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Uso de levedura em equinos alimentados com dietas compostas de fenos de diferentes qualidades nutricionais; Use of yeast in equine fed diets with hay with different nutritional qualities

FURTADO, Carlos Eduardo; BARBOZA, Eder Dias; BRANDI, Roberta Ariboni; RIBEIRO, Leonir Bueno; OLIVEIRA, Ana Alix Mendes de Almeida
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do uso de probiótico (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) em dietas para cavalos, utilizaram-se quatro equinos machos com média de 400 kg de peso corporal, em delineamento em quadrado latino 4 õ 4. As dietas foram compostas de concentrado e feno de capim-tifton 85 (de baixa qualidade) ou feno de alfafa (de alta qualidade), com ou sem a adição de levedura. Cada período experimental teve duração de 36 dias, com coleta total de fezes, para determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, e coleta de fezes, para determinação do pH e da microbiologia fecal. A utilização de probiótico não alterou os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes das dietas, com exceção do extrato etéreo. A qualidade nutricional do feno influenciou os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS), da proteína bruta (PB) e do extrato etéreo (EE) apenas no caso das dietas com feno de capim-tifton sem probiótico e com feno de alfafa com probiótico. A utilização de cultura de levedura aumentou a população de Lactobacillus nas fezes dos animais que receberam a dieta com feno de capim-tifton com probiótico. Não houve uso de probiótico na população de Lactobacillus nas dietas com feno de alfafa (de boa qualidade). A população de Streptococcus nas fezes aumentou com suplementação de levedura...

Microbial trophic interactions and mcrA gene expression in monitoring of anaerobic digesters

Alvarado, Alejandra; Montañez-Hernández, Lilia E.; Palacio-Molina, Sandra L.; Oropeza-Navarro, Ricardo; Luévanos-Escareño, Miriam P.; Balagurusamy, Nagamani
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/2014 Português
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biological process where different trophic groups of microorganisms break down biodegradable organic materials in the absence of oxygen. A wide range of AD technologies is being used to convert livestock manure, municipal and industrial wastewaters, and solid organic wastes into biogas. AD gains importance not only because of its relevance in waste treatment but also because of the recovery of carbon in the form of methane, which is a renewable energy and is used to generate electricity and heat. Despite the advances on the engineering and design of new bioreactors for AD, the microbiology component always poses challenges. Microbiology of AD processes is complicated as the efficiency of the process depends on the interactions of various trophic groups involved. Due to the complex interdependence of microbial activities for the functionality of the anaerobic bioreactors, the genetic expression of mcrA, which encodes a key enzyme in methane formation, is proposed as a parameter to monitor the process performance in real time. This review evaluates the current knowledge on microbial groups, their interactions, and their relationship to the performance of anaerobic biodigesters with a focus on using mcrA gene expression as a tool to monitor the process.

Quantitative Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Resistance Detection

Lange, Christoph; Schubert, Sören; Jung, Jette; Kostrzewa, Markus; Sparbier, Katrin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative microorganisms is an increasing health care problem. The rapid detection of such resistance is crucial for starting an early specific therapy and to enable initiation of the required hygiene measures. With continued emphasis on reducing the cost of laboratory testing, only economical/low-cost approaches have a chance of being implemented. During recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been developed to be a standard method in microbiology laboratories for the rapid and cost-efficient identification of microorganisms. Extending the usage of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to the area of resistance testing is an attractive option. Quantitative MALDI-TOF MS using an internal standard facilitates the measurement of the quantity of peptides and small proteins within a spectrum. These quantities correlate to the number of microorganisms and therefore to the growth of a microorganism. The comparison of growth in the presence or absence of an antibiotic allows for analysis of the susceptibility behavior of a strain. Here, we describe a novel method and its application in the analysis of 108 Klebsiella sp. isolates. After 1 h of incubation at a meropenem concentration of 8 μg/ml...

Microbiology and ecology are vitally important to premedical curricula

Smith, Val H.; Rubinstein, Rebecca J.; Park, Serry; Kelly, Libusha; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/07/2015 Português
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Despite the impact of the human microbiome on health, an appreciation of microbial ecology is yet to be translated into mainstream medical training and practice. The human microbiota plays a role in the development of the immune system, in the development and function of the brain, in digestion, and in host defense, and we anticipate that many more functions are yet to be discovered. We argue here that without formal exposure to microbiology and ecology—fields that explore the networks, interactions and dynamics between members of populations of microbes—vitally important links between the human microbiome and health will be overlooked. This educational shortfall has significant downstream effects on patient care and biomedical research, and we provide examples from current research highlighting the influence of the microbiome on human health. We conclude that formally incorporating microbiology and ecology into the premedical curricula is invaluable to the training of future health professionals and critical to the development of novel therapeutics and treatment practices.

7.02 Introduction to Experimental Biology, Fall 2001; Introduction to Experimental Biology

Amon, Angelika; Rich, Alexander; Pardue, Mary Lou; Chess, Andrew; Schneider, Katherine Bacon; Kruzel, Deborah
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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7.02 and 7.021 require simultaneous registration. Application of experimental techniques in biochemistry, microbiology, and cell biology. Emphasizes integrating factual knowledge with understanding the design of experiments and data analysis to prepare the students for research projects. Concurrent registration with 7.03 or 7.05 is recommended. 12 units may be applied to the General Institute Laboratory Requirement. Instruction and practice in written communication provided. From the course home page: Course Description 7.02 is a laboratory course introducing you to experimental techniques in microbiology, biochemistry, and cell biology. 7.02 emphasizes integrating factual knowledge with understanding the design of experiments and data analysis. The course is divided into four modules: Genetics (GEN) Protein Biochemistry (PBC) Recombinant DNA Methods (RDM) Development (DEV) Each model introduces different experimental techniques and approaches. Although the techniques used in these modules may appear different, many of the underlying theoretical concepts are similar. The skills you learn in 7.02 will be very important should you later enter any research environment, or go on to graduate or medical school.

Microbiological studies, principally upon the mollicutes / by Ronald H. Leach.

Leach, Ronald H. (Ronald Hubert)
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 70868 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1994 Português
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Comprises four sections: published research papers; abstracts of major conference presentations; mycoplasmological subject and book reviews; and, academic theses. The published research papers comprising the main basis of the submission predominantly report original findings of laboratory investigations within microbiology dealing with Micobacteria, microbial water requirements, and Mollicutes (mycoplasms).; Thesis (D.Sc.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, 1995; Includes bibliographical references.; 1v. (various pagings) ;; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Genetic diversity and virulence potential of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O113: H21 strains isolated from clinical, environmental, and food sources

Feng, P.C.H.; Delannoy, S.; Lacher, D.W.; dos Santos, L.F.; Beutin, L.; Fach, P.; Rivas, M.; Hartland, E.L.; Paton, A.W.; Guth, B.E.C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains of serotype O113:H21 have caused severe human diseases, but they are unusual in that they do not produce adherence factors coded by the locus of enterocyte effacement. Here, a PCR microarray was used to characterize 65 O113:H21 strains isolated from the environment, food, and clinical infections from various countries. In comparison to the pathogenic strains that were implicated in hemolytic-uremic syndrome in Australia, there were no clear differences between the pathogens and the environmental strains with respect to the 41 genetic markers tested. Furthermore, all of the strains carried only Shiga toxin subtypes associated with human infections, suggesting that the environmental strains have the potential to cause disease. Most of the O113:H21 strains were closely related and belonged in the same clonal group (ST-223), but CRISPR analysis showed a great degree of genetic diversity among the O113:H21 strains.; Peter C. H. Feng, Sabine Delannoy, David W. Lacher, Luis Fernando dos Santos, Lothar Beutin, Patrick Fach, Marta Rivas, Elizabeth L. Hartland, Adrienne W. Paton and Beatriz E. C. Guth; Published ahead of print 23 May 2014

Discovery and Exploration of the Microbial Universe: 1665 to "Modern Times"

Gest, Howard
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recent research has shown that the first observation and published depiction of a microorganism (Mucor) was made by Robert Hooke (1665), whose microscope expertise facilitated the later discovery of bacteria by Antoni v. Leeuwenhoek. In 1835, Agostino Bassi proved that an infectious disease of animals was caused by a microbe. Forty years later, Ferdinand Cohn's research ushered in the age of "modern microbiology," with major contributions from Robert Koch, Martinus Beijerinck, and Sergei Winogradsky. The present essay also highlights a number of subsequent investigators who discovered fundamental aspects of microbial (and virus) growth and biochemical mechanisms. Nowadays, scientists whose research provided the basis of microbial molecular biology are sometimes recognized by single-line entries in textbook tables.

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF MICROBIAL DNA FROM REEF CORALS

Santos, H. F.; Carmo, F. L.; Leite, D. C. A.; Jesus, H. E.; De Carvalho Maalouf, P.; Almeida, C.; Soriano, A. U.; Altomari, D.; Suhett, L.; Volaro, V.; Valoni, E.; Francisco, M.; Vieira, J.; Rocha, R.; Sardinha, B. L.; Mendes, L. B.; Joao, R. R.; Lacava,
Fonte: SOC BRASILEIRA MICROBIOLOGIA; SAO PAULO Publicador: SOC BRASILEIRA MICROBIOLOGIA; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This study aimed to test different protocols for the extraction of microbial DNA from the coral Mussismilia harttii. Four different commercial kits were tested, three of them based on methods for DNA extraction from soil (FastDNA SPIN Kit for soil, MP Bio, PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, MoBio, and ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit, Zymo Research) and one kit for DNA extraction from plants (UltraClean Plant DNA Isolation Kit, MoBio). Five polyps of the same colony of M. harttii were macerated and aliquots were submitted to DNA extraction by the different kits. After extraction, the DNA was quantified and PCR-DGGE was used to study the molecular fingerprint of Bacteria and Eukarya. Among the four kits tested, the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit was the most efficient with respect to the amount of DNA extracted, yielding about three times more DNA than the other kits. Also, we observed a higher number and intensities of DGGE bands for both Bacteria and Eukarya with the same kit. Considering these results, we suggested that the ZR Soil Microbe DNA Kit is the best adapted for the study of the microbial communities of corals.; Brazilian Society of Microbiology; Brazilian Society of Microbiology; CENPES; CENPES; PETROBRAS; Petrobras; Arraial dAjuda Eco Parque; Arraial d'Ajuda Eco Parque; CAPES; CAPES; CNPq [558372209/6]; CNPq; FAPERJ; FAPERJ

Sugarcane Growth Promotion by the Endophytic Bacterium Pantoea agglomerans 33.1

Quecine, M. C.; Araujo, W. L.; Rossetto, P. B.; Ferreira, A.; Tsui, S.; Lacava, P. T.; Mondin, M.; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Pizzirani-kleiner, Aline Aparecida
Fonte: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY; WASHINGTON Publicador: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY; WASHINGTON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The promotion of sugarcane growth by the endophytic Pantoea agglomerans strain 33.1 was studied under gnotobiotic and greenhouse conditions. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain P. agglomerans 33.1: pNKGFP was monitored in vitro in sugarcane plants by microscopy, reisolation, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using qPCR and reisolation 4 and 15 days after inoculation, we observed that GFP-tagged strains reached similar density levels both in the rhizosphere and inside the roots and aerial plant tissues. Microscopic analysis was performed at 5, 10, and 18 days after inoculation. Under greenhouse conditions, P. agglomerans 33.1-inoculated sugarcane plants presented more dry mass 30 days after inoculation. Cross-colonization was confirmed by reisolation of the GFP-tagged strain. These data demonstrate that 33.1:pNKGFP is a superior colonizer of sugarcane due to its ability to colonize a number of different plant parts. The growth promotion observed in colonized plants may be related to the ability of P. agglomerans 33.1 to synthesize indoleacetic acid and solubilize phosphate. Additionally, this strain may trigger chitinase and cellulase production by plant roots, suggesting the induction of a plant defense system. However, levels of indigenous bacterial colonization did not vary between inoculated and noninoculated sugarcane plants under greenhouse conditions...

Estudo microbiológico da influência da adição química de ácido fólico em sistemas de lodos ativados. ; Microbiologic study of activated sludge process with chemical addition of folic acid.

Torres, Danielle Pires de Camargo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/04/2006 Português
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O ácido fólico é uma vitamina essencial a reações do metabolismo e crescimento das células, ao promover a síntese de proteínas para a divisão celular. Segundo pesquisas, a aplicação deste no reator de lodos ativados pode contribuir na otimização do tratamento biológico. A parte experimental deste trabalho foi desenvolvida em duas etapas: bioensaios de respirometria sob condições aeróbias, a fim de avaliar os efeitos da adição de ácido fólico na atividade metabólica da microbiota de lodos ativados; e operação de estação piloto de lodos ativados em batelada, para avaliar a influência do ácido fólico na dinâmica da microfauna e no desempenho geral do tratamento. Nos bioensaios de respirometria destacou-se o consumo de oxigênio diante da adição da maior concentração testada - 4,0 mg/L de ácido fólico, com o consumo de até 78% de oxigênio, enquanto que nos frascos controles o consumo médio foi de 50%. O composto Dosfolat, empregado na concentração 2,5 mg/L, também estimulou a respiração basal da microbiota de lodos estudados, como observado pelo consumo de 100% do oxigênio presente após 24 horas de incubação dos sistemas de respirometria. Nos sistemas de lodos ativados em batelada, o ácido fólico e o composto Dosfolat não exerceram influência na eficiência do tratamento e na produção de lodo excedente. Em relação aos aspectos da microbiologia dos sistemas...

Diferencias microbiológicas en pacientes con exacerbación severa de EPOC con o sin consolidación neumónica

Torres Caro, Maria Cristina
Fonte: Facultad de Medicina Publicador: Facultad de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/12/2012 Português
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La EPOC es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo y su prevalencia en Bogotá alcanza hasta 8,5%. Las exacerbaciones están asociadas a deterioro funcional y de la calidad de vida por lo que se consideran un factor cardinal de la enfermedad. En la literatura se ha descrito que las infecciones por bacterias y/o virus son las responsables del 78% de las exacerbaciones. Estos datos han sido descritos en poblaciones diferentes y no hay datos en la literatura que muestren cual es la epidemiología local de las exacerbaciones de EPOC y menos aún de aquellas que se asocian a consolidaciones neumónicas. Objetivo: Comparar la microbiología de las exacerbaciones severas de la EPOC que requieren ingreso a UCI con y sin infiltrados alveolares. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de corte transversal en el que se estudiaron pacientes con EPOC que ingresaron a la UCI Médica de la FCI-IC por exacerbación severa, asociada o no a infiltrados alveolares. Se tomaron muestras de microbiología, serológicas y radiografía de tórax para evaluar la etiología de la exacerbación, si se asocia a coinfección viral y a consolidación neumónica o no. Resultados: No se encontró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en la microbiología de los diferentes grupos evaluados. Se encontró un resistencia global del 24% y llama la atención que hay una alta prevalencia de Serratia Marcescens AMPc entre los 2 grupos...

Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases

Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Ismail, Salmah; Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Dhabaan, Ghulam N.; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%). There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm's early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections.

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli

O'Hara, Caroline M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2006 Português
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The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min...

How the Microbial World Saved Evolution from the Scylla of Molecular Biology and the Charybdis of the Modern Synthesis

Woese, Carl R.; Goldenfeld, Nigel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
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Summary: In this commentary, we provide a personal overview of the conceptual history of microbiology and molecular biology over the course of the last hundred years, emphasizing the relationship of these fields to the problem of evolution. We argue that despite their apparent success, all three reached an impasse that arose from the influence of dogmatic or overly narrow perspectives. Finally, we describe how recent developments in microbiology are realizing Beijerinck's vision of a field that is fully integrated with molecular biology, microbial ecology, thereby challenging and extending current thinking in evolution.

Minimizing the Workup of Blood Culture Contaminants: Implementation and Evaluation of a Laboratory-Based Algorithm

Richter, S. S.; Beekmann, S. E.; Croco, J. L.; Diekema, D. J.; Koontz, F. P.; Pfaller, M. A.; Doern, G. V.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 Português
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An algorithm was implemented in the clinical microbiology laboratory to assess the clinical significance of organisms that are often considered contaminants (coagulase-negative staphylococci, aerobic and anaerobic diphtheroids, Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp., and viridans group streptococci) when isolated from blood cultures. From 25 August 1999 through 30 April 2000, 12,374 blood cultures were submitted to the University of Iowa Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Potential contaminants were recovered from 495 of 1,040 positive blood cultures. If one or more additional blood cultures were obtained within ±48 h and all were negative, the isolate was considered a contaminant. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of these probable contaminants was not performed unless requested. If no additional blood cultures were submitted or there were additional positive blood cultures (within ±48 h), a pathology resident gathered patient clinical information and made a judgment regarding the isolate's significance. To evaluate the accuracy of these algorithm-based assignments, a nurse epidemiologist in approximately 60% of the cases performed a retrospective chart review. Agreement between the findings of the retrospective chart review and the automatic classification of the isolates with additional negative blood cultures as probable contaminants occurred among 85.8% of 225 isolates. In response to physician requests...

Internet-Accessible DNA Sequence Database for Identifying Fusaria from Human and Animal Infections ▿

O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Sarver, Brice A. J.; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Summerbell, Richard C.; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Zhang, Ning; Aoki, Takayuki; Jung, Kyongyong; Park, Jongsun; Lee
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Because less than one-third of clinically relevant fusaria can be accurately identified to species level using phenotypic data (i.e., morphological species recognition), we constructed a three-locus DNA sequence database to facilitate molecular identification of the 69 Fusarium species associated with human or animal mycoses encountered in clinical microbiology laboratories. The database comprises partial sequences from three nuclear genes: translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α), the largest subunit of RNA polymerase (RPB1), and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (RPB2). These three gene fragments can be amplified by PCR and sequenced using primers that are conserved across the phylogenetic breadth of Fusarium. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined data set reveal that, with the exception of two monotypic lineages, all clinically relevant fusaria are nested in one of eight variously sized and strongly supported species complexes. The monophyletic lineages have been named informally to facilitate communication of an isolate's clade membership and genetic diversity. To identify isolates to the species included within the database, partial DNA sequence data from one or more of the three genes can be used as a BLAST query against the database which is Web accessible at FUSARIUM-ID (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org) and the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS-KNAW) Fungal Biodiversity Center (http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/fusarium). Alternatively...

Historical development of rapid methods and automation in microbiology

Fung, Daniel Y.C.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Rapid methods and automation in microbiology comprise a dynamic area of research and study. The field encompasses a wide variety of subjects in theoretical and applied microbiology. This article traces the major developments of this field since the late 1960s, detailed with dates and locations of major international meetings on the subject as well as listing of major books, proceedings, and articles concerning this topic. The article should be of interest to all scientists who want to know the key development, current status, and possible future trends of the field.

Evidence for Human Norovirus Infection of Dogs in the United Kingdom

Caddy, Sarah L.; de Rougemont, Alexis; Emmott, Edward; El-Attar, Laila; Mitchell, Judy A.; Hollinshead, Michael; Belliot, Gael; Brownlie, Joe; Le Pendu, Jacques; Goodfellow, Ian
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Article; published version
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This is the final published version of the article. It was originally published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (Caddy S, et al., Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2015, 53, 1873-1883, doi:10.1128/JCM.02778-14). The final version is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02778-14; Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, with an estimated 3 million cases per year in the United Kingdom. HuNoVs have recently been isolated from pet dogs in Europe (M. Summa, C.-H. von Bonsdorff, and L. Maunula, J Clin Virol 53:244?247, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2011.12.014), raising concerns about potential zoonotic infections. With 31% of United Kingdom households owning a dog, this could prove to be an important transmission route. To examine this risk, canine tissues were studied for their ability to bind to HuNoV in vitro. In addition, canine stool samples were analyzed for the presence of viral nucleic acid, and canine serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HuNoV antibodies. The results showed that seven different genotypes of HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) can bind to canine gastrointestinal tissue, suggesting that infection is at least theoretically possible. Although HuNoV RNA was not identified in stool samples from 248 dogs...

In vivo characterization of the activation and interaction of the VanR/VanS two-component regulatory system controlling glycopeptide antibiotic resistance in two related Streptomyces species

Novotna, Gabriela Balikova; Kwun, Min Jung; Hong, Hee-Jeon
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Article; accepted version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by the American Society for Microbiology.; The VanR/VanS two-component system is responsible for inducing resistance to glycopeptide antibiotics in various bacteria. We have performed a comparative study of the VanR/VanS systems from two streptomyces strains, Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces toyocaensis, to characterize how the two proteins cooperate for signalling the presence of antibiotics and to define the functional nature of each protein in each strain background. The results indicate that the glycopeptide antibiotic inducer specificity is determined solely by the differences between the amino acid sequences of the VanR/VanS two-component systems present in each strain rather than by any inherent differences in general cell properties, including cell wall structure and biosynthesis. VanRsc functioned with either sensor kinase partner while VanRst only functioned with its cognate partner, VanSst. In contrast to VanRsc which is known to be capable of phosphorylation by acetylphosphate, VanRst could not be activated in vivo independently of a VanS sensor kinase. A series of amino acid sequence modifications changing residues in the N-terminal receiver (REC) domain of VanRst to the corresponding residues present in VanRsc failed to create a protein capable of being activated by VanSsc and suggests that interaction of the response regulator with its cognate sensor kinase may require a more extended region than the REC domain. A T69S amino acid substitution in the REC domain of VanRst produced a strain exhibiting a weak constitutive resistance indicating that this particular amino acid may play a key role for VanS independent phoshphorylation in the response regulator protein.; This work was supported by funding from the Medical Research Council...