Página 12 dos resultados de 19220 itens digitais encontrados em 0.029 segundos

Innovation, wargaming, and the development of armored warfare

Carter, Daniel S. (Daniel Simon)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 p.; 4184013 bytes; 4187030 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This thesis examines the role of simulation in the development of armored warfare doctrine during the interwar period. All the Great Powers faced the challenge of how to integrate new technologies, particularly the tank, radio, and aircraft, into a coherent combined arms doctrinal framework. I compare the French and German experiences in order to assess the role that wargames played in driving doctrinal development. The case studies show that wargames, on the map and in the field, gave the German army a significant edge as it sought to develop new doctrine for armored warfare. This finding is an important addition to existing theory on military innovation, which tends to view doctrine as the product of geopolitical and organizational forces. Wargames provided a means of testing doctrinal ideas in a simulated wartime environment, and the lessons learned during these simulations fed into ongoing debates on doctrinal development. Wargaming well is a technically challenging business, and requires particular technical skills and capabilities. The Germans developed these capabilities earlier than their French counterparts, in part because the German army traditionally favored a rationalist, corporate approach to the management of military affairs.; (cont.) This cultural outlook made it easier to develop a rigorous wargaming capability...

The real rules of the budget game : minority fiscal decision making in the United States Senate

Simon, Marsha Jean
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 183 leaves; 10700861 bytes; 10708607 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This study examines the consequences of the Gramm-Rudman super-majority budget rules on fiscal decision making in the Senate. It attempts to determine the efficacy of these rules as defined by those who advocate them, Public Choice scholars and conservative activists, by testing both whether they restrain spending overall and, second, whether they more often block spending benefiting concentrated special interests than other types of spending. The study concludes that super-majority budget rules do not restrain spending, much less spending on special interest legislation. The Gramm-Rudman rules were not responsible for the budget surplus that emerged in the late 1990s, and public choice scholars have no credible explanation for the surplus. Further, I argue that these rules have had the unintended effect of strengthening the hand of the leadership of the committees responsible for spending and tax legislation and diminished the ability of other Senators to influence money bills. These rules have compounded the anti-democratic bias of the Senate, increased hold-out costs, and generally made the legislative process less transparent and understandable to the public and even to the Senators themselves.; by Marsha Jean Simon.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

The politics of oligarchy : the persistence of traditional elites in contemporary Brazil

Hagopian, Frances
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (427 leaves); 21865509 bytes; 21865312 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Frances Hagopian.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1986.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY; Bibliography: v.2, leaves 410-427.

Examining the influence of civilian casualties on insurgent attacks in Iraq

Karnis, Jessica Eve
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 65 leaves; 3080683 bytes; 3083320 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Although there have been several attempts to tabulate civilian casualties in the Iraq War, the effect of these casualties on the Iraqi population and insurgent organizations has not been thoroughly examined. From the literature of the motives and mechanisms behind the formation and expansion of insurgencies, as well as the culture and values of Iraqi society, it is expected that increased civilian casualties will create grievance among the population, causing support for insurgents and increased attacks on coalition forces. This paper statistically analyzes data on Iraqi civilian and coalition force casualties to determine if there is a causal relationship between the two variables. It also recognizes the limitations and potential biases of the available data. Control variables are included in the statistical analysis to compare the influence of civilian casualties to competing theories of insurgency formation. Analysis demonstrates that while civilian casualties and coalition casualties have a positive relationship, significant causality between the two variables cannot be established. Alternative hypotheses examine unique factors in Anbar and Baghdad provinces and the role of focus events in insurgent activity. The paper concludes with recommendations for further study.; by Jessica Eve Karnis.; Thesis (S.M. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

National approaches to consumer protection in France and Germany, 1970-1990

Trumbull, Johnathan Gunnar, 1968-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 404 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Johnathan Gunnar Trumbull.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1999.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 379-404).

Tilters with windmills--the coevolution of the appropriate technology movement in America

Decker, Craig Adams
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (iv, 489 leaves)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Craig Adams Decker, Jr.; Thesis (Sc. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1988.; Bibliography: v. 2, leaves 478-489.

Dependence, independence, and interdependence in world politics

Mistree, Dinsha (Dinsha Farrokh Allen)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 172 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
We implement techniques of graph theory to international trade in order to empirically inspect the international system of trade. Examining macro and submacro levels of the international system of trade from 1962-2003, we find the presence of a Scale-Free Network with a Multiscalar Hierarchy. Such structures are resilient to bottom-up economic collapse, but are susceptible to top-down and horizontal economic failures. Our findings are based upon an especially novel approach for examining submacro systems, applying latent community identification analysis to identify trading communities that are not necessarily formalized or institutionalized as trading blocs. Following this analysis, we examine the role of international institutions in the international trade network, specifically considering macro level institutions for stability solutions and examining the effects of joining a trade bloc. We find evidence that supports the intergovernmentalist framework, whereby certain types of trade blocs seem to succeed while others fail, leading to different results in integration and unification.; by Dinsha Mistree.; Thesis (S.M. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 150-156).

Congressional sea change : conflict and organizational accommodation in the House of Representatives, 1878-1921

Wolf, Thomas Westerman
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (603 leaves)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Thomas WestermanWolf.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY.; Bibliography: leaves 578-603.

Border fixity : when good fences make bad neighbors

Atzili, Boaz
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 298 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Since the end of the Second World War, a norm of "border fixity" - a proscription of foreign conquest and annexation of homeland territory - has become prevalent in world politics. Such practices are no longer acceptable tools of policy. Has the international norm of border fixity made international conflict less frequent? Since research has established that territorial issues have been among the major causes of war, many observers might assume that the norm of "border fixity" has made war less common. This dissertation argues that the opposite conclusion is true as far as socio-politically weak states - states that do not possess a reasonable level of legitimate and effective governmental institutions - are involved. In a world in which it is illegitimate to change international borders by force, and in which socio-politically weak states are widespread, international conflict and instability may actually be more common. The border fixity norm, moreover, perpetuates and exacerbates the weakness of already weak states thus making a significant decrease in conflicts unlikely. This dissertation examines the question of the effects of the international norm of border fixity by studying and comparing four cases.; (cont.) Two cases are taken from the era prior to the establishment of the border fixity norm: Brandenburg-Prussia from 1640 to 1740...

U.S. combat rescue operations, 1970-1980

Ryan, Michael Cox
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 121 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Michael Cox Ryan.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY.; Includes bibliographies.

Preventing the press from engendering ethnic violence : press restraints and ethnic violence in Singapore

Saleem, Saleena Begum
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 137 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This thesis aims to find a solution to a commonly held problem of ethnic violence that is engendered by the press. Based on the premise that governmental influence on the press in the form of press restraints can prevent the recurrence of deadly ethnic violence, it argues for certain types of press restraints in societies that (1) are just emerging from ethnic conflict and (2) lack the societal norms and established institutions that stem from traditions of democracy, is formulated. Taking Singapore as a case study, it shows that race issues were progressively de-politicized from 1956 to 1972 as a consequence of governmental influence. The Singapore case is taken to illustrate the gains to be attained from press restraints, and also to point out some potential caveats that would need to be accounted for in policies regarding press restraints.; by Saleena Begum Saleem.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 129-137).

The politics of failure : strategic nuclear arms control, public opinion, and domestic politics in the United States : 1945-1980

Graham, Thomas W. (Thomas Wallace)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (560 leaves)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Thomas Wallace Graham.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1989.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 538-560).

Party positions and the seats/votes relationship with ideological voters

Leblanc, William Michael
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 137 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Chapter 2 is based on two axioms: party members must run under common platforms, but are made up of incumbents who seek their own individual re-election. Politicians seek to win their own seats in the legislature, but they must run under a common party label. In both single-member district and proportional representation systems, equilibrium platforms are shown to diverge substantially, with one party located near the 25th percentile of the voter distribution and the other near the 75th percentile, rather than converge to the median. The model also yields predictions concerning short-term economic shocks, incumbency advantages, and gerrymandering. Chapter 3 is based on ideological voters. With purely ideological voters, party vote share depends on the distribution of voters in the entire country. Seat share depends on distribution of district medians. The seats/votes curve is therefore a combination of two different functions. This presents an identification problem for studying either function without accounting for the other. The incumbency advantage is also considered. Chapter 4 measures ideology using the Cooperative Congressional Election Study using factor analysis on voter responses to policy questions. I discuss the robustness of the measure and implications for the model of chapter 3. Chapter 5 finds little evidence of structural bias against either party under districting. However...

Paths toward the modern fiscal state : England (1642-1752), Japan (1868-1895), and China (1850-1911)

He, Wenkai
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 450 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This dissertation examines the rise of the modem fiscal state, which enabled the state to use centrally collected revenues from indirect taxes to mobilize financial resources either through long-term borrowing or issuing paper notes. The modem fiscal state greatly enhanced state capacity and stimulated financial development; it thus represented a crucial stage in the transformation from early modem to modem state and economy. My comparative analysis of England, Japan, and China shows multiple sequences and outcomes. All three cases had well-established early modem states and sophisticated market economies. Under the pressure of increasing spending demands, state actors conducted similar experiments, such as short-term borrowing, issuing of paper notes, and the collection of taxes upon domestic consumption. England became a modem fiscal state by the 1750s when its government used the revenues from excises and the customs to service its massive long-term debt. Japan made the leap in the late 1880s when tax revenues were employed to back up paper money, i.e., banknotes issued by the Bank of Japan. China, however, failed to develop into a modem fiscal state. I put forward a temporally-based causal mechanism which resulted from the interactions between a profound state credit crisis and socio-economic conditions. Such credit crises were caused by excessive dependence upon fictitious credit instruments such as bills of short-term borrowing unfunded by tax revenue in England or non-convertible paper notes in Japan. As these credit crises were an unintended consequence of earlier policies or events...

Access to the vote in the 2006 midterm election : evidence from the 2006 Cooperative Congressional Election Study

Green-Atchley, Samantha (Samantha Welch Harrison)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
The 2000 and 2004 U.S. national elections were plagued by problems which caused a significant number of citizens to be effectively denied access to the vote. This paper uses data from the 2006 Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES) public opinion poll to measure whether certain electoral problems persisted in the 2006 midterm elections. Of particular concern are whether voters were asked to show photo ID in order to vote, whether voters experienced problems with their registrations upon attempting to vote, what demographic groups experienced these problems most frequently, and what remedies were offered to such voters. Additionally, public opinion on whether all voters should be required to show photo IDs in order to vote and on whether polling stations were well operated in this election is also examined. The data shows that while significant percentages of CCES respondents experienced registration problems when voting and/or were asked to show photo ID before voting almost no respondents were prevented from casting ballots. Respondents showed overwhelming support for measures which would require all voters to show photo ID before voting, though this support varied significantly by party ID. Finally, respondents were overwhelmingly pleased with how their polling stations were operated during this election and very few of them were forced to wait in long lines before voting.; by Samantha Green-Atchley.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Professionalism, institutionalization and committee services in US. state legislatures

Edwards, Keith Malcolm
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 65 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
This thesis examines the relationship between legislative professionalism and institutionalization in the committee systems of six U.S. states. I examine whether increased professionalization, as defined by increases in levels of member salary, legislative staffing, and time in session, causes legislatures to institutionalize in a manner similar to the U.S. Congress. Specifically, this thesis focuses on the use (or lack thereof) of seniority as an automatic procedure for the assignment to, and transfer between, committees. I find that while it appears that all state legislators value service on committees, legislative professionalization is not an adequate explanatory variable to describe the variation in the institutionalization of committee systems that we see across states in the United States. This finding is especially evident in the analysis of California, the most professionalized state legislature in the U.S.; by Keith Malcolm Edwards.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 53-57).

The politics of rural development administration : Mexico and the World Bank in the PIDER Program

Page, Stephen Bennett
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 147 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Stephen Bennett Page.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1989.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-147).

Regional integration in the developing world : ASEAN in a new perspective

Yamakage, Susumu
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 273 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Susumu Yamakage.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1982.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY; Bibliography: leaves 264-273.

The regulation of artificial sweeteners : corporate and government strategies

Cummings, Linda C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 232 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
by Linda Carolyn Cummings.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1984.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND DEWEY.; Bibliography: leaves 225-232.

Rhapsodes of social science : Herodotus' performance of politeic inquiry

Sears, Jonathan M.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.72396%
Herodotus' logos represents many examples ofthe relationship between political and paradigmatic authority, and the synthesis ofthese examples in a community characterized by free and equal speech. Herodotus' walkabout narrator sets forth an inquiry into knowledge-seeking he extends the isegoria principle from Athenian politics to the broader world. The History demonstrates (a) various modes of constructing meaning, (b) interacting notions ofhow people have lived and living questions as to how we ought to live, and (c) an investigation ofthe nature and limits ofhuman knowledge. Representing diverse wisdom, publicly and privately discovered and presented, Herodotus sets forth Solon's wise advice and law-making, the capital punishment of the learned Anacharsis, the investigative outrages of Cambyses and Psammetichus' more pious experiments. Their stories challenge and complement their communities' characters - the relative constraint under which the Egyptians and Persians make their investigations, the Scythians' qualified openness and the relative fearlessness and freedom in which the Greeks set forth their inquiries. Setting forth the investigator-storykeeper as a poetic historian, Herodotus shows that history as poetry thwarts natural decay by allowing custom to be reformed in an open milieu...