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Modified FGF4 Signal Peptide Inhibits Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

Bultmann, Hermann; Busse, James S.; Brandt, Curtis R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 Português
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Entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) into host cells occurs through fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane and involves complex and poorly understood interactions between several viral and cellular proteins. One strategy for dissecting the function of this fusion machine is through the use of specific inhibitors. We identified a peptide with antiviral activity that blocks HSV-1 infection at the entry stage and during cell-to-cell spreading. This peptide (called EB for “entry blocker”) consists of the FGF4 signal sequence with an RRKK tetramer at the amino terminus to improve solubility. The activity of EB depends exclusively but not canonically on the signal sequence. Inhibition of virus entry (hrR3) and plaque formation (KOS) strongly depend on virus concentrations and serum addition, with 50% inhibitory concentrations typically ranging from 1 to 10 μM. Blocking preadsorbed virus requires higher EB concentrations. Cytotoxic effects (trypan blue exclusion) are first noted at 50 μM EB in serum-free medium and at ≥200 μM in the presence of serum. EB does not affect gC-dependent mechanisms of virus attachment and does not block virus attachment at 4°C. Instead, EB directly interacts with virions and inactivates them irreversibly without...

Measles Viruses with Altered Envelope Protein Cytoplasmic Tails Gain Cell Fusion Competence

Cathomen, Toni; Naim, Hussein Y.; Cattaneo, Roberto
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 Português
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The cytoplasmic tail of the measles virus (MV) fusion (F) protein is often altered in viruses which spread through the brain of patients suffering from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). We transferred the coding regions of F tails from SSPE viruses in an MV genomic cDNA. Similarly, we constructed and transferred mutated tail-encoding regions of the other viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (H) gene. From the mutated genomic cDNAs, we achieved rescue of viruses that harbor different alterations of the F tail, deletions in the membrane-distal half of the H tail, and combinations of these mutations. Viruses with alterations in any of the tails spread rapidly through the monolayer via enhanced cell-cell fusion. Double-tail mutants had even higher fusion competence but slightly decreased infectivity. Analysis of the protein composition of released mutant viral particles indicated that the tails are necessary for accurate virus envelope assembly and suggested a direct F tail-matrix (M) protein interaction. Since even tail-altered glycoproteins colocalized with M protein in intracellular patches, additional interactions may exist. We conclude that in MV infections, including SSPE, the glycoprotein tails are involved not only in virus envelope assembly but also in the control of virus-induced cell fusion.

A27L Protein Mediates Vaccinia Virus Interaction with Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate

Chung, Che-Sheng; Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chang, Yuan-Shau; Chang, Wen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1998 Português
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Vaccinia virus has a wide host range and infects mammalian cells of many different species. This suggests that the cell surface receptors for vaccinia virus are ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved. Alternatively, different receptors are used for vaccinia virus infection of different cell types. Here we report that vaccinia virus binds to heparan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chain of cell surface proteoglycans, during virus infection. Soluble heparin specifically inhibits vaccinia virus binding to cells, whereas other GAGs such as condroitin sulfate or dermantan sulfate have no effect. Heparin also blocks infections by cowpox virus, rabbitpox virus, myxoma virus, and Shope fibroma virus, suggesting that cell surface heparan sulfate could be a general mediator of the entry of poxviruses. The biochemical nature of the heparin-blocking effect was investigated. Heparin analogs that have acetyl groups instead of sulfate groups also abolish the inhibitory effect, suggesting that the negative charges on GAGs are important for virus infection. Furthermore, BSC40 cells treated with sodium chlorate to produce undersulfated GAGs are more refractory to vaccinia virus infection. Taken together, the data support the notion that cell surface heparan sulfate is important for vaccinia virus infection. Using heparin-Sepharose beads...

Enterovirus Capsid Interactions with Decay-Accelerating Factor Mediate Lytic Cell Infection

Newcombe, Nicole G.; Johansson, E. Susanne; Au, Gough; Lindberg, A. Michael; Barry, Richard D.; Shafren, Darren R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 Português
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The cellular receptor usage of numerous human enteroviruses can differ significantly between low-cell-culture-passaged clinical isolates and highly laboratory-passaged prototype strains. The prototype strain of coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) displays a dual-receptor specificity as determined with a receptor complex consisting of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). In this study, the cellular receptor interactions of low-cell-passage CVA21 clinical isolates with respect to their interactions with cell surface-expressed DAF and ICAM-1 were compared to those of the CVA21 prototype (Kuykendall) strain. Dual-receptor usage of DAF and ICAM-1 by CVA21 clinical isolates was confirmed by cell transfection and radiolabeled binding assays. The cellular attachment of clinical and prototype CVA21 strains to cells that coexpressed DAF and ICAM-1 was not additive compared to the viral binding to cells expressing one or other receptor. In fact, the binding data suggest there is an inhibition of CVA21 cellular attachment in environments where high-level coexpression of both DAF and ICAM-1 occurs. Antibody cross-linking of DAF rendered cells susceptible to lytic infection by the CVA21 clinical isolates. In a novel finding...

Expression Profiling of Human Hepatoma Cells Reveals Global Repression of Genes Involved in Cell Proliferation, Growth, and Apoptosis upon Infection with Parvovirus H-1†

Li, Jianhong; Werner, Ekkehard; Hergenhahn, Manfred; Poirey, Rémy; Luo, Zuyu; Rommelaere, Jean; Jauniaux, Jean-Claude
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 Português
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Autonomous parvoviruses are characterized by their stringent dependency on host cell S phase and their cytopathic effects on neoplastic cells. To better understand the interactions between the virus and its host cell, we used oligonucleotide arrays that carry more than 19,000 unique human gene sequences to profile the gene expression of the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line QGY-7703 at two time points after parvovirus H-1 infection. At the 6-h time point, a single gene was differentially expressed with a >2.5-fold change. At 12 h, 105 distinct genes were differentially expressed in virus-infected cells compared to mock-treated cells, with 93% of these genes being down-regulated. These repressed genes clustered mainly into classes involved in transcriptional regulation, signal transduction, immune and stress response, and apoptosis, as exemplified by genes encoding the transcription factors Myc, Jun, Fos, Ids, and CEBPs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis on selected genes validated the array data and allowed the changes in cellular gene expression to be correlated with the accumulation of viral transcripts and NS1 protein. Western blot analysis of several cellular proteins supported the array results and substantiated the evidence given by these and other data to suggest that the H-1 virus kills QGY-7703 cells by a nonapoptotic process. The promoter regions of most of the differentially expressed genes analyzed fail to harbor any motif for sequence-specific binding of NS1...

Herpes Simplex Virus gE/gI Must Accumulate in the trans-Golgi Network at Early Times and Then Redistribute to Cell Junctions To Promote Cell-Cell Spread

Farnsworth, Aaron; Johnson, David C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
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578.2531%
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein heterodimer gE/gI is necessary for virus spread in epithelial and neuronal tissues. Deletion of the relatively large gE cytoplasmic (CT) domain abrogates the ability of gE/gI to mediate HSV spread. The gE CT domain is required for the sorting of gE/gI to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in early stages of virus infection, and there are several recognizable TGN sorting motifs grouped near the center of this domain. Late in HSV infection, gE/gI, other viral glycoproteins, and enveloped virions redistribute from the TGN to epithelial cell junctions, and the gE CT domain is also required for this process. Without the gE CT domain, newly enveloped virions are directed to apical surfaces instead of to cell junctions. We hypothesized that the gE CT domain promotes virus envelopment into TGN subdomains from which nascent enveloped virions are sorted to cell junctions, a process that enhances cell-to-cell spread. To characterize elements of the gE CT domain involved in intracellular trafficking and cell-to-cell spread, we constructed a panel of truncation mutants. Specifically, these mutants were used to address whether sorting to the TGN and redistribution to cell junctions are necessary, and sufficient...

Soluble Epstein-Barr Virus Glycoproteins gH, gL, and gp42 Form a 1:1:1 Stable Complex That Acts Like Soluble gp42 in B-Cell Fusion but Not in Epithelial Cell Fusion

Kirschner, Austin N.; Omerović, Jasmina; Popov, Boris; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus that infects cells by fusing its lipid envelope with the target cell membrane. The fusion process requires the actions of viral glycoproteins gH, gL, and gB for entry into epithelial cells and additionally requires gp42 for entry into B cells. To further study the roles of these membrane-associated glycoproteins, purified soluble forms of gp42, gH, and gL were expressed that lack the membrane-spanning regions. The soluble gH/gL protein complex binds to soluble gp42 with high affinity, forming a stable heterotrimer with 1:1:1 stoichiometry, and this complex is not formed by an N-terminally truncated variant of gp42. The effects of adding soluble gp42, gH/gL, and gH/gL/gp42 were examined with a virus-free cell-cell fusion assay. The results demonstrate that, in contrast to gp42, membrane fusion does not proceed with secreted gH/gL. The addition of soluble gH/gL does not inhibit or enhance B-cell or epithelial cell fusion when membrane-bound gH/gL, gB, and gp42 are present. However, the soluble gH/gL/gp42 complex does activate membrane fusion with B cells, similarly to soluble gp42, but it does not inhibit fusion with epithelial cells, as observed for gp42 alone. A gp42 peptide, derived from an N-terminal segment involved in gH/gL interactions...

Adhesion Molecule Interactions Facilitate Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Induced Virological Synapse Formation between T Cells▿

Jolly, Clare; Mitar, Ivonne; Sattentau, Quentin J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can spread between CD4+ T cells by using a virological synapse (VS). The VS assembly is a cytoskeleton-driven process dependent on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-receptor engagement and is hypothesized to require adhesion molecule interactions. Here we demonstrate that leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and ICAM-3 are enriched at the VS and that inhibition of these interactions influences conjugate formation and reduces VS assembly. Moreover, CD4+ T cells deficient in LFA-1 or with modified LFA-1 function were less able to support VS assembly and cell-cell transfer of HIV-1. Thus, cognate adhesion molecule interactions at the VS are important for HIV-1 spread between T cells.

Rotavirus Replication in Intestinal Cells Differentially Regulates Integrin Expression by a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent Pathway, Resulting in Increased Cell Adhesion and Virus Yield▿

Halasz, Peter; Holloway, Gavan; Turner, Stephen J.; Coulson, Barbara S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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577.7095%
Changes in the interactions between intestinal cells and their surrounding environment during virus infection have not been well documented. The growth and survival of intestinal epithelial cells, the main targets of rotavirus infection, are largely dependent on the interaction of cell surface integrins with the extracellular matrix. In this study, we detected alterations in cellular integrin expression following rotavirus infection, identified the signaling components required, and analyzed the subsequent effects on cell binding to the matrix component collagen. After rotavirus infection of intestinal cells, expression of α2β1 and β2 integrins was up-regulated, whereas that of αVβ3, αVβ5, and α5β1 integrins, if present, was down-regulated. This differential regulation of integrins was reflected at the transcriptional level. It was unrelated to the use of integrins as rotavirus receptors, as both integrin-using and integrin-independent viruses induced integrin regulation. Using pharmacological agents that inhibit kinase activity, integrin regulation was shown to be dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) but independent of the activities of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and ERK1/2, and cyclooxygenase-2. Replication-dependent activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was observed following infection of intestinal and nonintestinal cell lines. Rotavirus activation of PI3K was important for regulation of α2β1 expression. Blockade of integrin regulation by PI3K inhibition led to decreased adherence of infected intestinal cells to collagen and a concomitant decrease in virus titer. These findings indicate that rotavirus-induced PI3K activation causes regulation of integrin expression in intestinal cells...

Effects of Partial Deletions within the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 V3 Loop on Coreceptor Tropism and Sensitivity to Entry Inhibitors▿

Nolan, Katrina M.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Hoxie, James A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) V3 loop is critical for coreceptor binding and principally determines tropism for the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors. The recent crystallographic resolution of V3 shows that its base is closely associated with the conserved coreceptor binding site on the gp120 core, whereas more distal regions protrude toward the cell surface, likely mediating interactions with coreceptor extracellular loops. However, these V3-coreceptor interactions and the structural basis for CCR5 or CXCR4 specificity are poorly understood. Using the dual-tropic virus HIV-1R3A, which uses both CCR5 and CXCR4, we sought to identify subdomains within V3 that selectively mediate R5 or X4 tropism. An extensive panel of V3 mutants was evaluated for effects on tropism and sensitivity to coreceptor antagonists. Mutations on either side of the V3 base (residues 3 to 8 and 26 to 33) ablated R5 tropism and made the resulting X4-tropic Envs more sensitive to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100. When mutations were introduced within the V3 stem, only a deletion of residues 9 to 12 on the N-terminal side ablated X4 tropism. Remarkably, this R5-tropic Δ9-12 mutant was completely resistant to several small-molecule inhibitors of CCR5. Envs with mutations in the V3 crown (residues 13 to 20) remained dual tropic. Similar observations were made for a second dual-tropic isolate...

Effects of Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein Mutations on Cell-Cell Fusion Mediated by Human Parainfluenza Type 2 Virus▿

Tsurudome, Masato; Nishio, Machiko; Ito, Morihiro; Tanahashi, Shunsuke; Kawano, Mitsuo; Komada, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiko
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The monoclonal antibody M1-1A, specific for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza type 2 virus (HPIV2), blocks virus-induced cell-cell fusion without affecting the hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities. F13 is a neutralization escape variant selected with M1-1A and contains amino acid mutations N83Y and M186I in the HN protein, with no mutation in the fusion protein. Intriguingly, F13 exhibits reduced ability to induce cell-cell fusion despite its multistep replication. To investigate the potential role of HPIV2 HN protein in the regulation of cell-cell fusion, we introduced these mutations individually or in combination to the HN protein in the context of recombinant HPIV2. Following infection at a low multiplicity, Vero cells infected with the mutant virus H-83/186, which carried both the N83Y and M186I mutations, remained as nonfused single cells at least for 24 h, whereas most of the cells infected with wild-type virus mediated prominent cell-cell fusion within 24 h. On the other hand, the cells infected with the mutant virus, carrying either the H-83 or H-186 mutation, mediated cell-cell fusion but less efficiently than those infected with wild-type virus. Irrespective of the ability to cause cell-cell fusion...

Insertional Mutations in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 gL Identify Functional Domains for Association with gH and for Membrane Fusion▿

Fan, Qing; Lin, Erick; Spear, Patricia G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Glycoprotein L (gL) is one of four glycoproteins required for the entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into cells and for virus-induced cell fusion. This glycoprotein oligomerizes with gH to form a membrane-bound heterodimer but can be secreted when expressed without gH. Twelve unique gL linker-insertion mutants were generated to identify regions critical for gH binding and gH/gL processing and regions essential for cell fusion and viral entry. All gL mutants were detected on the cell surface in the absence of gH, suggesting incomplete cleavage of the signal peptide or the presence of a cell surface receptor for secreted gL. Coexpression with gH enhanced the levels of cell surface gL detected by antibodies for all gL mutants except those that were defective in their interactions with gH. Two insertions into a conserved region of gL abrogated the binding of gL to gH and prevented gH expression on the cell surface. Three other insertions reduced the cell surface expression of gH and/or altered the properties of gH/gL heterodimers. Altered or absent interaction of gL with gH was correlated with reduced or absent cell fusion activity and impaired complementation of virion infectivity. These results identify a conserved domain of gL that is critical for its binding to gH and two noncontiguous regions of gL...

Target Cell Type-Dependent Modulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid Disassembly by Cyclophilin A▿ †

Li, Yuan; Kar, Alak Kanti; Sodroski, Joseph
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The binding of cyclophilin A (CypA) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein (CA protein) is required soon after virus entry into natural target cells. In Jurkat T lymphocytes, disrupting CypA-CA interaction either by cyclosporine (Cs) treatment or by alteration (e.g., P90A) of the CA inhibits HIV-1 infection. In HeLa cells, however, treatment with Cs or Cs analogues minimally inhibits the early phase of HIV-1 infection but selects for a Cs-dependent virus with a change (A92E) in CA. To understand these phenomena, we examined the effects of the P90A and A92E changes in the HIV-1 CA protein on the stability of capsid complexes assembled in vitro and on capsid disassembly in the cytosol of virus-exposed target cells. The A92E change impaired CA-CA interactions in vitro and decreased the amount of particulate capsids in the cytosol of HeLa target cells. Reducing the binding of CypA to the A92E mutant capsid, either by Cs treatment or by an additional P90A change in the CA protein, increased the amount of particulate capsids and viral infectivity in HeLa cells. In contrast, reduction of the binding of CypA to HIV-1 capsids in Jurkat T lymphocytes resulted in a decrease in the amount of particulate capsids and infectivity. Thus...

Role of Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I in Hepatitis C Virus Entry: Kinetics and Molecular Determinants ▿

Catanese, Maria Teresa; Ansuini, Helenia; Graziani, Rita; Huby, Thierry; Moreau, Martine; Ball, Jonathan K.; Paonessa, Giacomo; Rice, Charles M.; Cortese, Riccardo; Vitelli, Alessandra; Nicosia, Alfredo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) is an essential receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and a cell surface high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) receptor. The mechanism of SR-BI-mediated HCV entry, however, is not clearly understood, and the specific protein determinants required for the recognition of the virus envelope are not known. HCV infection is strictly linked to lipoprotein metabolism, and HCV virions may initially interact with SR-BI through associated lipoproteins before subsequent direct interactions of the viral glycoproteins with SR-BI occur. The kinetics of inhibition of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc) infection with an anti-SR-BI monoclonal antibody imply that the recognition of SR-BI by HCV is an early event of the infection process. Swapping and single-substitution mutants between mouse and human SR-BI sequences showed reduced binding to the recombinant soluble E2 (sE2) envelope glycoprotein, thus suggesting that the SR-BI interaction with the HCV envelope is likely to involve species-specific protein elements. Most importantly, SR-BI mutants defective for sE2 binding, although retaining wild-type activity for receptor oligomerization and binding to the physiological ligand HDL, were impaired in their ability to fully restore HCVcc infectivity when transduced into an SR-BI-knocked-down Huh-7.5 cell line. These findings suggest a specific and direct role for the identified residues in binding HCV and mediating virus entry. Moreover...

Global Analysis of the Transcriptional Response of Whitefly to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China Virus Reveals the Relationship of Coevolved Adaptations▿ †

Luan, Jun-Bo; Li, Jun-Min; Varela, Nélia; Wang, Yong-Liang; Li, Fang-Fang; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The begomoviruses are the largest and most economically important group of plant viruses transmitted exclusively by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci in a circulative, persistent manner. The circulation of the viruses within the insect vectors involves complex interactions between virus and vector components; however, the molecular mechanisms of these interactions remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the transcriptional response of the invasive B. tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 species to Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV) using Illumina sequencing technology. Results showed that 1,606 genes involved in 157 biochemical pathways were differentially expressed in the viruliferous whiteflies. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that TYLCCNV can perturb the cell cycle and primary metabolism in the whitefly, which explains the negative effect of this virus on the longevity and fecundity of B. tabaci. Our data also demonstrated that TYLCCNV can activate whitefly immune responses, such as autophagy and antimicrobial peptide production, which might lead to a gradual decrease of viral particles within the body of the viruliferous whitefly. Furthermore, PCR results showed that TYLCCNV can invade the ovary and fat body tissues of the whitefly...

Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Living Host Cells Visualized through Quantum Dot Labeling of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus▿†

Liu, Haibin; Liu, Yi; Liu, Shulin; Pang, Dai-Wen; Xiao, Gengfu
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2011 Português
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Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important fish pathogen that infects both wild and cultured salmonids. As a species of the genus Novirhabdovirus, IHNV is a valuable model system for exploring the host entry mechanisms of rhabdoviruses. In this study, quantum dots (QDs) were used as fluorescent labels for sensitive, long-term tracking of IHNV entry. Using live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we found that IHNV is internalized through clathrin-coated pits after the virus binds to host cell membranes. Pretreatment of host cells with chlorpromazine, a drug that blocks clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and clathrin light chain (LCa) depletion using RNA interference both resulted in a marked reduction in viral entry. We also visualized transport of the virus via the cytoskeleton (i.e., actin filaments and microtubules) in real time. Actin polymerization is involved in the transport of endocytic vesicles into the cytosol, whereas microtubules are required for the trafficking of clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Disrupting the host cell cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D or nocodazole significantly impaired IHNV infectivity. Furthermore, infection was significantly affected by pretreating the host cells with bafilomycin A1...

The Interactome of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus NS1 Protein Highlights Multiple Effects on Host Cell Biology

Wu, Weining; Tran, Kim C.; Teng, Michael N.; Heesom, Kate J.; Matthews, David A.; Barr, John N.; Hiscox, Julian A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 Português
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Viral proteins can have multiple effects on host cell biology. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a good example of this. During the virus life cycle, NS1 can act as an antagonist of host type I and III interferon production and signaling, inhibit apoptosis, suppress dendritic cell maturation, control protein stability, and regulate transcription of host cell mRNAs, among other functions. It is likely that NS1 performs these different roles through interactions with multiple host cell proteins. To investigate this and identify cellular proteins that could interact with NS1, we used quantitative proteomics in combination with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-trap immunoprecipitation and bioinformatic analysis. This analysis identified 221 proteins that were potentially part of complexes that could interact with NS1, with many of these associated with transcriptional regulation as part of the mediator complex, cell cycle regulation, and other functions previously assigned to NS1. Specific immunoprecipitation using the GFP trap was used to confirm the ability of selected cellular proteins to interact individually with NS1. Infection of A549 cells with recombinant viruses deficient in the expression of NS1 and overexpression analysis both demonstrated that NS1 was necessary and sufficient for the enrichment of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.

Vpu-Deficient HIV Strains Stimulate Innate Immune Signaling Responses in Target Cells

Doehle, Brian P.; Chang, Kristina; Fleming, Lamar; McNevin, John; Hladik, Florian; McElrath, M. Juliana; Gale, Michael
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 Português
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577.7095%
Acute virus infection induces a cell-intrinsic innate immune response comprising our first line of immunity to limit virus replication and spread, but viruses have developed strategies to overcome these defenses. HIV-1 is a major public health problem; however, the virus-host interactions that regulate innate immune defenses against HIV-1 are not fully defined. We have recently identified the viral protein Vpu to be a key determinant responsible for HIV-1 targeting and degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a central transcription factor driving host cell innate immunity. IRF3 plays a major role in pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling of innate immunity to drive the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including a variety of HIV restriction factors, that serve to limit viral replication directly and/or program adaptive immunity. Here we interrogate the cellular responses to target cell infection with Vpu-deficient HIV-1 strains. Remarkably, in the absence of Vpu, HIV-1 triggers a potent intracellular innate immune response that suppresses infection. Thus, HIV-1 can be recognized by PRRs within the host cell to trigger an innate immune response, and this response is unmasked only in the absence of Vpu. Vpu modulation of IRF3 therefore prevents virus induction of specific innate defense programs that could otherwise limit infection. These observations show that HIV-1 can indeed be recognized as a pathogen in infected cells and provide a novel and effective platform for defining the native innate immune programs of target cells of HIV-1 infection.

The West Nile Virus Capsid Protein Blocks Apoptosis through a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent Mechanism

Urbanowski, Matt D.; Hobman, Tom C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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577.79383%
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen that can cause serious disease in humans. Our laboratories are focused on understanding how interactions between WNV proteins and host cells contribute to virus replication and pathogenesis. WNV replication is relatively slow, and on the basis of earlier studies, the virus appears to activate survival pathways that delay host cell death during virus replication. The WNV capsid is the first viral protein produced in infected cells; however, its role in virus assembly is not required until after replication of the genomic RNA. Accordingly, from a temporal perspective, it is perfectly suited to block host cell apoptosis during virus replication. In the present study, we provide evidence that the WNV capsid protein blocks apoptosis through a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent pathway. Specifically, expression of this protein in the absence of other viral proteins increases the levels of phosphorylated Akt, a prosurvival kinase that blocks apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. Treatment of cells with the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 abrogates the protective effects of the WNV capsid protein.

The Amino Terminus of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein K Is Required for Virion Entry via the Paired Immunoglobulin-Like Type-2 Receptor Alpha

Chowdhury, Sona; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Naderi, Misagh; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
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The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein K (gK)/UL20 protein complex is incorporated into virion envelopes and cellular membranes and functions during virus entry and cell-to-cell spread. To investigate the role of gK/UL20 in the context of a highly neurovirulent virus strain, the HSV-1(McKrae) genome was cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome plasmid (McKbac) and utilized to construct the mutant virus McK(gKΔ31-68), carrying a 37-amino-acid deletion within the gK amino terminus. The McKbac virus entered efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells constitutively expressing HSV-1 human receptors, nectin-1, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), or paired immunoglobulin-like type-2 receptor alpha (PILRα). In contrast, the McK(gKΔ31-68) virus failed to enter into CHO-PILRα cells, while it entered CHO cells expressing HVEM and nectin-1 more efficiently than the McKbac virus. Both McKbac and McK(gKΔ31-68) viruses entered all CHO cells expressing HSV-1 receptors via a pH-independent pathway. The HSV-1(F) gBΔ28syn mutant virus, encoding a carboxyl-terminal truncated gB, causes extensive cell fusion. Previously, we showed that the gKΔ31-68 amino acid deletion abrogated gBΔ28syn virus-induced cell fusion, indicating that the amino terminus of gK is required for gB-mediated virus-induced cell fusion (V. N. Chouljenko...