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"Competências da enfermeira na atenção básica: contribuição à construção das funções essenciais de saúde pública" ; Nurse’s competencies in primary health care: contribution to the construction of the Essential Public Health Functions.

Witt, Regina Rigatto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/03/2005 Português
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657.6523%
Esta investigação sobre o trabalho da enfermeira, na atenção básica em saúde, tem como questão central a especificidade desse trabalho e, como objeto de estudo, as competências gerais e específicas da enfermeira e sua contribuição para a construção do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e para a constituição das Funções Essenciais de Saúde Pública (FESP), com os objetivos: 1) identificar e analisar as competências gerais e específicas requeridas da enfermeira para atuação na saúde pública, a partir do trabalho realizado na rede básica de saúde; 2) compreender como essas competências estão contribuindo para o desempenho das FESP, considerando-se a forma como estão sendo construídas no atual estágio de implementação do SUS. A determinação dos locais do estudo e da escolha dos sujeitos deu-se em função da utilização da Técnica Delphi como método de investigação. Foram selecionados dois grupos de participantes: um de 131 enfermeiras que atuam na rede básica do Município de Porto Alegre, e, outro, de 144 especialistas, enfermeiras que ocupam cargos na Secretaria de Saúde do Município de Porto Alegre e docentes de enfermagem em saúde publica/comunitária/coletiva das escolas de enfermagem do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirãoreto/USP. Aceitaram participar da pesquisa...

Uso do flúor em saúde pública sob o olhar dos delegados à 13ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde; Use of fluoride in public health from the perspective of the delegates to the 13th National Health Conference

Lucena, Regina Glaucia Ribeiro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Introdução Sendo a cárie dentária um grave problema de saúde pública para a maioria dos indivíduos que moram em países do hemisfério Sul e para as populações com baixo status socioeconômico dos países de capitalismo desenvolvido, advoga-se o uso do flúor em saúde pública, como medida preventiva. Objetivo Descrever as percepções e opiniões dos delegados à 13ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde sobre o uso do flúor em saúde pública, com foco na fluoretação das águas de abastecimento público. Método - Realizou-se pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, utilizando-se como técnica de processamento de depoimentos o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC). Ao todo, foram 310 respondentes. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionários semiestruturados e analisados por meio da análise do discurso. Resultados Constatou-se desinformação dos delegados no tocante a vários aspectos do uso do flúor em saúde pública e os mesmos sentem necessidade de meios de divulgação efetivos sobre a água para consumo e sobre os níveis de flúor da água. Considerações Finais - Ideias equivocadas ou lacunas de conhecimento acerca de vários aspectos do uso do flúor em saúde pública revelam a necessidade de se melhorar o nível de informação da sociedade sobre questões relativas à fluoretação. O desconhecimento dos delegados...

Políticas públicas, judiciário e saúde: limites, excessos e remédios; Public policies, judiciary and public health: limits, excesses and remedies

Sabino, Marco Antonio da Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/04/2014 Português
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Trata-se o presente de estudo analítico e propositivo que circunda em torno do tema do controle jurisdicional de políticas públicas, com destacado vigor no que toca às prestações e ações de saúde a cargo do Poder Público. Analisando o fenômeno da assunção do Judiciário como arena de debate político e atribuição de direitos, ver-se-á que há virtudes e vicissitudes nesse que é caminho irreversível da sociedade moderna. No campo da intervenção judicial na saúde, serão demonstrados os grandes transtornos gerados por uma atividade pouco cautelosa e ainda predominantemente fundada nas premissas processuais do Século XIX, o que gera um desarranjo de contas e estratégias e deflagra uma clara crise entre os Poderes instituídos. Ademais, do modo como sucede hoje, a intervenção judicial em políticas de saúde acaba privilegiando poucos à custa de muitos, quando a saúde é taxativamente direito que deve ser atribuído pelo Estado de maneira isonômica e universal. A partir do diagnóstico das patologias causadas pela desmedida intervenção judicial na saúde, realizada a partir de pesquisa empírica e revisão bibliográfica, esta tese estabelecerá limites que deverão ser observados pelo magistrado, verdadeiras fronteiras que...

Competências da enfermeira na atenção básica: contribuição à construção das funções essenciais de saúde pública; Nurse’s competencies in primary health care: contribution to the construction of the essential public health functions; Competencias de la enfermera en la atención básica: contribuición a la construcción de las funciones esenciales de salud publica

Witt, Regina Rigatto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
657.6523%
Esta investigação sobre o trabalho da enfermeira, na atenção básica em saúde, tem como questão central a especificidade desse trabalho e, como objeto de estudo, as competências gerais e específicas da enfermeira e sua contribuição para a construção do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e para a constituição das Funções Essenciais de Saúde Pública (FESP), com os objetivos: 1) identificar e analisar as competências gerais e específicas requeridas da enfermeira para atuação na saúde pública, a partir do trabalho realizado na rede básica de saúde; 2) compreender como essas competências estão contribuindo para o desempenho das FESP, considerando-se a forma como estão sendo construídas no atual estágio de implementação do SUS. A determinação dos locais do estudo e da escolha dos sujeitos deu-se em função da utilização da Técnica Delphi como método de investigação. Foram selecionados dois grupos de participantes: um de 131 enfermeiras que atuam na rede básica do Município de Porto Alegre, e, outro, de 144 especialistas, enfermeiras que ocupam cargos na Secretaria de Saúde do Município de Porto Alegre e docentes de enfermagem em saúde publica/ comunitária/coletiva das escolas de enfermagem do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto/USP. Aceitaram participar da pesquisa...

Public health and disability: emerging opportunities.

Lollar, Donald J.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The public health community has traditionally paid little attention to the health needs of people with disabilities. Recent activities, however, on the part of federal and international organizations mark a shift toward engaging the health concerns of this large and growing population. First, the World Health Organization published the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), a companion to the International Classification of Diseases. The ICF describes both a conceptual framework and a classification system, providing the foundation for public health science and policy. Second, a vision for the future of public health and disability is outlined in Healthy People 2010 that, for the first time, includes people with disabilities as a targeted population. The article briefly describes activities and emerging opportunities for a public health focus on people with disabilities with the ICF as a foundation and Healthy People 2010 as a vision. Public health has traditionally responded to emerging needs; people with disabilities are a group whose health needs should be targeted.

Health department collaboration with emergency departments as a model for public health programs among at-risk populations.

Lyons, Michael S.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Ledyard, Holly K.; Frame, Peter T.; Trott, Alexander T.
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
657.6746%
OBJECTIVES: Accessing at-risk and underserved populations for intervention remains a major obstacle for public health programs. Emergency departments (EDs) care for patients not otherwise interacting with the health care system, and represent a venue for such programs. A variety of perceived and actual barriers inhibit widespread implementation of ED-based public health programs. Collaboration between local health departments and EDs may overcome such barriers. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a health department-funded, ED-based public health program in comparison with other similar community-based programs through analysis of data reported by health department-funded HIV counseling and testing centers in one Ohio county. METHOD: Data for HIV counseling and testing at publicly funded sites in southwestern Ohio from January 1999 through December 2002 were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health. Demographic and risk-factor profiles were compared between the counseling and testing program located in the ED of a large, urban teaching hospital and the other publicly funded centers in the same county. RESULTS: A total of 26,382 patients were counseled and tested; 5,232 were ED patients, and 21,150 were from community sites. HIV positivity was 0.86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64%...

Severe acute respiratory syndrome: a challenge for public health practice in Hong Kong

Lee, A; Abdullah, A
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2003 Português
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is now a global challenge affecting more than 8000 patients in different continents. The dictum of public health practice especially for infectious disease is "prevention better than cure". It is especially true for SARS as the treatment strategies remain diverse and experimental. Maintaining a healthy and hygienic environment can be one of the effective public health measures to combat infectious disease. The major challenge is that some of the most important public health measures are to be taken outside the health sector. The community also needs to be strengthened and equipped with the health skills to promote better health and hygiene. There is also the need to create a supportive environment conducive to health for long term sustainability. The WHO approach of promoting health through setting approach would be one possible solution to face the challenge. This paper will describe some of the public health initiatives in Hong Kong through "setting approach" and "community development model" in helping the society fight against SARS. With the emergence of SARS, this might be the time to globalise public health medicine as an important component of medical practice.

The Public Health Approach to Eliminating Disparities in Health

Satcher, David; Higginbotham, Eve J.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 Português
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Reducing and eliminating disparities in health is a matter of life and death. Each year in the United States, thousands of individuals die unnecessarily from easily preventable diseases and conditions. It is critical that we approach this problem from a broad public health perspective, attacking all of the determinants of health: access to care, behavior, social and physical environments, and overriding policies of universal access to care, physical education in schools, and restricted exposure to toxic substances. We describe the historical background for recognizing and addressing disparities in health, various factors that contribute to disparities, how the public health approach addresses such challenges, and two successful programs that apply the public health approach to reducing disparities in health. Public health leaders must advocate for public health solutions to eliminate disparities in health.

Education for the Public Health Profession: A New Look at the Roemer Proposal

Gebbie, Kristine M.; Potter, Margaret A.; Quill, Beth; Tilson, Hugh
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Demands for a high level of professionalism in public health practice, and concomitant strengthening of public health education to match 21st-century community challenges provide an opportunity to reconsider the current paradigm for professional degrees in public health. In this article, we consider whether the currently typical public health education meets the requirements of a professional education, examine the current state of public health education, and provide a rationale for renewed emphasis on the doctor of public health (DrPH) degree. We also present one potential three-year DrPH curriculum to stimulate further discussion, while acknowledging the multiple challenges that face any school of public health moving to implement such an education.

Local leadership in public health: the role of the medical officer of health in Britain, 1872–1974

Gorsky, Martin
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2007 Português
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The recent policy focus in British public health on the importance of local action invites consideration of historical precedent. The role and achievements of the medical officer of health (MOH), the local government official charged with public health responsibilities, is discussed. The gradual accretion of duties is traced in the first section: the mid‐Victorian concern with urban sanitation; the preventive strategies adopted after the bacteriological revolution; the extension of personal health services in the early 20th century; and the more diminished role under the National Health Service (NHS), when infectious diseases retreated. The historical verdicts passed on the MOsH are reviewed in the second section. The leading role of the MOsH in the late 19th‐century mortality decline has been reasserted, and although there is some justification in the argument that in the 20th century public health lost its focus, it is important to recall that the extension of personal health services under MOH direction signified a major extension of access to care. Similarly, the charge that MOsH did not redefine their role in the period before their final demise in 1974 is not entirely justified. The emphasis of the NHS on curative rather than preventive medicine...

The Public Health Approach to Eliminating Disparities in Health

Satcher, David; Higginbotham, Eve J.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
657.6746%
Reducing and eliminating disparities in health is a matter of life and death. Each year in the United States, thousands of individuals die unnecessarily from easily preventable diseases and conditions. It is critical that we approach this problem from a broad public health perspective, attacking all of the determinants of health: access to care, behavior, social and physical environments, and overriding policies of universal access to care, physical education in schools, and restricted exposure to toxic substances. We describe the historical background for recognizing and addressing disparities in health, various factors that contribute to disparities, how the public health approach addresses such challenges, and two successful programs that apply the public health approach to reducing disparities in health. Public health leaders must advocate for public health solutions to eliminate disparities in health.

Feminism and public health ethics

Rogers, W A
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 Português
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657.7149%
This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health.

The South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness Training System Model: A Comprehensive Approach

Sarpy, Sue Ann; Chauvin, Sheila W.; Hites, Lisle S.; Santacaterina, Laurita; Capper, Stuart; Cuccia, Martha; Anderson, Ann C.; Petersen, Donna
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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The South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness (SCCPHP) is a collaboration among the schools of public health at Tulane University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the state health departments in Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The SCCPHP provides competency-based training via distant delivery methods to prepare public health workers to plan for and rapidly respond to public health threats and emergency events. This article presents the training system model used by the SCCPHP to assess, design, develop, implement, and evaluate training that is both competency driven and practice based. The SCCPHP training system model ensures a standardized process is used across public health occupations and geographic regions, while allowing for tailoring of the content to meet the specific training needs of the workforce in the respective state and local health departments. Further, the SCCPHP training system model provides evidence of the reciprocal nature between research and practice needed to advance the area of emergency preparedness training and workforce development initiatives in public health.

Meeting information needs in health policy and public health: Priorities for the national library of medicine and the national network of libraries of medicine

Humphreys, Betsy L.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 Português
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Those seeking information in health policy and public health are not as well served as those seeking clinical information. Problems inhibiting access to health policy and public health information include the heterogeneity of professionals seeking the information, the distribution of relevant information across disciplines and information sources, scarcity of synthesized information useful to practitioners, lack of awareness of available services or training in their use, and lack of access to information technology or to knowledgeable librarians and information specialists. Since 1990, the National Library of Medicine and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine have been working to enhance information services in health policy and public health through expanding the coverage of the NLM collection, building new databases, and engaging in targeted outreach and training initiatives directed toward segments of the health policy and public health communities. Progress has been made, but more remains to be done. Recommendations arising from the meeting,Accessing Useful Information: Challenges in Health Policy and Public Health, will help NLM and the National Network of Libraries of Medicine to establish priorities and action plans for the next several years.

Public health and English local government: historical perspectives on the impact of ‘returning home’

Gorsky, Martin; Lock, Karen; Hogarth, Sue
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This article uses history to stimulate reflection on the present opportunities and challenges for public health practice in English local government. Its motivation is the paradox that despite Department of Health policy-makers’ allusions to ‘a long and proud history’ and ‘returning public health home’ there has been no serious discussion of that past local government experience and what we might learn from it. The article begins with a short resumé of the achievements of Victorian public health in its municipal location, and then considers the extensive responsibilities that it developed for environmental, preventive and health services by the mid-twentieth century. The main section discusses the early NHS, explaining why historians see the era as one of decline for the speciality of public health, leading to the reform of 1974, which saw the removal from local government and the abolition of the Medical Officer of Health role. Our discussion focuses on challenges faced before 1974 which raise organizational and political issues relevant to local councils today as they embed new public health teams. These include the themes of leadership, funding, integrated service delivery, communication and above all the need for a coherent vision and rationale for public health action in local authorities.

Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

Carman, Angela L.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/03/2015 Português
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657.4747%
In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation.

Educação física e saúde pública : a inserção do profissional de educação física em um núcleo de apoio à saúde da família (Goiânia/GO); Physical education and public health: the introduction of physical education professionals on the familiy health support center (Goiânia/GO)

Martinez, Jéssica Félix Nicácio
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
657.6523%
Since the late 1980’s, we have seen a growing number of academic articles, research groups and events that have critically discussed the relationship between Physical Education and health, especially from the involvement with the field of Public Health. With the intention to contribute with this debate, this research sought to analyze the guidelines, legal framework and academic articles regarding Physical Education on Public Health and also to analyze perceptions of the managers and the multi-professional teams regarding the contribution of Physical Education to the work developed by Family health Support Center (NASF) in Goiânia/GO. To do so, we sought to base our analyses and reflections on the thoughts of Latin American social medicine and on the polytechnic education. The object of study was delimited through the analysis of the Brazilian Ministry of Health documents and academic production on Physical Education and its relationships with Public Health found in CAPES thesis bank. We adopted participant research approach, while for data collection we used questionnaires, participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 21 NASF professionals in Goiania/GO. All collected data were analyzed according to Thematic Analysis supported by WebMD software. The results indicate that management stood out as one of the main problems at NASF...

THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC HEALTH

Engs, Ruth C.
Fonte: Indiana University Publicador: Indiana University
Tipo: Outros
Português
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Outline for lectures on the history of public health from antiquity through the middle ages and modern era..; The PURPOSE of these lectures is to present an overview of the history, and to some extent the historiography, of public health, and its many entities over the centuries-- particularly from the mid-19th century-- so as to gain insight into the depth and breadth of the discipline. Public health theories, methods and practices from antiquity until the present are examined. Public health has not been a straight line of improvement. Practices have risen and fallen over the centuries. Practices and inventions from the past have become forgotten or lost when social-political-religious systems change and are reinvented again.; BACKGROUND: The foundation of modern public health in western society emerged out of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. Various fields of interest and concern often intertwined and overlapped in this era. These different aspects of public health including hygiene, environmental concerns, physiology, physical and recreational activities and research, nutrition, substance abuse, diseases prevention, maternal and child health have diverged over the twentieth century into seemingly separate fields of study and practice. In the early twenty-first century these fields of practice coalesced under one public health umbrella. The history of anything is based upon perceptions which may...

Allergies and asthma: employing principles of social justice as a guide in public health policy development

Behrmann, Jason
Fonte: Centre de Recherche en Éthique de l'Université de Montréal (CRÉUM): LES ATELIERS DE L’ÉTHIQUE Publicador: Centre de Recherche en Éthique de l'Université de Montréal (CRÉUM): LES ATELIERS DE L’ÉTHIQUE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
657.7149%
The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrating how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of social justice is presented. This protocol can serve as a tool to aid in prioritizing public health initiatives and identifying ethically problematic policies that necessitate reform. Criteria for policy assessment include: 1) whether a tentative public health intervention would provide equal health benefit to a range of allergy and asthma sufferers, 2) whether targeting initiatives towards particular societal groups is merited based on the notion of ‘worst-off status’ of certain population segments, and 3) whether targeted policies have the potential for stigmatization. The article concludes by analyzing three examples of policies used in reducing allergy and asthma triggers in order to convey the general thought process underlying the use of the assessment protocol...

WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: a global ‘‘good’’ for public health

Taylor,Allyn L.; Bettcher,Douglas W.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2000 Português
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Although the application of legal instruments to international health issues - relative to other areas of international concern - is still at a rudimentary stage of development, the transnational health impacts of globalization provide a rationale for the codification and implementation of global norms to deal with shared problems. The experience of promulgating international agreements in other areas closely related to international health - the environment, for example - demonstrates how evidence-based international agreements can effectively address a range of problems that cross national boundaries. The framework convention-protocol approach is a legally binding, incremental approach to international law-making that has frequently been employed to deal with environmental threats, and is now being adapted to serve purely public health ends. Experience with the recently initiated WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides a case study of how transnational public health problems can be addressed by an international legal approach. Scientific evidence in public health and economics has provided the foundation for the elaboration of this evidence-based strategy. The present tobacco epidemic poses a range of transnational challenges that are best addressed through coordinated action. In this article...