Página 15 dos resultados de 2566 itens digitais encontrados em 0.037 segundos

Tavarua : a mobile telemedicine system using WWAN striping

Carlisle, Jennifer (Jennifer Nicole)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 78 p.
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Tavarua is a platform designed to support mobile telemedicine systems over wireless wide area networks, WWANs. It utilizes network striping and other complementary techniques to send uni-directional near real time video and audio data streams from a imobile node to a stationary location. The key technical challenge is transmitting high-bandwidth, loss-sensitive data over multiple low-bandwidth, lossy channels. We overcome these challenges using dynamic adjustment of the encoding parameters and a novel video encoding technique (grid encoding) that minimizes the impact of packet losses. Using five WWAN interfaces, our system reliably and consistently transmits audio and diagnostic quality video, with median PSNR values that range from 33.716dB to 36.670dB, with near real-time latencies. We present a study of the characteristic behavior of WWANs, and a description of our system architecture based in part on the lessons gleaned from that study. Through a set of experiments where we transmit video and audio data from a moving vehicle we evaluate the system, focusing on consistency, reliability, and the quality of the audio and video streams. These experiments demonstrate that we can transmit high quality video and audio in varying conditions and even in the presence of hardware failures.; by Jennifer Carlisle.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

Prior information for brain parcellation

Pohl, Kilian Maria
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 184 p.
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To better understand brain disease, many neuroscientists study anatomical differences between normal and diseased subjects. Frequently, they analyze medical images to locate brain structures influenced by disease. Many of these structures have weakly visible boundaries so that standard image analysis algorithms perform poorly. Instead, neuroscientists rely on manual procedures, which are time consuming and increase risks related to inter- and intra-observer reliability [53]. In order to automate this task, we develop an algorithm that robustly segments brain structures. We model the segmentation problem in a Bayesian framework, which is applicable to a variety of problems. This framework employs anatomical prior information in order to simplify the detection process. In this thesis, we experiment with different types of prior information such as spatial priors, shape models, and trees describing hierarchical anatomical relationships. We pose a maximum a posteriori probability estimation problem to find the optimal solution within our framework. From the estimation problem we derive an instance of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, which uses an initial imperfect estimate to converge to a good approximation.; (cont.) The resulting implementation is tested on a variety of studies...

Toward a social signaling framework : activity and emphasis in speech

Stoltzman, William T
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 70 p.
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Language is not the only form of verbal communication. Loudness, pitch, speaking rate, and other non-linguistic speech features are crucial aspects of human spoken interaction. In this thesis, we separate these speech features into two categories -- vocal Activity and vocal Emphasis -- and propose a framework for classifying high-level social behavior according to those metrics. We present experiments showing that non-linguistic speech analysis alone can account for appreciable portions of social phenomena. We report statistically significant results in measuring the persuasiveness of pitches, the effectiveness of customer service representatives, and the severity of depression. Effect sizes of these studies explain up to 60% of the sample variances and yield binary decision accuracies nearing 90%.; by William T. Stoltzman.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 67-70).

Remote administration and user experience evaluation of the iLab Heat Transfer Project site

Graham, Rodney K
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 60, [26] leaves
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The iLab Heat Transfer Project provides a means for students to remotely execute, via a web interface, experiments related to the topic of heat transfer. The website associated with this project provides instructors with the ability to remotely manage the performance of experiments by their students. This thesis describes improvements made to this website that are intended to grant more control to instructors. Specifically, the website has been augmented to provide remote instructors with complete control over experiment scheduling, user registration, document uploading, and other relevant administrative tasks. The interfaces by which users perform experiments have been modified to incorporate an audio and video feed of the laboratory equipment used in these experiments. In addition, the website has been extended with a feature that facilitates the viewing and analysis of questionnaire responses collected from students. The questionnaire responses provided by students have been examined to gain more knowledge about the effectiveness of various aspects of the website and experiment interfaces.; by Rodney K. Graham.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references.

On-die signal integrity monitoring of gigabit serial I/Os

Moore, Alexander Wyatt
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 leaves
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This thesis describes an embedded undersampling system for capturing analog wave-forms and monitoring signal integrity throughout a signal path. It is intended for use in Gigabit serial products, such as crosspoints and other networking products. Design reuse and simple components were the most important design parameters. The system has a small layout, a simple digital interface, and does not require a separate sample-and--hold circuit. The final system has 15 mV minimum resolution, operates over common-mode logic signals from 1.8V to 1.4V, and accurately captures signals up to 2GHz.; by Alexander Wyatt Moore.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 93-94).

The effects of mechanical ventilation on the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Jia, Xiaoming, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 76 p.
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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a severe lung illness characterized by inflammation and fluid accumulation in the respiratory system. Historically, ARDS and other forms of respiratory failure have been treated using mechanical ventilation to help maintain gas exchange in the lungs. However, clinical investigators are beginning to discover the adverse effects of mechanical ventilation if it is not applied properly. Specifically, excessive ventilator volumes and pressures may exacerbate existing lung injury and increase hospital mortality. Furthermore, aggressive ventilation may cause lung injury and trigger an inflammatory response that is characteristic of ARDS. These findings have alarmed the critical care community, and many studies have been conducted to find mechanical ventilator settings that reduce mortality in patients with ARDS. However, there have been no firm recommendations on the optimal settings for patients who require ventilator therapy for reasons apart from respiratory failure. In this thesis, we retrospectively examine a large medical database (MIMIC-II) to study the relationship between mechanical ventilation and the development of ARDS. Specifically, our goals are to (1) find patients who did not have ARDS at the beginning of mechanical ventilation but who later developed the disease; (2) identify physiologic and ventilator-associated risk factors for ARDS; and (3) develop a text analysis algorithm to automatically extract clinical findings from radiology (chest x-ray) reports. Our findings suggest that acute respiratory distress syndrome is a relatively common illness in patients who require mechanical ventilation in the ICU (152 of 789 without ARDS at the outset eventually developed the disease).; (cont.) High plateau pressure (odds ratio 1.5 per 6.3 cmH20...

A network development and runtime environment for StarLogo TNG

Jackman, John Daniel, III
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 44 leaves
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StarLogo: The Next Generation aims to introduce students to programming. The StarLogo application is frequently used in a classroom setting, but the effectiveness of StarLogo is limited as long as students cannot interact with each other using the application. This thesis describes the design and implementation of a networked development and runtime environment for StarLogo. Hopefully, students will become more interested in programming when they can collaborate to create and run StarLogo programs. In addition, teachers will have more options available when choosing classroom activities using StarLogo.; by John Daniel Jackman, III.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 44).

Frequency translation method for low frequency variable gain amplification and filtering

Feng, Mabel Y
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 78 leaves
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This thesis discusses an innovative solution to an industry challenge. A frequency translation method is designed to shift low frequency signals to intermediate frequencies in order to utilize higher-frequency components. This solution, appropriate for applications involving 1-10MHz signals, can provide continuously variable gain and filtering at little cost in dynamic performance. The working system converts the low frequency signals up to the 70MHz band to achieve up to 28dB attenuation and 60-86MHz variable filtering. A Single Side Band system has a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 71dB with a 73dB SNR Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), 44 dB Output Third-Order Intercept Point (OIP3), and a Noise Figure (NF) of 14dB. Ultrasound and other applications in the 1-10MHz range benefit greatly from this upconversion scheme.; by Mabel Y. Feng.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 75-78).

FITSL : a language for directed exploration and analysis of sequence data; Language for directed exploration and analysis of sequence data

Mumpower, Eric J. P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 84 p.
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This thesis describes a sequence-data processing toolkit for analysis of Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) log data, that unlike other tools allows directed exploration of sequence patterns. This system provides a powerful yet straightforward abstraction for sequence-data processing, and a set of high-level manipulation primitives which allow arbitrarily complex transformations of such data. Using this language, very sophisticated queries can be performed using only a few lines of code. Furthermore, queries can be constructed interactively, allowing for rapid development, refinement, and comparison of hypotheses. Importantly, this system is not limited to ITS logs, but is equally applicable to the manipulation of any form of (potentially multidimensional) sequence data.; by Eric J.P. Mumpower.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 81-84).

IntuiSec : a framework for intuitive user interaction with security in the smart home; Framework for intuitive user interaction with security in the smart home

Shakhshir, Saad Zafer
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.
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This thesis presents IntuiSec, a framework for intuitive user interaction with Smart Home security. The design approach of IntuiSec is to introduce a layer of indirection between user-level intent and the system-level security infrastructure. This layer is implemented by a collection of distributed middleware and user-level tools. It encapsulates system-level security events and exposes only concepts and real-world metaphors that are intuitive to non-expert users. It also translates user intent to the appropriate system-level security actions. The IntuiSec framework presents the user with intuitive steps for setting up a secure home network, establishing trusted relationships between devices, and granting temporal, selective access for both home occupants and visitors to devices within the home. The middleware exposes APIs that allow other applications to present the user with meaningful visualizations of security-related parameters and concepts. I present the IntuiSec system design and an example proof-of-concept implementation, which demonstrates the user experience and provides more insight into the framework.; by Saad Safer Shakhshir.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science...

Quasi-orthogonal wideband radar waveforms based on chaotic systems

Willsey, Matt (Matt S.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.
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With the development of A/D converters possessing sufficiently high sampling rates, it is now feasible to use arbitrary, wideband waveforms in radar applications. Large sets of quasi-orthogonal, wideband waveforms can be generated so that multiple radars can simultaneously operate in the same frequency band. Each individual radar receiver can process its own return as well as the orthogonal returns from the other radars, which opens the possibility for developing algorithms that combine data from multiple radar channels. Due to the random nature of chaotic signals, it is possible to develop a procedure for generating large sets (> 50) of quasi-orthogonal radar waveforms using deterministic chaos. Deterministic chaos is defined as a bounded, aperiodic flow with a sensitive dependence on initial conditions. There are many different types of chaotic systems. In this thesis, waveforms will be generated from the well-studied Lorenz system. Each waveform from the Lorenz system can be fully characterized by three parameters (o, b, and r) and a set of initial conditions, (xo, yo, zo). The particular parameter values greatly affect quality of the Lorenz waveform as quasi-orthogonal radar waveform. Therefore, this thesis conducts a parameter study to quantify how the parameters affect various radar waveform metrics. Additionally...

Spatial filter performance on point-target detection in various clutter conditions using visible images; Spatial filter performance on various clutter conditions

Hwang, Susan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 88 p.
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For a search-and-track system, detection of point targets in clutter is a challenge because spatial noise in an image can be much greater than temporal noise. Suppression of clutter uses a spatial filter matched to the target size. The goal of filtering is to reduce the spatial noise to the temporal noise limit. In this thesis, the detection performances of the Laplacian, Median, Robinson and Mexican Hat spatial filters were compared to determine the best filter and unveil trends in the dataset. The sky images were collected on top of the Lincoln Laboratory roof in Lexington, Massachusetts with a visible imager (1024x1024 pixels, 170 and 15prad resolution) over three months, seven times a day, fifty frames each time. Artificial targets of a range of intensities near the temporal noise limit were embedded throughout the entirety of the images to be filtered. After filtering, the performance of the filters was calculated using the Neyman-Pearson Detection method that was implemented with MATLAB. The Laplacian filter was found to be the best performing filter over the entire dataset with the other three filters performing almost as well, only averaging 5 percent to 9 percent worse than the leading filter. Trends in the dataset show that performance is also dependent on time of the day (e.g. morning...

A comparative approach to the implementation of drug pedigree discovery systems

Yu, Indy (Indy Yin)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 70 p.
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As the use of RFID technology penetrates and reforms the supply-chain industry, standards are being produced at all levels of the RFID technology spectrum, ranging from hardware to software. The Electronic Product Code (EPC) standard uniquely identifies RFID-tagged products. An application that supports the usage of EPCs is an Electronic Drug Pedigree (E-Pedigree), which is a historical record that indicates the chain of custody of a particular drug product being passed from one supply-chain partner to another. In order to fully implement track-and-trace of pharmaceutical products, software systems need to be built so that pedigree documents can be effectively stored and searched. In this Thesis, two approaches that address the issue of pedigree document discovery are presented-one centralized, one decentralized. The centralized pedigree discovery service extracts metadata from pedigree documents submitted to a centralized server and uses them in a search engine, such as Google Base, to located desired documents that match client queries. The decentralized service allows pedigree documents to be stored locally by individual business owners. Each local server is attached to a Discovery Service Unit containing metadata of local pedigree documents...

Enabling tools for biological analysis : technologies for the study of protein dynamics, detection and interaction; Technologies for the study of protein dynamics, detection and interaction

Anwar, Moshiur Mekhail
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (207 leaves)
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The study of proteins in biological systems requires a comprehensive approach: investigating dynamics, interaction and identification. This thesis will examine several technological approaches we have developed to address these needs. To enable the study of the dynamics of biological systems, we have developed a method for using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image motion on an angstrom scale with microsecond time resolution. As proteins move, diffuse, or are actively trafficked within the cellular environment, they interact with other biological molecules. Protein microarrays offer a high-throughput method of investigating these protein interactions, but their use has largely been hindered by the need to clone and purify thousands of proteins. We have developed a novel technique to pattern proteome-scale microarrays using a cellular lysate, whereby all relevant proteins are synthesized with the correct post-translational modifications. Additionally, we have integrated the identification of proteins with quantitative mass spectrometry (SILAC). Using these arrays we have probed changes in the phosphorylation state of cells in response to activation of the Erb1 and Erb2 receptors. Using our microarray platform we were able to further probe the phosphoproteome for proteins that have multiple post-translational modifications. The widespread use of protein...

Transport enhancement techniques for nanoscale MOSFETs

Khakifirooz, Ali
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 183 p.
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Over the past two decades, intrinsic MOSFET delay has been scaled commensurate with the scaling of the dimensions. To extend this historical trend in the future, careful analysis of what determines the transistor performance is required. In this work, a new delay metric is first introduced that better captures the interplay of the main technology parameters, and employed to study the historical trends of the performance scaling and to quantify the requirements for the continuous increase of the performance in the future. It is shown that the carrier velocity in the channel has been the main driver for the improved transistor performance with scaling. A roadmapping exercise is presented and it is shown that new channel materials are needed to lever carrier velocity beyond what is achieved with uniaxially strained silicon, along with dramatic reduction in the device parasitics. Such innovations are needed as early as the 32-nm node to avoid the otherwise counter-scaling of the performance. The prospects and limitations of various approaches that are being pursued to increase the carrier velocity and thereby the transistor performance are then explored. After introducing the basics of the transport in nanoscale MOSFETs, the impact of channel material and strain configuration on electron and hole transport are examined. Uniaixal tensile strain in silicon is shown to be very promising to enhance electron transport as long as higher strain levels can be exerted on the device. Calculations and analysis in this work demonstrate that in uniaxially strained silicon...

Decentralized detection in resource-limited sensor network architectures

Tay, Wee Peng
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 207 leaves
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We consider the problem of decentralized binary detection in a network consisting of a large number of nodes arranged as a tree of bounded height. We show that the error probability decays exponentially fast with the number of nodes under both a Neyman-Pearson criterion and a Bayesian criterion, and provide bounds for the optimal error exponent. Furthermore, we show that under the Neyman-Pearson criterion, the optimal error exponent is often the same as that corresponding to a parallel configuration, implying that a large network can be designed to operate efficiently without significantly affecting the detection performance. We provide sufficient, as well as necessary, conditions for this to happen. For those networks satisfying the sufficient conditions, we propose a simple strategy that nearly achieves the optimal error exponent, and in which all non-leaf nodes need only send 1-bit messages. We also investigate the impact of node failures and unreliable communications on the detection performance. Node failures are modeled by a Galton-Watson branching process, and binary symmetric channels are assumed for the case of unreliable communications. We characterize the asymptotically optimal detection performance, develop simple strategies that nearly achieve the optimal performance...

Lower bounds in distributed computing

Fan, Rui, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 p.
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Distributed computing is the study of achieving cooperative behavior between independent computing processes with possibly conflicting goals. Distributed computing is ubiquitous in the Internet, wireless networks, multi-core and multi-processor computers, teams of mobile robots, etc. In this thesis, we study two fundamental distributed computing problems, clock synchronization and mutual exclusion. Our contributions are as follows. 1. We introduce the gradient clock synchronization (GCS) problem. As in traditional clock synchronization, a group of nodes in a bounded delay communication network try to synchronize their logical clocks, by reading their hardware clocks and exchanging messages. We say the distance between two nodes is the uncertainty in message delay between the nodes, and we say the clock skew between the nodes is their difference in logical clock values. GCS studies clock skew as a function of distance. We show that surprisingly, every clock synchronization algorithm exhibits some execution in which two nodes at distance one apart have Q( lo~gD clock skew, where D is the maximum distance between any pair of nodes. 2. We present an energy efficient and fault tolerant clock synchronization algorithm suitable for wireless networks. The algorithm synchronizes nodes to each other...

Labeling, discovering, and detecting objects in images

Russell, Bryan Christopher, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.
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Recognizing the many objects that comprise our visual world is a difficult task. Confounding factors, such as intra-class object variation, clutter, pose, lighting, dealing with never-before seen objects, scale, and lack of visual experience often fool existing recognition systems. In this thesis, we explore three issues that address a few of these factors: the importance of labeled image databases for recognition, the ability to discover object categories from simply looking at many images, and the use of large labeled image databases to efficiently detect objects embedded in scenes. For each of the issues above, we will need to cope with large collections of images. We begin by introducing LabelMe, a large labeled image database collected from users via a web annotation tool. The users of the annotation tool provided information about the identity, location, and extent of objects in images. Through this effort, we have collected about 160,000 images and 200,000 object labels to date. We show that the database spans more object categories and scenes and offers a wider range of appearance variation than most other labeled databases for object recognition. We also provide four useful extensions of the database: (i) resolving synonym ambiguities that arise in the object labels...

Bridging the gap : an optimization-based framework for fast, simultaneous circuit & system design space exploration

Sredojević, Ranko Radovin.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 p.
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Design of modern mixed signal integrated circuits is becoming increasingly difficult. Continued MOSFET scaling is approaching the global power dissipation limits while increasing transistor variability, thus requiring careful allocation of power and area resources to achieve increasingly more aggressive performance specifications. In this tightly constrained environment traditional iterative system-to-circuit redesign loop, is becoming inefficient. With complex system architectures and circuit specifications approaching technological limits of the process employed, the designers have less room to margin for the overhead of strict system and circuit design interdependencies. Severely constrained modern mixed IC design can take many iterations to converge in such a design flow. This is an expensive and time consuming process. The situation is particularly acute in high-speed links. As an important building block of many systems (high speed I/O, on-chip communication, ...) power efficiency and area footprint are of utmost importance. Design of these systems is challenging in both system and circuit domain. On one hand system architectures are becoming increasingly complex to provide necessary performance increase. On the other, circuit implementation of these increasingly complicated systems is difficult to achieve under tight power and area budget. To bridge this gap between system and circuit design...

On the synthesis of switched output feedback controllers for linear, time-invariant systems

Santarelli, Keith R. (Keith Robert), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 193 p.
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The theory of switching systems has seen many advances in the past decade. Its beginnings were founded primarily due to the physical limitations in devices to implement control such as relays, but today there exists a strong interest in the development of switching systems where switching is introduced as a means of increasing performance. With the newer set of problems that arise from this viewpoint comes the need for many new tools for analysis and design. Analysis tools which include, for instance, the celebrated work on multiple Lyapunov functions are extensive. Tools for the design of switched systems also exist, but, in many cases, the method of designing stabilizing switching laws is often a separate process from the method which is used to determine the set of vector fields between which switching takes place. For instance, one typical method of designing switching controllers for linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems is to first design a set of stabilizing LTI controllers using standard LTI methods, and then design a switching law to increase performance. While such design algorithms can lead to increases in performance, they often impose restrictions that do not allow the designer to take full advantage of the switching architecture being considered.; (cont.) For instance...