The rationale for Washington's enduring and often forbearing commitment to Israel has long been a puzzle. During the Cold War it was argued that Israel, a "bastion of democracy" amidst a world of semi-authoritarian and often pro-Soviet states, was a natural ally. But the Cold War is over, and the Arab world awash with oil, a resource that is always in short supply in the US. Yet the American commitment to Israel, a small state that is largely oil free, and of little tangible economic benefit, remains. An alternative view is that the US commitment is underwritten by the Jewish lobby which exercises a disproportionate influence on American policy. Yet the Jews comprise little more than six million out of a total of nearly 300 million people. Even when combined with the influence of Protestant fundamentalists who for largely religious reasons, increasingly support Israel, it is still questionable whether interest group politics could determine American foreign policy to such an extent. Yet irrespective of transitions between Republican and Democratic presidents, bureaucratic support for Israel remains relatively constant indicating that support for Israel is not a product of partisan politics but a given firmly ingrained in the political agenda and discourse. This thesis examines some of the commonplace theories of explanation and finds them wanting. Instead it proposes to explain the American commitment to Israel in terms of a somewhat imprecise and yet still serviceable concept - that of political culture. For reasons that are elaborated in this thesis...
This is a study about political participation and the influence that local contexts have on citizens' participatory habits. The question of why some people participate in politics while others do not has spawned a rich body of research. While varied in its scope and focus, the bulk of the empirical studies of political participation, and indeed the major theoretical accounts of participation, center on individual-level characteristics. Previous research has illustrated the importance of factors such as income, education and other sociodemographic and attitudinal variables in explanations of political participation. However, even after controlling for these, there still exists significant variation in participation across communities. That is, beyond the effect that the characteristics of individuals have on participation, different aspects of the social and political environment in which individuals operate, have an effect on their behavior. In this thesis it is argued that the social and political environment structures incentives for participation in several ways. The institutional and social character of a person's community has a direct effect on their political behavior. Community-level factors also affect political participation indirectly. While there is good evidence that individual-level characteristics in the form of resources...
Profiles are knowledge constructs that represent and identify a data subject. While not a new phenomenon, the use of profiling has exploded and its ubiquity is likely to increase, as a result of the widespread adoption of monitoring technology. The literature on profile development tends to refer to the practice, the technique or the technology of profiling, separately. Little has been written on how the perspectives interact with each other and, ultimately, shape the emerging behaviour profile. In order to map out the elements that impact on behaviour profiling, this thesis uses organisational semiotics, enhanced with classification theory, for key constructs. The study views profilers as agents who interpret and act on available information according to particular sets of technical, formal and informal factors and who, in the presence of incomplete or ambiguous stimuli, may fill in or distort information. Furthermore, the thesis examines how the position of the interpreter in the profiling process influences the result of the exercise. A case study conducted in a British financial institution demonstrates how technical systems and profilers acting in particular contexts influence each other in a dialectical process, whereby the characteristics of the data available impact the analysts' ability to interpret an event and...
This thesis aims to examine the impact of internationalising corporations of peripheral nationstates on their strategic rivalries. Although corporations from an increasing number of peripheral countries have internationalised their operations in the last fifteen years, the implications of this process for their interstate relations and -in particular- their relations with their strategic rivals, have yet to be systematically addressed. The thesis's hypothesis is that in the context of such corporate internationalisation for a state in the semi-periphery, the large-scale acquisition by a domestic firm of a foreign enterprise, reconfigures conceptions of economic nationalism. This is especially the case where the enterprise acquired is located in a state with which there is a longterm and significant foreign policy rivalry. The interests and strategies of key domestic socioeconomic actors are reconfigured within the new nationalism, with incentives to support and sustain such corporate internationalization. This thesis will review the scholarship on New Economic Nationalism which provides the most suitable analytical perspective to evaluate the impact of corporate internationalisation on strategic rivalries. It will also identify the corporate internationalisation process and those of its features that are particular to peripheral countries. It will also examine the challenges posed to its hypothesis by the scholarly debates which liberal institutionalism...
The aim of my thesis is to investigate workers’ reactions to transnational market reform
in a Soviet-era factory in the Republic of Moldova. The thesis finds that there are
varying, blurred responses of contestation and consent to market modernisation in the
context of one factory, the Rezina Cement Plant of Egrafal Group Ltd., one of
Moldova’s first major European transnational-corporate (TNC) private enterprises.
Language plays a critical role in workers’ responses, since language is important to
Egrafal Ltd.’s goal of market integration and capitalist labour reform. However,
corporate language expectations frequently clash with the language that was previously
embedded in Moldova’s industrial workscape. As a result, the thesis argues that workers
adopt, resist or modify factory reforms through what I call linguistic styles or situational
performative modes linked with ideas of modernity, markets and mutuality. The thesis
goes on to argue that employees’ spatial status location in the plant, irrespective of job
skill and income, corresponds to employees’ differing linguistic modalities and differing
tendencies towards protest and accommodation in response to factory restructuring.
Workers in the top strata of the factory’s Administration Building speak multiple
This thesis draws on a synthesis of foreign policy analysis (FPA) and
constructivism in order to demonstrate how post Cold War Mongolia’s relations
with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) can be analysed through a multisectoral
approach to explain the dilemmas that a weak state faces when conducting
its relations with a much more powerful neighbour. It proposes that the dissonance
between Mongolia’s social identity and its structures of governance is the basis for
the Mongolian state’s weakness and that such weakness makes growing economic
dependency on the PRC more difficult to manage. Moreover, the resulting
combination of economic dependency and state weakness seriously limits the
government’s ability to maintain an effective broader foreign policy. The
dissertation draws on government texts, academic and media articles, and
interviews in Mandarin Chinese, Mongolian, and English.
The thesis looks in detail at the nature of Mongolian identity politics by focusing on
identity development over la longue durée. It then demonstrates how the
international community failed to take account of the dynamics of Mongolian
identity politics when it came to assisting the Mongolian government with the
country’s post Cold War transition from communism. This led to an undue reliance
on what can be termed ‘Washington Consensus’ type political and economic
reforms that considerably added to the weakness of the state.
The thesis then focuses on Mongolia’s economic relations with the PRC to show
how such state weakness has resulted in a relationship of growing dependency.
Building on economic dependency theory...
This explorative study investigates how bureaucratic public sector client organisations deal with information technology (ITO) and business process (BPO) outsourcing in terms of internal management. To supplement the lack of studies emphasising pre-existing client organisational structure and the contextual and internal changes intertwined with and required for outsourcing, the thesis develops theoretical underpinnings that incorporate change, time, dynamism and context. These consist of a structuration theory-informed formal organisation perspective and a processual analysis-informed multidimensional outsourcing configuration framework. This thesis primarily seeks answers to 'why' and 'how' questions such as: why bureaucratic client organisations are concerned about IT outsourcing or BPO; in consequence, how they construct or change their strategy, organisational arrangements and outsourcing contracts; and, what are the contexts and social processes that let those constructions go forward? Studied by means of a longitudinal case study approach, with elements of comparison, the two cases are the IT outsourcing of the Public Procurement Service of Korea‘s e-government procurement system and the BPO of the Teachers‘ Pension Scheme administration of the British Department for Children...
Between 1934 and 1936 various organisations of the French left joined forces to create the Popular Front, an alliance borne of an antifascist imperative. After winning the May 1936 legislative elections, and in a climate of growing opposition from conservative and far right forces, the left-wing coalition came to power. By the end of 1938, the Popular Front had collapsed and the right was back in power. During this period (1934-1938), the right and far right repeatedly challenged the left-wing alliance‟s legitimacy and attacked its constituent political parties. This conflict between left and right intensified France‟s political and social tensions and polarised French politics and French society into supporters and opponents of the Popular Front.
This thesis examines the role of the right within the context of the Popular Front and seeks to answer the following question: how did the right act in response to the Popular Front between 1934 and 1938? The thesis focuses on the Moselle, a border département returned to French sovereignty after forty-seven years under German domination (1871-1918). By 1934, the Moselle had developed a distinctive political character sympathetic to the right and hostile, or at best indifferent, to the left. By drawing parallels between Parisian and Mosellan events and using new archival material...
This thesis studies the debates surrounding the grand strategy of United States in the decade after the Cold War. 'Bookended' by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001, it assesses the strategic ideas that were advanced to conceptualise American foreign policy, grouping these thematically under the headings of primacy, neoisolationism and liberal multilateralism. To this end the thesis introduces a neoclassical realist model of grand strategy formation, in which ideas are considered in conjunction with considerations of power in the international system.
The thesis makes the case that the ideas of each strategic school-of-thought reflect both a distinctive theoretical understanding of international relations and a particular tradition in United States foreign policy. Furthermore, it makes the more general structural claim that under conditions of limited threat such as the apparent unipolarity of the post-Cold War years, great power strategies are less determined by the imperatives of international structure and more by the ideas at the domestic level influencing the foreign policy executive. As a result, grand strategy formation becomes highly ideologically contested, and the geopolitical science of strategic assessment and response becomes unpredictable.
The thesis argues that after the Cold War the strategic debate is best understood in conjunction with the contemporaneous idea that the United States held a functionally imperial position in the international system. In the absence of agreed threats...
This thesis offers a philosophical defence of military humanitarian intervention
(MHI). To do so, it develops the ‘other-defensive conception’ of MHI. The other-
defensive conception of MHI draws an analogy between so-called rescue killings in
domestic society and MHI. In a domestic rescue killing, a rescuer defends a victim
against an unjust aggressor. In fact, the thesis argues that the rescuer has a right to
intervene on behalf of the victim. This right is correlated to a negative duty falling
upon the attacker not to resist the intervention. By analogy, a state that is guilty of
committing Atrocity Crimes against those under its rule forfeits its equal sovereign
standing in international society. As a result, an intervening state does not violate
negative duties not to aggress the ‘target’ state. Further, like a rescuer in a domestic
rescue killing, the intervening state is holder of a (moral) right to intervene. The latter
obliges the target state not to resist the intervention. The thesis supports this claim
through two additional arguments. First, it argues that because Atrocity Crimes
constitute grave moral evils, a military response to them is proportionate. Second,
states that commit Atrocity Crimes do not perform their sovereign function of
preserving the peace amongst those under their rule. Accordingly...
State immunity under international law extends to protect some individuals from criminal prosecution before national courts. This thesis aims to identify which individuals are immune from prosecution before the English courts, for what conduct, and for what period. The justifications for immunity are examined, and the extent of immunity ratione personae and immunity ratione materiae are explored.
This thesis argues that immunity ratione personae is only narrowly available to high state officials, and that the immunity accorded, by consent, to special missions is sufficient to cover other official visits.
In Pinochet (No 3) all seven judges agreed:
1. An ex-head of state is immune from prosecution for murder and conspiracy to murder alleged to have been committed in the forum state.
2. All state officials no matter how minor are entitled to continuing immunity
This thesis analyses state practice in arresting or prosecuting foreign state officials, and argues that both of these statements are incorrect. This thesis argues that immunity does not attach to conduct alone, for a person to have continuing immunity ratione materiae they must have had immunity ratione personae. The forum state must have agreed to the official being present on its territory...
This thesis examines the ways in which a deeply entrenched nursing hierarchy is being reconfigured and challenged, and the status of nurses reshaped, in relation to wider political and social processes in the post-apartheid context. Specifically, it offers an ethnographic analysis of nurses working at Bethesda Hospital, a rural government hospital in northern KwaZulu-Natal. It argues that at this moment of liminal uncertainty characterising the current political and social transformation, nurses’ experiences are made meaningful both through a nostalgic reconstruction of the hospital’s missionary past, as well as through idioms that generate opportunities for – and a sense of control over – the future. These are all manifestations of a contemporary post-apartheid moment, yet they are also extensions of longer historical processes. This thesis, therefore, poses important questions about the nature of ‘transition’ in South Africa, and to what extent this has been marked both by rupture and continuity, in the localised context of a rural government hospital and its surrounding area.
The thesis begins with an historical account of Bethesda hospital from its inception in 1937 as a Methodist mission hospital, and its eventual transfer to state control...
This thesis considers how pan-Arab and state identity is reproduced in two ideologically different Arab regimes: Ba'athist Syria and Hashemite Jordan. There are three main contributions to the study of identity and the international relations of the Middle East. Firstly, the thesis re-defines Arabism as a supra-nationalism distinct from Nasser's Arab nationalism. This is reproduced alongside state identity by national governments and is now strengthened by the 'New Arabism' of transnational satellite television. Secondly, the lack of engagement with nationalist theory by scholars of the Middle East is addressed. Modernist theory is used to demonstrate how Syria and Jordan have utilised everyday symbols and mediations to build national communities. Thirdly Michael Billig's Banal Nationalism is established as a key mode of analysis for identity in the Arab world. It contributes to the growing literature on the everyday features of nationalism. The thesis considers the history of nation building in Syria and Jordan before discussing three case studies of how identities are reproduced. First, public images of the leader are shown to be as unnoticed by Syrian and Jordanians as national flags in Western democracies. Alongside other mediations such as public speeches...
The dawning of a new Millennium has encouraged global debate and reflection upon the significance of our past, our present and our future. This period of self-reflection has also coincided with intense uncertainty and reflection within museums, as new technologies and changing approaches towards history and the past have raised profound questions about the very identity and even existence of museums. This thesis explores some of these themes and presents a variety of empirical data on both the construction and reception of museum exhibitions. Underpined by wider theoretical debates about the cultural transmission of ideology, the first part of the thesis draws upon 49 exploratory interviews with a variety of museum staff to unpack the processes determining both the choice of appropriate exhibition topics and the inclusion or exclusion of particular artifacts and perspectives. I argue that a number of developments - such as the growing dominance of commercialism - are impacting upon the treatment of the past by museums in a number of significant and sometimes disturbing ways. The second part of the thesis presents my findings from 200 semi-structured interviews with visitors, which attempted to explore the nature of audience reception within museums. The analysis of this data suggests that...
This thesis analyses Islamic reform as a social process interwoven with apprenticeship, work and learning in shipyards in the port of Mandvi in western India. Those owning shipyards and the ships built in them are engaged in active campaigns of Islamic reform and proselytisation in the town that are intimately related to trade routes and their experiences overseas, especially in the ports of the Gulf States. Assuming that religious reform movements are defined by what they oppose as well as by what they represent the thesis presents an analysis of rhetorical, daily and occasionally violent opposition to Hindus and other Muslims in an ethnographic exploration of David Hume's 'flux and reflux' hypothesis. These oppositions it is argued are products of the historically contextualised biographies of those who patronise the reform process, rather than a random expression of religious identity. The thesis contrasts the social organisation and economic engagements of ship owners with Hindus and other Muslims in order to demonstrate the socially meaningful nature of communal antagonism in the process of religious reform. This exercise is conducted through an exploration of varying conceptions of ethnicity, race, social segmentation, migration...
One of the most significant urban phenomena over the past thirty years has been the rapid, widespread and originally unanticipated growth of informal sector activities. While it is now recognised that such activities have substantially transformed cities across the world, their urban geographies remain under-studied, especially in the fast-changing South and with special reference to planning practice. This thesis addresses this surprisingly large lacuna through a detailed account of the planning for, and survival within, Black Metropolitan Cape Town's informal food distribution system. The discussion shows that, to date, this planning experience has proven profoundly difficult and uneven, notwithstanding the relatively progressive nature of the interventions themselves. Why, exactly. Why has this particular experience been so difficult. More, why has it been so uneven. Where has it succeeded, where has it failed, and in what sense. Finally, what can we learn more generally from these successes and failures. Extant theorisations of informal sector development planning emphasise class, state or land use variables. Rather than argue "against" these variables, this thesis argues "across" them (and others), hypothesizing the importance of the configurations - the spatialities - that dialectically connect various scales of heterogeneous relations. It is not simply that "space matters"; it is that the constitution of how space is actually produced in real places matters. Ultimately...
The purpose of the Thesis is to contribute to our theoretical and empirical understanding of the social dynamics of student mobility and higher education internationalisation in the European Union. Specifically, it examines the social factors influencing students from different EU countries in their choice i) to study in a country other than their own, and ii) select the UK as the place to study abroad. The Thesis approaches student mobility as a social choice and action effecting in the structuration of the European educational space, and the growing rapprochement and closer interaction among European higher education systems, actors, and societies, that is European social integration. The Thesis argues that student mobility and the structuration of the European educational space is a social process relating to systemic factors but also the actions of collective and individual actors, involved in hierarchical games, aimed at increasing some type of capital (economic, political, social, cultural). In a context of mass higher education systems and growing internationalisation of economies, societies, and labour markets new educational hierarchies emerge influencing student educational choices to study abroad. Foreign language competences...
The thesis provides a comprehensive examination of the impact of the 1988 Basel Accord on the capital adequacy regulations of developed economies. The study seeks to understand if the Accord affected broad or isolated convergence of 18 developed states' bank credit risk regulations from 1988 to 2000, and understand what political economic variables influenced levels of regulatory isomorphism. The thesis argues that previous research has failed to effectively address whether the Accord accomplished its "level regulatory playing field" objective by employing small sample sizes. In order to address this lacuna, the thesis creates a quantitative database of developed states' interpretations of the Basel rules. The results indicate that the Accord may have successfully provided a regulatory floor as most states implemented the agreement in some form by 1991. Yet, some persistent distinction remained in the way states implemented the Accord. Second, the thesis aims to understand why convergence emerged among a subset of states, yet not others, by testing a battery of political economic explanations. Statistical tests reveal that initial interpretations of the Accord's provisions were conditioned by the severity of a state's capital adequacy regime prior to 1988. States with weak (severe) pre-Basel capital adequacy regimes tended to implement weak (severe) interpretations of the Accord. Departures from "path dependent" positions resulted mostly from the presence of acute banking crises and the impact of private financial market influences. The qualitative studies of implementation in the United States...
The thesis studies robust methods for estimating location and scatter of multivariate distributions and contributes to the development of some aspects regarding the detection of multiple outliers. A variety of methods have been designed for detecting single point outliers which, when applied to groups of contaminated data, lead to problems of "masking", that is when an outlier appears as a "good" data. Robust high-breakdown estimators overcome the masking effect, also allowing for a high tolerance of "bad" data. The Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) and the Minimum Covariance Determinant estimator (MCD) are the most widely used high-breakdown estimators. The central problem when identifying an anomaly is setting a decision rule. The exact distribution of the MCD and MVE is not known, implying that the diagnostics constructed as a function of these robust estimates have also an unknown distribution. Single point oultiers can be recognized using Mahalanobis distances; multivariate outliers are detected by robust (via MCD and MVE) distances of Mahalanobis type. The thesis obtains the small sample distribution of the first ones in an alternative simpler way than the proof existing in the literature. Furthermore, some empirical evidences show the need of a correction factor to improve the approximation to the expected distribution. Some graphical devices are suggested to enhance the results. One of the limiting aspects of the literature on robustness is the lack of real data applications beside the literature examples. The personal interest in financial subjects has driven the thesis to consider applications in this area. Particular attention is paid to methods for optimal selection of financial portfolios. Mean-Variance portfolio theory selects the assets which maximize the return and minimize the risk of the investment using Maximum Likelihood Estimates (MLE). However...
This thesis is based on eighteen months fieldwork in the Ese Ejja community of Portachuelo, on the lower Beni River, in northern Bolivia. The Ese Ejja are an indigenous Amazonian people of the Tacana linguistic family. The thesis analyses Ese Ejja ideas of alterity and demonstrates that such ideas are the basis for the construction of identity. Alterity must constantly be created and maintained, however, 'others' pose a constant threat and, therefore, difference must also be eliminated through conviviality and procreation. Drawing on socio-cosmological ideas, myth and everyday life experiences, the argument focuses on the Ese Ejja's ambivalent sentiments towards non-indigenous people, who are considered the epitome of otherness. These sentiments are characterised by both fear and avoidance, and, at the same time, by emulation. Vis-a-vis non-indigenous people, the Ese Ejja display a form of self-deprecation, expressed in the statement that they themselves are not 'the true people'. The thesis analyses the relationship between culturally shared and individually held ideas. Among the Ese Ejja, self-deprecation is the dominant discourse, but ideas vary from person to person and they transform over the course of people's lives. And it is through individual and collective transformations that dominant cultural constructs are refashioned and reproduced. Thus...