Página 14 dos resultados de 443 itens digitais encontrados em 0.005 segundos

States with more generous welfare policies are more likely to protect vulnerable African-American communities from environmental risks

Liang, Jiaqi
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/10/2015 Português
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For the past three decades, studies have found evidence that people of color and low-income communities are more exposed to environmental risks, which can lead to poor health outcomes. In new research, Jiaqi Liang looks at the role of state governments in the enforcement of regulations to protect these communities. She finds that there is a positive relationship between the generosity of a state’s welfare benefits and its environmental protection enforcement for vulnerable African-American communities.

The habits of the heart substantive democracy after the European elections

Kaldor, Mary
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2014 Português
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Despite the dramatic spread of democratic procedures in recent decades, there is a profound and growing deficit in substantive democracy everywhere. ‘They call it democracy but it isn’t’ was one of the slogans of the Spanish indignados.

Countering the logic of the war economy in Syria

Turkmani, Rim; Ali, Ali A.K.; Kaldor, Mary; Bojicic-Dzelilovic, Vesna
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2015 Português
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The country has entered a vicious circle where Syria’s own resources are being used to destroy it, and where ordinary people have no choice but to rearrange their lives around the conflict and either join or pay armed actors to meet everyday needs.

Book review: Local democracy, civic engagement and community: from New Labour to the Big Society

Wilkins, Andrew
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/07/2013 Português
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"Local Democracy, Civic Engagement and Community: From New Labour to the Big Society." Hugh Atkinson. Manchester University Press. September 2012. --- This accessible book includes an analysis of local democracy, civic engagement and participation across a range of policy areas and in the context of debates around accountability, legitimacy, sustainability, localism and the ‘big society’. Drawing on a wide range of examples, Hugh Atkinson argues that local democracy is a vibrant terrain of innovation, civic engagement and participation, and dynamic community activity. The book’s insights will prove invaluable to any students, lecturers and local government officers interested in mapping the shifting terrain of contemporary local governance in England, writes Andrew Wilkins.

Book review: War, Clausewitz and the trinity

Mueller, Ben
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/08/2013 Português
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"War, Clausewitz and the Trinity." Thomas Waldman. Ashgate. February 2013. --- Today, the ideas of Carl von Clausewitz are employed almost ubiquitously in strategic studies, military history and defence literature, but often in a manner which distorts their true meaning. In this book, Thomas Waldman explores Clausewitz’s central theoretical device for understanding war – the ‘remarkable trinity’ of politics, chance and passion. Waldeman displays his formidable scholarly grasp of Clausewitz’s wide-ranging oeuvre, as well as his own talent at depicting it in a gripping, insightful and illuminating manner, writes Ben Mueller.

The logical space of democracy

List, Christian
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Can we design a perfect democratic decision procedure? Condorcet famously observed that majority rule, our paradigmatic democratic procedure, has some desirable properties, but sometimes produces inconsistent outcomes. Revisiting Condorcet’s insights in light of recent work on the aggregation of judgments, I show that there is a conflict between three initially plausible requirements of democracy: “robustness to pluralism,” “basic majoritarianism,” and “collective rationality.” For all but the simplest collective decision problems, no decision procedure meets these three requirements at once; at most two can be met together. This “democratic trilemma” raises the question of which requirement to give up. Since different answers correspond to different views about what matters most in a democracy, the trilemma suggests a map of the “logical space” in which different conceptions of democracy are located. It also sharpens our thinking about other impossibility problems of social choice and how to avoid them, by capturing a core structure many of these problems have in common. More broadly, it raises the idea of “cartography of logical space” in relation to contested political concepts.

Replacing the Human Rights Act with a weaker British Bill of Rights would send a sign to the international community that we are no longer serious about human rights

Wildbore, Helen; Klug, Francesca
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2011 Português
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The prime minister has made clear his intention to ‘repatriate’ human rights jurisdiction back from Europe to the UK. Helen Wildbore and Professor Francesca Klug survey the different currents which are driving the debate for a new UK bill of rights and argue that replacing the Human Rights Act with anything weaker would send a sign to the international community that the UK is not serious about human rights.

Populist and extremist grievance politics: some reflections on policy responses

Saggar, Shamit
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/07/2012 Português
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Shamit Saggar presents ways in which policymakers could identify, then refine, priorities for action in combating far-right populism and extremism. He argues that we should be investing in strategies that help us navigate both the tensions on display, and those festering just beneath surface.

Creating a senior cohousing community in the UK: a case study

Fernández Arrigoitia, Melissa
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Conference or Workshop Item; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
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This poster presents early results of research into the formation of a pioneering co-housing project for the over-50s in London. It sets out our interdisciplinary approach and methods and details facts and emerging analytic points related to our case-study, Featherstone. Given the centrality of participant observation to our research, the poster visualises the group 'in action' in the middle, and contextualises it by identifying (a) sociological, economic and geographical questions related to their formation; (b) emerging field work issues related to its establishment and (b) the actors and networks involved in this specialist housing both in the UK and further afield. Images of the house and the garden are also featured, as these are the material points around which the group are converging and co-designing their desired community.

Individual and collective performance and the tenure of British ministers 1945-1997

Berlinski, Samuel; Dewan, Torun; Dowding, Keith
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2007 Português
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We study the effects of individual and collective ministerial performance on the length of time a minister serves in British government from 1945-97, using the number of resignation calls for a minister as an individual performance indicator and the cumulative number of such calls as an indicator of government performance. Our analysis lends support to a ‘two-strike rule’: ministers facing a second call for their resignation have a significantly higher hazard than those facing their first, irrespective of the performance of the government. A minister’s hazard rate is decreasing in the cumulative number of resignation calls; but conditional on receiving a first resignation call, the hazard rate increases with the number of calls that all government ministers have faced in the past. Our message is that collective ministerial performance is a key determinant of whether a minister survives his first resignation call.

The qualities of leadership: direction, communication, and obfuscation

Dewan, Torun; Myatt, David P.
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2007 Português
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Party activists wish to (i) advocate the best policy and yet (ii) unify behind a common party line. An activist’s understanding of his environment is based on the speeches of party leaders. A leader’s influence, measured by the weight placed on her speech, increases with her judgement on policy (sense of direction) and her ability to convey ideas (clarity of communication). A leader with perfect clarity of communication enjoys greater influence than one with a perfect sense of direction. Activists can choose how much attention to pay to leaders. A necessary condition for a leader to monopolize the agenda is that she is the most coherent communicator. Sometimes leaders attract more attention by obfuscating their messages. A concern for party unity mitigates this incentive; when activists emphasize following the party line, they learn more about their environment.

Leading the party: coordination, direction, and communication

Dewan, Torun; Myatt, David P.
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
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Party activists face a coordination problem: a critical mass (a barrier to coordination) must advocate a single policy alternative if the party is to succeed. The need for direction is the degree to which the merits of the alternatives respond to the underlying mood of the party. An individual’s ability to assess the mood is his sense of direction. These factors combine to form an index of both the desirability and the feasibility of leadership: we call this index Michels’ Ratio. A sovereign party conference gives way to leadership by an individual or oligarchy if and only if Michels’ Ratio is sufficiently high. Leadership enhances the clarity of intra-party communication, but weakens the response of policy choices to the party’s mood.

Majority voting on restricted domains

Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian
Fonte: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2007 Português
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In judgment aggregation, unlike preference aggregation, not much is known about domain restrictions that guarantee consistent majority outcomes. We introduce several conditions on individual judgments su¢ - cient for consistent majority judgments. Some are based on global orders of propositions or individuals, others on local orders, still others not on orders at all. Some generalize classic social-choice-theoretic domain conditions, others have no counterpart. Our most general condition gen- eralizes Sen’s triplewise value-restriction, itself the most general classic condition. We also prove a new characterization theorem: for a large class of domains, if there exists any aggregation function satisfying some democratic conditions, then majority voting is the unique such function. Taken together, our results provide new support for the robustness of majority rule.

Close encounters of an inner Asian kind: Tibetan-Muslim co-existence and conflict in Tibet past and present

Fischer, Andrew Martin
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2005 Português
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Drawing from the case of Tibetan-Muslim relations from seventh century contact to present Tibetan boycott campaigns against Muslims in Northeast Tibet (Amdo), this paper questions the relevance of the mainstream theoretical disputes on ethnic conflict, i.e. primordialism, instrumentalism, constructivism and so forth, all of which primarily seek to identify the primary causes or origins of conflict. Most ethnic conflicts, together with other forms of ethnic co-existence including cooperation, contain elements of all these theoretical perspectives, which is evident in the case of Tibetan-Muslim relations presented here. Therefore, a focus on issues of primary causes or origins is not particularly insightful, nor does it help to explain why a particular conflictive trajectory supersedes a more cooperative trajectory. As an alternative, this paper suggests a focus on processual factors, such as exclusion, inclusion and the impulse for social protection, which shape or guide the evolution of conflictive relationships, whether these be deemed of a primordial or other nature. Accordingly, the commonalities that tie together the trends of modern ethnic conflict are not found in the origins or primary causes of conflict, but rather, in the underlying forces of dislocation and relocation that are fundamental to modern transformations and capitalism...

The Eastern transition to a market economy: a global perspective

Williamson, J.
Fonte: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/1992 Português
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This paper contains the text of a series of public lectures given by Professor Williamson at the LSE on February 24 and 25 1992. Professor Williamson is the first holder of the British Petroleum Professorship, awarded annually to a visiting academic of the highest standing. The lecture covers the failure of socialism, and the design of the subsequent reform programmes. He argues that although with hindsight the transition process could have been handled slightly differently, aborting the transition process because of the problems associated with it is not the answer.

Five minutes with Estonia’s Foreign Minister Urmas Paet: “I think Europe should start voting online”

Gilson, Christopher; Kirchherr, Julian
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/04/2012 Português
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Estonia was the first nation in the world to hold legally binding general elections over the Internet. In an interview with EUROPP editors Chris Gilson and Julian Kirchherr Estonia’s Foreign Minister Urmas Paet recommends e-voting to other Member States of the European Union as well, arguing that it is convenient and increases turnout, particularly among the young.

Peace efforts in Cyprus must involve civil society if there is to be any chance of success where so many others have failed

Ker-Lindsay, James
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2012 Português
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Over the course of five decades, numerous efforts have been undertaken to solve the Cyprus Problem. All have failed. James Ker-Lindsay argues that there is a good case to be made for civil society to play a greater role in the peace process, and that such a bottom-up approach, drawing on a variety of stakeholders, might have more chance of meeting with success than previous efforts.

Entry and asymmetric lobbying: why governments pick losers

Baldwin, Richard E.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
Fonte: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2007 Português
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Governments frequently intervene to support domestic industries, but a surprising amount of this support goes to ailing sectors. We explain this with a lobbying model that allows for entry and sunk costs. Specifically, policy is influenced by pressure groups that incur lobbying expenses to create rents. In expanding industries, entry tends to erode such rents, but in declining industries, sunk costs rule out entry as long as the rents are not too high. This asymmetric appropriability of rents means losers lobby harder. Thus it is not that government policy picks losers, it is that losers pick government policy.

The effective space of party competition

Dunleavy, Patrick; Diwakar, Rekha; Dunleavy, Christopher
Fonte: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2007 Português
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A conventional triangle display recommended by major authors has begun to be widely used for studying the patterning of party scores at constituency level across general elections. We show that it is systematically misleading in several ways and should not be further employed. To replace it we introduce the improved concept of ‘effective competition space’ (ECS) defined as the space of all feasible combinations of party vote shares, given the ‘number of observable parties’ (Nop) (defined as those with 1 per cent support or more). We employ a two-dimensional operationalization of the ECS concept to analyse changes across four Indian general elections, demonstrating that the space defined by the median constituency Nop captures well the variation of results. We also show that the effective competition space can be segmented in ways that respond to the context of each election but also facilitate meaningful comparison across them. We briefly show also how multi-dimensional versions of ECS operate. We conclude that greater attention should be paid to the factors driving changes in the number of observable parties, the key variable determining the size and patterning of effective competition space. More generally, we demonstrate the value of a relativized approach to measuring and comparing patterns across elections. Whenever an index score changes from one election to another...

From doves to hawks: a spatial analysis of voting in the Monetary Policy Committee of the Bank of England, 1997-2007

Hix, Simon; Hoyland, Bjorn; Vivyan, Nick
Fonte: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Government, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2007 Português
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This paper examines the making of UK monetary policy between 1997 and 2007 using an analysis of voting behaviour in the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy Committee (MPC). We use a Bayesian method to estimate the interest rate policy preferences of the MPC members on a ‘dove-hawk’ scale. Then, by comparing the ‘ideal points’ of outgoing members with their successors, we find evidence that MPC composition complements the fiscal policies pursued by the government. The revealed preferences of the MPC members suggest three distinct groups; ‘the doves’, who favour lower interest rates than the median committee member; ‘the centrists’, whose revealed preferences are in line with the median committee member; and ‘the hawks’, who favour higher interest rates than the median committee member. Our analysis suggests that the ‘opposition’ to the centrist group changes from the doves to the hawks as the spending policies of the government ceased to be constrained by the 1997 electoral promise to maintain conservative spending plans.