A.; Doern, Gary V.; Tenover, Fred C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
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Accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and appropriate reporting of AST results for pathogens isolated from blood cultures are critical functions of the microbiology laboratory. We studied AST performance and reporting from positive blood cultures at hospital microbiology laboratories in Iowa. One hundred sixteen episodes of bacteremia from 14 participating hospitals were examined. We detected AST or identification errors for 18 episodes (16%) and judged reporting of AST results to be inappropriate for 38 episodes (33%). Further study is necessary to determine the impact of testing errors and suboptimal reporting of results on the management of bloodstream infection.

Clinically Feasible Biofilm Susceptibility Assay for Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Moskowitz, Samuel M.; Foster, Jessica M.; Emerson, Julia; Burns, Jane L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant cause of chronic airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). CF airway isolates are often tested for antibiotic susceptibility but are rarely eradicated by the antibiotics identified as potentially effective. The growth state of P. aeruginosa in CF airways is probably different from that exhibited under conventional susceptibility testing conditions and may represent a bacterial biofilm. Biofilm susceptibility testing methods were adapted to create an assay for implementation in a clinical microbiology laboratory. This assay gave reproducible results when examined in 300 paired determinations with 12 antimicrobial agents, with a serious error rate of 5.7%. The biofilm assay was used retrospectively to test these 12 agents against 94 isolates from 41 CF patients. The biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs) were much higher than the corresponding conventionally determined MICs for the β-lactam antibiotics (median values: aztreonam, >128 μg/ml versus 4 μg/ml; ceftazidime, 128 μg/ml versus 2 μg/ml; piperacillin-tazobactam, 256 μg/ml versus 4 μg/ml; and ticarcillin-clavulanate, 512 μg/ml versus 16 μg/ml, respectively) and doxycycline (>64 μg/ml versus 16 μg/ml); and similar for meropenem (4 μg/ml versus ≤ 1 μg/ml)...

Computer printing and filing of microbiology reports. 1. Description of the system.

Goodwin, C S; Smith, B C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1976 Português
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From March 1974 all reports from this microbiology department have been computer printed and filed. The system was designed to include every medically important microorganism and test. Technicians at the laboratory bench made their results computer-readable using Port-a-punch cards, and specimen details were recorded on paper-tape, allowing the full description of each specimen to appear on the report. A summary form of each microbiology phrase enabled copies of reports to be printed on wide paper with 12 to 18 reports per sheet; such copies, in alphabetical order for one day, and cumulatively for one week were used by staff answering enquiries to the office. This format could also be used for printing allthe reports for one patient. Retrieval of results from the files was easily performed and was useful to medical and laboratory staff and for control-of-infection purposes. The system was written in COBOL and was designed to be as cost-effective as possible without sacrificing accuracy; the cost of a report and its filing was 17-97 pence.

Computer printing and filing of microbiology reports. 2. Evaluation and comparison with a manual system, and comparison of two manual systems.

Goodwin, C S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1976 Português
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A manual system of microbiology reporting with a National Cash Register (NCR) form with printed names of bacteria and antiboitics required less time to compose reports than a previous manual system that involved rubber stamps and handwriting on plain report sheets. The NCR report cost 10-28 pence and, compared with a computer system, it had the advantages of simplicity and familarity, and reports were not delayed by machine breakdown, operator error, or data being incorrectly submitted. A computer reporting system for microbiology resulted in more accurate reports costing 17-97 pence each, faster and more accurate filing and recall of reports, and a greater range of analyses of reports that was valued particularly by the control-of-infection staff. Composition of computer-readable reports by technicians on Port-a-punch cards took longer than composing NCR reports. Enquiries for past results were more quickly answered from computer printouts of reports and a day book in alphabetical order.

Kit systems for identifying gram negative aerobic bacilli: report of the Welsh Standing Specialist Advisory Working Group in Microbiology.

Bennett, C H; Joynson, D H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1986 Português
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Under the auspices of the Welsh Standing Specialist Advisory Working Group in Microbiology (WMG) 10 clinical microbiology laboratories in Wales undertook a collaborative study to assess 10 commercial kits for the identification of aerobic Gram negative bacilli. In excess of 1000 such strains were examined in parallel with each kit system. Accuracy, reproducibility of accuracy, and reproducibility alone were assessed, together with the cost effectiveness of the kits used. A ranking order of kit performance based on the above variables was drawn up.

Use of bar code readers and programmable keypads to improve the speed and accuracy of manual data entry in the clinical microbiology laboratory: experience of two laboratories.

Shaw, R; Coia, J E; Michie, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1999 Português
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AIM: To assess the effect of the use of bar code readers and programmable keypads for entry of specimen details and results in two microbiology laboratories. METHODS: The solutions selected in each laboratory are described. The benefits resulting from the implementation were measured in two ways. The speed of data entry and error reduction were measured by observation. A questionnaire was completed by users of bar codes. RESULTS: There were savings in time and in reduced data entry errors. Average time to enter a report by keyboard was 21.1 s v 14.1 s for bar coded results entry. There were no observed errors with the bar code readers but 55 errors with keystroke entries. The laboratory staff of all grades found the system fast, easy to use, and less stressful than conventional keyboard entry. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect time savings should accrue from the observed reduction in incorrectly entered data. Any microbiology laboratory seeking to improve the accuracy and efficiency of data entry into their laboratory information systems should consider the adoption of this technology which can be readily interfaced to existing terminals.

How many microbiology consultants are needed?

Bignardi, G E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1993 Português
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It is difficult to measure medical staff workload and medical staff requirements in microbiology departments. A review of 14 job descriptions for consultant microbiologists showed that the number of hospital beds and the number of specimens are more reliable workload indices than the population figure. Ratios between beds or specimens and medical staff numbers may help to identify understaffed or overstaffed microbiology departments.

Serological testing in a microbiology laboratory of specimens from patients with suspected infectious disease.

Waghorn, D J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 Português
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AIMS--To determine how the microbiology laboratories of one region process serological requests from patients with suspected infectious illness, referred to as "clinical syndrome" type patients in this study; to consider areas where improvement in the associated serology service could be made. METHODS--A prospective two month collection of data on all serological requests from patients with suspected infectious illness was undertaken. A questionnaire on laboratory policies/procedures was also completed by the 10 departments taking part. RESULTS--Serology specimens from "clinical syndrome" patients accounted for 1-2% of total microbiology samples. There was significant variation in some of the policies/procedures carried out by the 10 laboratories when handling serological requests. Differences were seen in the use of laboratory protocols for test processing, range of tests performed, demand for second (convalescent) serum samples, storage of serum samples, and reporting of results. CONCLUSIONS--The laboratory management of "clinical syndrome" type requests is complex. Individual pathology departments vary in the way they handle serology specimens but this study highlighted areas which may contribute to improving the appropriateness of testing and the more efficient use of serology resources. These include improving (1) clinician education...

Internal audit in a microbiology laboratory.

Mifsud, A J; Shafi, M S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
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AIM--To set up a programme of internal laboratory audit in a medical microbiology laboratory. METHODS--A model of laboratory based process audit is described. Laboratory activities were examined in turn by specimen type. Standards were set using laboratory standard operating procedures; practice was observed using a purpose designed questionnaire and the data were analysed by computer; performance was assessed at laboratory audit meetings; and the audit circle was closed by re-auditing topics after an interval. RESULTS--Improvements in performance scores (objective measures) and in staff morale (subjective impression) were observed. CONCLUSIONS--This model of process audit could be applied, with amendments to take local practice into account, in any microbiology laboratory.

Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrillé, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar...

Use of the MicroSeq 500 16S rRNA Gene-Based Sequencing for Identification of Bacterial Isolates That Commercial Automated Systems Failed To Identify Correctly

Fontana, Carla; Favaro, Marco; Pelliccioni, Marco; Pistoia, Enrico Salvatore; Favalli, Cartesio
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 Português
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Reliable automated identification and susceptibility testing of clinically relevant bacteria is an essential routine for microbiology laboratories, thus improving patient care. Examples of automated identification systems include the Phoenix (Becton Dickinson) and the VITEK 2 (bioMérieux). However, more and more frequently, microbiologists must isolate “difficult” strains that automated systems often fail to identify. An alternative approach could be the genetic identification of isolates; this is based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible use of MicroSeq 500 (Applera) for sequencing the 16S rRNA gene to identify isolates whose identification is unobtainable by conventional systems. We analyzed 83 “difficult” clinical isolates: 25 gram-positive and 58 gram-negative strains that were contemporaneously identified by both systems—VITEK 2 and Phoenix—while genetic identification was performed by using the MicroSeq 500 system. The results showed that phenotypic identifications by VITEK 2 and Phoenix were remarkably similar: 74% for gram-negative strains (43 of 58) and 80% for gram-positive strains were concordant by both systems and also concordant with genetic characterization. The exceptions were the 15 gram-negative and 9 gram-positive isolates whose phenotypic identifications were contrasting or inconclusive. For these...

External Quality Assessment for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

Chalker, V. J.; Vaughan, H.; Patel, P.; Rossouw, A.; Seyedzadeh, H.; Gerrard, K.; James, V. L. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 Português
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The use of molecular methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing in clinical laboratories. External quality assessment enables unbiased monitoring of the performance of laboratories in the detection of specific pathogens. This study details the results of molecular and enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA) testing for C. trachomatis detection in simulated endocervical swab specimens recently distributed internationally by United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme for Microbiology (UK NEQAS for Microbiology) external quality assessment panels. The frequency of accurate detection of C. trachomatis in the panels ranged from 32 to 100%. Participants using molecular methods were significantly more likely to detect C. trachomatis in specimens than those using an EIA. Two strains were distributed with the panels: an L2 laboratory-adapted strain and an uncharacterized primary isolate. Further analysis indicated a difference in detection of C. trachomatis between specific methods only with the L2 strain at lower concentrations. In addition, eight negative specimens were distributed, and false positives were found to be rare by all methods included in the study.

Practical Methods Using Boronic Acid Compounds for Identification of Class C β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli

Yagi, Tetsuya; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satowa; Yamane, Kunikazu; Doi, Yohei; Shibata, Naohiro; Kato, Haru; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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Detection of the resistance mediated by class C β-lactamases remains a challenging issue, considering that transferable plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamases are of worldwide concern. Methods for the identification of strains that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) have been developed and applied for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories, but no practical methods for identification of plasmid-mediated class C producers have been established to date. We therefore developed three simple methods for clinical microbiology laboratories that allow identification of plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamase-producing bacteria using a boronic acid derivative, 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APB), one of the specific inhibitors of class C β-lactamases. Detection by the disk potentiation test was based on the enlargement of the growth-inhibitory zone diameter (by greater than or equal to 5 mm) around a Kirby-Bauer disk containing a ceftazidime (CAZ) or a cefotaxime (CTX) disk in combination with APB. In a double-disk synergy test, the discernible expansion of the growth-inhibitory zone around the CAZ or the CTX disk toward a disk containing APB was indicative of class C β-lactamase production. A greater than or equal to eightfold decrease in the MIC of CAZ or CTX in the presence of APB was the criterion for detection in the microdilution test. By using these methods...

Comparison of Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods for Species-Level Identification of Clinical Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

Heikens, E.; Fleer, A.; Paauw, A.; Florijn, A.; Fluit, A. C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 Português
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To compare commonly used phenotypic methods with genotypic identification methods 47 clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS), 10 CONS ATCC strains, and a Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolate were identified using the API Staph ID test, BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System, and 16S rRNA gene and tuf gene sequencing. When necessary part of the sodA gene was sequenced for definitive identification. The results show that tuf gene sequencing is the best method for identification of CONS, but the API Staph ID test is a reasonably reliable phenotypic alternative. The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for identification of CONS is poor. The present study also showed that although genotypic methods are clearly superior to phenotypic identifications, a drawback of sequence-based genotypic methods may be a lack of quality of deposited sequences in data banks. In particular, 16S rRNA gene sequencing suffers from the lack of high quality among sequences deposited in GenBank. Furthermore, genotypic identification based on 16S rRNA sequences has limited discriminating power for closely related Staphylococcus species. We propose partial sequencing of the tuf gene as a reliable and reproducible method for identification of CONS species.

Reproducibility of Low Galactomannan Enzyme Immunoassay Index Values Tested in Multiple Laboratories

Upton, Arlo; Gugel, Anja; Leisenring, Wendy; Limaye, Ajit; Alexander, Barbara; Hayden, Randall; Marr, Kieren A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2005 Português
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The Platelia galactomannan enzyme immunoassay is a commercially available nonculture method for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis. Recently, steps have been taken to improve sensitivity; specifically, a low (0.5 to 0.7) galactomannan index (GMI) value to determine positivity has been validated by multiple groups. We evaluated the intra-assay and interassay reproducibility at low index levels using three different kit lots on three different days in three different microbiology laboratories. Clinical and spiked sera were blinded and sent with galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits to the participating laboratories. We also prospectively collected data on all galactomannan EIAs performed between 1 September 2003 and 21 July 2004 at the University of Washington Medical Center microbiology laboratory to assess reproducibility of clinical samples analyzed in “real time.” From the multilaboratory study, a total of 836 results were available for evaluation. Reproducibility was excellent between laboratories and on different days. Significant variability was seen between runs/lots, which may in part be associated with different threshold control values in different kits. Among the 1,410 clinical samples that were prospectively analyzed...

Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Smear, Culture, and PCR Using Universal Sample Processing Technology

Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Sen, Manas Kamal; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2005 Português
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Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations. We have developed a universal sample processing (USP) technology for detecting mycobacteria in clinical specimens. In this study, this technology was evaluated blindly on 99 extrapulmonary specimens collected from 87 patients. USP-processed specimens were submitted to smear microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB), culture, and two PCR tests targeting devR (Rv3133c) and IS6110 gene sequences. On the basis of clinical characteristics, histology and cytology, conventional microbiology results, and response to antitubercular therapy, 68 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Although USP smear and culture were significantly superior to conventional microbiology, which was not optimized (P < 0.0001), these approaches fell short of PCR tests (P < 0.0001). The low yields by smear and culture are attributed to the paucibacillary load in the specimens. The highest sensitivity in PCR was achieved when devR and IS6110 test results were combined; the sensitivity and specificity values were 83 and 93.8%, 87.5 and 100%, and 66.7 and 75%, respectively, in pleural fluid, needle-biopsied pleural tissue, and lymph node specimens. In conclusion...

Development of a DNA Microarray for Detection and Identification of Fungal Pathogens Involved in Invasive Mycoses

Leinberger, Dirk M.; Schumacher, Ulrike; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Bachmann, Till T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 Português
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Invasive fungal infections have emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Conventional identification of pathogenic fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories is time-consuming and, therefore, often imperfect for the early initiation of an adequate antifungal therapy. We developed a diagnostic microarray for the rapid and simultaneous identification of the 12 most common pathogenic Candida and Aspergillus species. Oligonucleotide probes were designed by exploiting the sequence variations of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene cassette to identify Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus. By using universal fungal primers (ITS1 and ITS4) directed toward conserved regions of the 18S and 28S rRNA genes, respectively, the fungal ITS target regions could be simultaneously amplified and fluorescently labeled. To establish the system, 12 precharacterized fungal strains were analyzed; and the method was validated by using 21 clinical isolates as blinded samples. As the microarray was able to detect and clearly identify the fungal pathogens within 4 h after DNA extraction...

Use of Various Common Isolation Media To Evaluate the New VITEK 2 Colorimetric GN Card for Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei

Lowe, Peter; Haswell, Helen; Lewis, Kirsty
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2006 Português
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The use of automated systems in the modern microbiology laboratory is becoming commonplace as the pressure of cost containment impacts on staff resources. With increased international travel and threats of bioterrorism, recognition and accurate identification of organisms such as Burkholderia pseudomallei is important. In areas where this organism is endemic, identification is not usually problematic. This study evaluates the performance of the new VITEK 2 colorimetric GN card for the identification of this organism. A total of 103 previously identified clinical isolates were tested with the new card with isolates taken from MacConkey agar, Columbia horse blood agar, Columbia sheep blood agar, and Trypticase soy agar in order to determine identification performance and to see if there was any variability in results due to the agar. Columbia horse blood agar produced the highest rates of identification (81%), followed by Trypticase soy agar (78%), Columbia sheep blood agar (75%), and MacConkey agar (63%). There was considerable variability in some of the reactions obtained. Seven isolates failed to identify from any of the agars used. This study highlights issues with the identification of this organism with the new VITEK 2 GN card. Enhancements of the algorithm parameters for the GN card are warranted and are in progress. Laboratory personnel need to be aware of the current limitations with this GN card and the software (version 4.02 or older for the VITEK 2 60/XL and version 1.02 or older for VITEK 2 Compact) and rely on clinical history...

Comparative Study Using Various Methods for Identification of Staphylococcus Species in Clinical Specimens

Layer, F.; Ghebremedhin, B.; Moder, K.-A.; König, W.; König, B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) play a predominant role in nosocomial infections. Rapid, reliable identification of these organisms is essential for accurate diagnosis and prompt effective treatment of these infections. Quite recently, the VITEK 2 g-positive (gram-positive [GP]) identification card (bioMérieux) has been redesigned for greater accuracy in the identification of gram-positive cocci. We compared the BD Phoenix (Becton Dickinson) and VITEK 2 (bioMérieux) automated microbiology systems, using their respective update version cards, and the API ID32 STAPH test. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene-based T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) method was used for verifying the results. In total, 86 clinical isolates of CNS and 27 reference strains were analyzed. The results show that for identification of CNS, the automated identification methods using the newest VITEK 2 and BD Phoenix identification cards are comparable. However, API ID32 STAPH revealed more correct results compared to both automated microbiology systems. Despite the increased performance of the phenotypic automated identification systems compared to the former versions, molecular methods, e.g., the gap-based T-RFLP method...