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Avian Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Initiated by the Interaction of a Distinct Pre-S Subdomain with the Cellular Receptor gp180

Urban, Stephan; Breiner, Klaus M.; Fehler, Frank; Klingmüller, Ursula; Schaller, Heinz
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 Português
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Functionally relevant hepadnavirus-cell surface interactions were investigated with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) animal model by using an in vitro infection competition assay. Recombinant DHBV pre-S polypeptides, produced in Escherichia coli, were shown to inhibit DHBV infection in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that monomeric pre-S chains were capable of interfering with virus-receptor interaction. Particle-associated pre-S was, however, 30-fold more active, suggesting that cooperative interactions enhance particle binding. An 85-amino-acid pre-S sequence, spanning about half of the DHBV pre-S chain, was characterized by deletion analysis as essential for maximal inhibition. Pre-S polypeptides from heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV) competed DHBV infection equally well despite a 50% difference in amino acid sequence and a much-reduced infectivity of HHBV for duck hepatocytes. These observations are taken to indicate (i) that the functionality of the DHBV pre-S subdomain, which interacts with the cellular receptor, is determined predominantly by a defined three-dimensional structure rather than by primary sequence elements; (ii) that cellular uptake of hepadnaviruses is a multistep process involving more than a single cellular receptor component; and (iii) that gp180...

Interaction of Theiler’s Virus with Intermediate Filaments of Infected Cells

Nédellec, Patrick; Vicart, Patrick; Laurent-Winter, Christine; Martinat, Cécile; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Brahic, Michel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 Português
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Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus is a neurotropic murine picornavirus which replicates permissively and causes a cytopathic effect in the BHK-21 cell line. We examined the interactions between the GDVII and DA strains of Theiler’s virus and BHK-21 host cell proteins in a virus overlay assay. We observed binding of the virions to two proteins of approximately 60 kDa. These proteins were microsequenced and identified as desmin and vimentin, two main components of the intermediate filament network. The association between desmin or vimentin and virions was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. Anti-desmin and anti-vimentin monoclonal antibodies precipitated GDVII or DA virions from extracts of infected BHK-21 cells. The intracellular distributions of virions and of the desmin and vimentin intermediate filaments of BHK-21 cells were investigated by two-color immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Following infection, the intermediate filament network was rearranged into a shell-like structure which surrounded a viral inclusion. Finally, close contact between GDVII virus particles and 10-nm intermediate filaments was observed by electron microscopy.

Vaccinia Virus Envelope H3L Protein Binds to Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate and Is Important for Intracellular Mature Virion Morphogenesis and Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

Lin, Chi-Long; Chung, Che-Sheng; Heine, Hans G.; Chang, Wen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2000 Português
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An immunodominant antigen, p35, is expressed on the envelope of intracellular mature virions (IMV) of vaccinia virus. p35 is encoded by the viral late gene H3L, but its role in the virus life cycle is not known. This report demonstrates that soluble H3L protein binds to heparan sulfate on the cell surface and competes with the binding of vaccinia virus, indicating a role for H3L protein in IMV adsorption to mammalian cells. A mutant virus defective in expression of H3L (H3L−) was constructed; the mutant virus has a small plaque phenotype and 10-fold lower IMV and extracellular enveloped virion titers than the wild-type virus. Virion morphogenesis is severely blocked and intermediate viral structures such as viral factories and crescents accumulate in cells infected with the H3L− mutant virus. IMV from the H3L− mutant virus are somewhat altered and less infectious than wild-type virions. However, cells infected by the mutant virus form multinucleated syncytia after low pH treatment, suggesting that H3L protein is not required for cell fusion. Mice inoculated intranasally with wild-type virus show high mortality and severe weight loss, whereas mice infected with H3L− mutant virus survive and recover faster, indicating that inactivation of the H3L gene attenuates virus virulence in vivo. In summary...

Possible Interactions between the NS-1 Protein and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Pathways in Erythroid Cell Apoptosis Induced by Human Parvovirus B19

Sol, N.; Le Junter, J.; Vassias, I.; Freyssinier, J. M.; Thomas, A.; Prigent, A. F.; Rudkin, B. B.; Fichelson, S.; Morinet, F.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1999 Português
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Human erythroid progenitor cells are the main target cells of the human parvovirus B19 (B19), and B19 infection induces a transient erythroid aplastic crisis. Several authors have reported that the nonstructural protein 1 (NS-1) encoded by this virus has a cytotoxic effect, but the underlying mechanism of NS-1-induced primary erythroid cell death is still not clear. In human erythroid progenitor cells, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to apoptosis after natural infection of these cells by the B19 virus. The cytotoxicity of NS-1 was concomitantly evaluated in transfected erythroid cells. B19 infection and NS-1 expression induced DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis, and the commitment of erythroid cells to undergo apoptosis was combined with their accumulation in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Since B19- and NS-1-induced apoptosis was inhibited by caspase 3, 6, and 8 inhibitors, and substantial caspase 3, 6, and 8 activities were induced by NS-1 expression, there may have been interactions between NS-1 and the apoptotic pathways of the death receptors tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 and Fas. Our results suggest that Fas-FasL interaction was not involved in NS-1- or B19-induced apoptosis in erythroid cells. In contrast...

Binding of Recombinant Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Surface Glycoprotein to Feline Cells: Role of CXCR4, Cell-Surface Heparans, and an Unidentified Non-CXCR4 Receptor

de Parseval, Aymeric; Elder, John H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 Português
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To address the role of CXCR4 in the cell-surface attachment of the feline immunodeficency virus (FIV), a soluble fusion protein, gp95-Fc, consisting of the surface glycoprotein (SU, gp95) of either a primary (PPR) or cell line-adapted (34TF10) FIV strain was fused in frame with the Fc domain of human immunoglobulin G1. The recombinant SU-immunoadhesins were used as probes to investigate the cellular binding of FIV SU. In agreement with the host cell range properties of both viruses, binding of 34TF10 gp95-Fc was observed for all cell lines tested, whereas PPR gp95-Fc bound only to primary feline T cells. 34TF10 gp95-Fc also bound to Jurkat and HeLa cells, consistent with the ability of FIV to use human CXCR4 as a fusion receptor. As expected, 34TF10 gp95-Fc binding to Jurkat cells was blocked by addition of stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α), as was binding to the 3201 feline lymphoma cell line. However, SDF-1α, RANTES, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, and heparin all failed to inhibit the binding of either gp95-Fc to primary T cells, suggesting that a non-CXCR4 receptor is involved in the binding of FIV SU. In this regard, an unidentified 40-kDa protein species from the surface of primary T cells but not Jurkat and 3201 cells specifically coprecipitated with both gp95-Fc. Yet another type of binding of 34TF10 gp95-Fc to adherent kidney cells was noted. SDF-1α failed to block the binding of 34TF10 gp95-Fc to either HeLa...

Selective Translation of Eukaryotic mRNAs: Functional Molecular Analysis of GRSF-1, a Positive Regulator of Influenza Virus Protein Synthesis

Kash, John C.; Cunningham, Dawn M.; Smit, Maria W.; Park, Youngwoo; Fritz, David; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Katze, Michael G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2002 Português
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To understand the regulation of cap-dependent translation initiation mediated by specific 5′ untranslated region (UTR) RNA-protein interactions in mammalian cells, we have studied the selective translation of influenza virus mRNAs. Previous work has shown that the host cell mRNA binding protein guanine-rich sequence factor 1 (GRSF-1) bound specifically to conserved viral 5′ UTR sequences and stimulated translation of viral 5′ UTR-driven mRNAs in vitro. In the present study, we have characterized the functional domains of GRSF-1 and mapped the RNA binding activity of GRSF-1 to RRM 2 (amino acids 194 to 275) with amino-terminal deletion glutathione S-transferase (GST)-GRSF-1 proteins. When these mutants were assayed for functional activity in vitro, deletion of an Ala-rich region (Δ[2-94]) appeared to diminish translational stimulation, while deletion of the Ala-rich region in addition to RRM 1 (Δ[2-194]) resulted in a 4-fold increase in translational activation over wild-type GRSF-1 (an overall 20-fold increase in activity). We have also mapped the GRSF-1 RNA binding site on influenza virus NP and NS1 5′ UTRs, which was determined to be the sequence AGGGU. With polysome fractionation and cDNA microarray analysis, we have identified cellular and viral mRNAs containing putative GRSF-1 binding sites that were transcriptionally up-regulated and selectively recruited to polyribosomes following influenza virus infection. Taken together...

Cell Proteins TIA-1 and TIAR Interact with the 3′ Stem-Loop of the West Nile Virus Complementary Minus-Strand RNA and Facilitate Virus Replication

Li, W.; Li, Y.; Kedersha, N.; Anderson, P.; Emara, M.; Swiderek, K. M.; Moreno, G. T.; Brinton, M. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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It was reported previously that four baby hamster kidney (BHK) proteins with molecular masses of 108, 60, 50, and 42 kDa bind specifically to the 3′-terminal stem-loop of the West Nile virus minus-stand RNA [WNV 3′(−) SL RNA] (P. Y. Shi, W. Li, and M. A. Brinton, J. Virol. 70:6278-6287, 1996). In this study, p42 was purified using an RNA affinity column and identified as TIAR by peptide sequencing. A 42-kDa UV-cross-linked viral RNA-cell protein complex formed in BHK cytoplasmic extracts incubated with the WNV 3′(−) SL RNA was immunoprecipitated by anti-TIAR antibody. Both TIAR and the closely related protein TIA-1 are members of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) family of RNA binding proteins. TIA-1 also binds to the WNV 3′(−) SL RNA. The specificity of these viral RNA-cell protein interactions was demonstrated using recombinant proteins in competition gel mobility shift assays. The binding site for the WNV 3′(−) SL RNA was mapped to RRM2 on both TIAR and TIA-1. However, the dissociation constant (Kd) for the interaction between TIAR RRM2 and the WNV 3′(−) SL RNA was 1.5 × 10−8, while that for TIA-1 RRM2 was 1.12 × 10−7. WNV growth was less efficient in murine TIAR knockout cell lines than in control cells. This effect was not observed for two other types of RNA viruses or two types of DNA viruses. Reconstitution of the TIAR knockout cells with TIAR increased the efficiency of WNV growth...

Statin Compounds Reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Preventing the Interaction between Virion-Associated Host Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 and Its Natural Cell Surface Ligand LFA-1

Giguère, Jean-François; Tremblay, Michel J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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A variety of host factors, including membrane proteins acquired by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), play a dominant role in HIV-1 adsorption onto host cells. Examples include the integrin intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which, once acquired by HIV-1, promotes virus infectivity via ligation to LFA-1. We tested the ability of statins to diminish HIV-1 replication, based on the idea that these compounds have been shown to block ICAM-1-LFA-1 interactions. Our data indicate that statins diminish HIV-1 attachment to target cells by suppressing ICAM-1-LFA-1 interactions. The capacity of statins to limit the initial steps in virus replication could represent an interesting approach for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

ICP0 Gene Expression Is a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Apoptotic Trigger

Sanfilippo, Christine M.; Blaho, John A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 Português
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Apoptosis is a highly regulated programmed cell death process which is activated during normal development and by various stimuli, such as viral infection, which disturb cellular metabolism and physiology. That herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces apoptosis but then prevents its killing of infected cells is well-established. However, little is known about the viral factor/event which triggers the apoptotic process. We previously reported that infections with either (i) a temperature-sensitive virus at its nonpermissive temperature which does not inject viral DNA into nuclei or (ii) various UV-inactivated wild-type viruses do not result in the induction of apoptosis (C. M. Sanfilippo, F. N. W. Chirimuuta, and J. A. Blaho, J. Virol. 78:224-239, 2004). This indicates that virus receptor binding/attachment to cells, membrane fusion, virion disassembly/tegument dispersal, virion RNAs, and capsid translocation to nuclei are not responsible for induction and implicates viral immediate-early (IE) gene expression in the process. Here, we systematically evaluated the contribution of each IE gene to the stimulation of apoptosis. Using a series of viruses individually deleted for α27, α4, and α22, we determined that these genes are not required for apoptosis induction but rather that their products play roles in its prevention...

Vaccinia Virus B1R Kinase Interacts with JIP1 and Modulates c-Jun-Dependent Signaling

Santos, Claudio R.; Blanco, Sandra; Sevilla, Ana; Lazo, Pedro A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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Viruses have to adjust to the host cell to guarantee their life cycle and survival. This aspect of the virus-host cell interaction is probably performed by viral proteins, such as serine-threonine kinases, that are present early during infection. Vaccinia virus has an early Ser-Thr kinase, B1R, which, although required for successful viral infection, is poorly characterized regarding its effects on cellular proteins, and thus, its potential contribution to pathogenesis is not known. Signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is mediated by the assembly of complexes between these kinases and the JIP scaffold proteins. To understand how vaccinia virus B1R can affect the host, its roles in the cellular signaling by MAPK complexes and c-Jun activation have been studied. Independently of its kinase activity, B1R can interact with the central region of the JIP1 scaffold protein. The B1R-JIP1 complex increases the amount of MAPK bound to JIP1; thus, MKK7 and TAK1 either bind with higher affinity or bind more stably to JIP1, while there is an increase in the phosphorylation state of JNK bound to JIP1. The functional consequence of these more stable interactions is an increase in the activity of transcription factors, such as c-Jun...

Identification of Linear Heparin-Binding Peptides Derived from Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Glycoprotein That Inhibit Infectivity▿

Crim, Roberta L.; Audet, Susette A.; Feldman, Steven A.; Mostowski, Howard S.; Beeler, Judy A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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It has been shown previously that the fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-F) interacts with cellular heparan sulfate. Synthetic overlapping peptides derived from the F-protein sequence of RSV subtype A (strain A2) were tested for their ability to bind heparin using heparin-agarose affinity chromatography (HAAC). This evaluation identified 15 peptides representing eight linear heparin-binding domains (HBDs) located within F1 and F2 and spanning the protease cleavage activation site. All peptides bound to Vero and A549 cells, and binding was inhibited by soluble heparins and diminished by either enzymatic treatment to remove cell surface glycosaminoglycans or by treatment with sodium chlorate to decrease cellular sulfation. RSV-F HBD peptides were less likely to bind to glycosaminoglycan-deficient CHO-745 cells than parental CHO-K1 cells that express these molecules. Three RSV-F HBD peptides (F16, F26, and F55) inhibited virus infectivity; two of these peptides (F16 and F55) inhibited binding of virus to Vero cells, while the third (F26) did not. These studies provided evidence that two of the linear HBDs mapped by peptides F16 and F55 may mediate one of the first steps in the attachment of virus to cells while the third...

Cell-to-Cell Spread of Borna Disease Virus Proceeds in the Absence of the Virus Primary Receptor and Furin-Mediated Processing of the Virus Surface Glycoprotein▿

Clemente, Roberto; de la Torre, Juan C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Borna disease virus (BDV) is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented negative-strand RNA genome whose organization is characteristic of Mononegavirales. BDV cell entry follows a receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway, which is initiated by the recognition of an as-yet-unidentified receptor at the cell surface by the virus glycoprotein G. BDV G is synthesized as a precursor (GPC) that is cleaved by the cellular protease furin to produce the mature glycoproteins GP1 and GP2, which have been implicated in receptor recognition and pH-dependent fusion events, respectively. BDV is highly neurotropic and its spread in cultured cells proceeds in the absence of detectable extracellular virus or syncytium formation. BDV spread has been proposed to be strictly dependent on the expression and correct processing of BDV G. Here we present evidence that cell-to-cell spread of BDV required neither the expression of cellular receptors involved in virus primary infection, nor the furin-mediated processing of BDV G. We also show that in furin-deficient cells, the release of BDV particles induced by the treatment of BDV-infected cells with hypertonic buffer was not significantly affected, while virion infectivity was dramatically impaired, correlating with the decreased incorporation of BDV G species into viral particles. These findings support the view that the propagation of BDV within the central nervous systems of infected hosts involves both a primary infection that follows a receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway and a subsequent cell-to-cell spread that is independent of the expression of the primary receptor and does not require the processing of BDV G into GP1 and GP2.

An Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Variant Superinfects Cells through Novel Receptor Interactions ▿

Brindley, Melinda A.; Zhang, Baoshan; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Maury, Wendy
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Wild-type strains of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) prevent superinfection of previously infected cells. A variant strain of virus that spontaneously arose during passage, EIAVvMA-1c, can circumvent this mechanism in some cells, such as equine dermis (ED) cells, but not in others, such as equine endothelial cells. EIAVvMA-1c superinfection of ED cells results in a buildup of unintegrated viral DNA and rapid killing of the cell monolayer. Here, we examined the mechanism of resistance that is used by EIAV to prevent superinfection and explored the means by which EIAVvMA-1c overcomes this restriction. We found that the cellular receptor used by EIAV, equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1), remains on the surface of cells chronically infected with EIAV, suggesting that wild-type EIAV interferes with superinfection by masking ELR1. The addition of soluble wild-type SU protein to the medium during infection blocked infection by wild-type strains of virus, implicating SU as the viral protein responsible for interfering with virion entry into previously infected cells. Additionally, interference of wild-type EIAV binding to ELR1 by the addition of either anti-ELR1 antibodies or the ELR1 ectodomain prevented entry of the wild-type strains of EIAV into two permissive cell populations. Many of these same interference treatments prevented EIAVvMA-1c infection of endothelial cells but only modestly affected the ability of EIAVvMA-1c to enter and kill previously infected ED cells. These findings indicate that EIAVvMA-1c retains the ability to use ELR1 for entry and suggest that this virus can interact with an additional...

Important but Differential Roles for Actin in Trafficking of Epstein-Barr Virus in B Cells and Epithelial Cells

Valencia, Sarah M.; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2012 Português
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses different virus and cell proteins to enter its two major targets, B lymphocytes and epithelial cells. The routes that the virus takes into the two cell types are also different. To determine if these differences extend to movement from the cell surface to the nucleus, we examined the fate of incoming virus. Essentially all virus that entered a B cell remained stable for at least 8 h. In contrast, up to 80% of virus entering an epithelial cell was degraded in a compartment sensitive to inhibitors of components involved in autophagy. Inhibitors of actin remodeling blocked entry into a B cell but had no effect or enhanced entry into an epithelial cell. Inhibitors of the microtubule network reduced intracellular transport in both cell types, but movement to the nucleus in an epithelial cell also required involvement of the actin cytoskeleton. Deletion of the cytoplasmic tail of CR2, which in an epithelial cell interacts with the actin nucleator FHOS/FHOD when cross-linked by EBV, had no effect on infection. However, inhibitors of downstream signaling by integrins reduced intracellular transport. Cooperation of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, possibly activated by interaction with integrin binding proteins in the envelope of EBV...

Orchid Fleck Virus Structural Proteins N and P Form Intranuclear Viroplasm-Like Structures in the Absence of Viral Infection

Kondo, Hideki; Chiba, Sotaro; Andika, Ida Bagus; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Tamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Nobuhiro
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Orchid fleck virus (OFV) has a unique two-segmented negative-sense RNA genome that resembles that of plant nucleorhabdoviruses. In infected plant cells, OFV and nucleorhabdoviruses induce an intranuclear electron-lucent viroplasm that is believed to be the site for virus replication. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which OFV viroplasms are produced in vivo. Among OFV-encoded proteins, the nucleocapsid protein (N) and the putative phosphoprotein (P) were present in nuclear fractions of OFV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Transient coexpression of N and P, in the absence of virus infection, was shown to be sufficient for formation of an intranuclear viroplasm-like structure in plant cells. When expressed independently as a fluorescent protein fusion product in uninfected plant cells, N protein accumulated throughout the cell, while P protein accumulated in the nucleus. However, the N protein, when coexpressed with P, was recruited to a subnuclear region to induce a large viroplasm-like focus. Deletion and substitution mutagenesis demonstrated that the P protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Artificial nuclear targeting of the N-protein mutant was insufficient for formation of viroplasm-like structures in the absence of P. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed interactions between the N and P proteins within subnuclear viroplasm-like foci and interactions of two of the N. benthamiana importin-α homologues with the P protein but not with the N protein. Taken together...

Phenylalanine Residues at the Carboxyl Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL20 Membrane Protein Regulate Cytoplasmic Virion Envelopment and Infectious Virus Production

Charles, Anu-Susan; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Jambunathan, Nithya; Subramanian, Ramesh; Mottram, Peter; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2014 Português
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The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL20 gene encodes a 222-amino-acid nonglycosylated envelope protein which forms a complex with viral glycoprotein K (gK) that functions in virion envelopment, egress, and virus-induced cell fusion. To investigate the role of the carboxyl terminus of the UL20 protein (UL20p) in cytoplasmic virion envelopment, a cadre of mutant viruses was constructed and characterized. The deletion of six amino acids from the carboxyl terminus of UL20p caused an approximately 1-log reduction in infectious virus production compared to that of the wild-type virus. Surprisingly, a phenylalanine-to-alanine replacement at amino acid position 210 caused a gain-of-function phenotype, increasing infectious virus production up to 1 log more than in the wild-type virus. In contrast, the replacement of two membrane-proximal phenylalanines with alanines caused drastic inhibition of infectious virion production and cytoplasmic virion envelopment. Prediction of the membrane topology of UL20p revealed that these two amino acid changes cause retraction of the carboxyl terminus of UL20p from the intracellular space. Confocal microscopy revealed that none of the engineered UL20 mutations affected intracellular transport of UL20p to trans-Golgi network membranes. In addition...

Epstein-Barr Virus BamHI-A Rightward Transcript-Encoded RPMS Protein Interacts with the CBF1-Associated Corepressor CIR To Negatively Regulate the Activity of EBNA2 and NotchIC

Zhang, Jinxia; Chen, Honglin; Weinmaster, Gerry; Hayward, S. Diane
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 Português
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BamHI-A rightward transcripts (BARTs) are expressed in all EBV-associated tumors as well as in latently infected B cells in vivo and cultured B-cell lines. One of the BART family transcripts contains an open reading frame, RPMS1, that encodes a nuclear protein termed RPMS. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that BART transcripts with the splicing pattern that generates the RPMS1 open reading frame are commonly expressed in EBV-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines and are also detected in Hodgkin's disease tissues. Experiments undertaken to determine the function of RPMS revealed that RPMS interacts with both CBF1 and components of the CBF1-associated corepressor complex. RPMS interaction with CBF1 was demonstrated in a glutathione S-transferase (GST) affinity assay and by the ability of RPMS to alter the intracellular localization of a mutant CBF1. A Gal4-RPMS fusion protein mediated transcriptional repression, suggesting an additional interaction between RPMS and corepressor proteins. GST affinity assays revealed interaction between RPMS and the corepressor Sin3A and CIR. The RPMS-CIR interaction was further substantiated in mammalian two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and colocalization experiments. RPMS has been shown to interfere with NotchIC and EBNA2 activation of CBF1-containing promoters in reporter assays. Consistent with this function...

Interactions of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus with Soluble Bovine αVβ3 and αVβ6 Integrins

Duque, Hernando; LaRocco, Michael; Golde, William T.; Baxt, Barry
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2004 Português
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At least four members of the integrin family of receptors, αVβ1, αVβ3, αVβ6, and αVβ8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro. Our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (H. Duque and B. Baxt, J. Virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). To further examine these differences, we generated soluble αVβ3 and αVβ6 integrins. cDNA plasmids encoding the individual complete integrin αV, β3, and β6 subunits were used to amplify sequences encoding the subunits' signal peptide and ectodomain, resulting in subunits lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. COS-1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the soluble αV subunit and either the soluble β3 or β6 subunit and labeled with [35S]methionine-cysteine. Complete subunit heterodimeric integrins were secreted into the medium, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. For the examination of the integrins' biological activities, stable cell lines producing the soluble integrins were generated in HEK 293A cells. In the presence of divalent cations...

Survey of Transcript Expression in Rainbow Trout Leukocytes Reveals a Major Contribution of Interferon-Responsive Genes in the Early Response to a Rhabdovirus Infection

O'Farrell, Caroline; Vaghefi, Nikta; Cantonnet, Monique; Buteau, Bénédicte; Boudinot, Pierre; Benmansour, Abdenour
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2002 Português
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Virus infections induce changes in the expression of host cell genes. A global knowledge of these modifications should help to better understand the virus/host cell interactions. To obtain a more comprehensive view of the rainbow trout response to a viral infection, we used the subtractive suppressive hybridization methodology in the viral hemorrhagic septicemia model of infection. We infected rainbow trout leukocytes with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and total RNA from infected and mock-infected cells was compared at 40 h postinfection. Twenty-four virus-induced genes were ultimately retrieved from the subtracted cDNA library, and their differential expression was further confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analysis. Among these sequences, three were already described as VHSV-induced genes. Eight sequences with known homologs were extended to full-length cDNA using 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and they were subsequently divided into three functional subsets. Four genes were homologous to mammalian interferon responsive genes, three were similar to chemo-attractant molecules (CXC chemokine, galectin), and two had nucleic acid binding domains. All of the virus-induced genes were also induced by rainbow trout interferon...

A Quantitative Affinity-Profiling System That Reveals Distinct CD4/CCR5 Usage Patterns among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Strains ▿

Johnston, Samantha. H.; Lobritz, Michael A.; Nguyen, Sandra; Lassen, Kara; Delair, Shirley; Posta, Filippo; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Arts, Eric J.; Chou, Tom; Lee, Benhur
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The affinity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope for CD4 and CCR5 appears to be associated with aspects of R5 virus (virus using the CCR5 coreceptor) pathogenicity. However, entry efficiency results from complex interactions between the viral envelope glycoprotein and both CD4 and CCR5, which limits attempts to correlate viral pathogenicity with surrogate measures of envelope CD4 and CCR5 affinities. Here, we present a system that provides a quantitative and comprehensive characterization of viral entry efficiency as a direct interdependent function of both CD4 and CCR5 levels. This receptor affinity profiling system also revealed heretofore unappreciated complexities underlying CD4/CCR5 usage. We first developed a dually inducible cell line in which CD4 and CCR5 could be simultaneously and independently regulated within a physiologic range of surface expression. Infection by multiple HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus isolates could be examined simultaneously for up to 48 different combinations of CD4/CCR5 expression levels, resulting in a distinct usage pattern for each virus. Thus, each virus generated a unique three-dimensional surface plot in which viral infectivity varied as a function of both CD4 and CCR5 expression. From this functional form...