Página 15 dos resultados de 103911 itens digitais encontrados em 0.024 segundos

Harmonising international capital adequacy standards for securities firms: Explaining the contours of authority in the EU and IOSCO negotiations.

Kurz, Richard William
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis investigates the sources, structure, and exercise of authority and influence in international policy-formation. It does this by examining two contemporaneous negotiations to harmonise securities firm capital adequacy standards, the European Union's successful adoption of regional standards and the International Organization of Securities Commission's failed effort to adopt international standards. The thesis examines the accuracy of state and non-state centric hypotheses in explaining the outcomes of the negotiations. It also proposes a synthetic analysis of empirical findings, which identifies and assesses interactions between observations drawn from state and non-state centric approaches, to develop new perspectives on authority and influence in policy formation. The thesis argues that international policy-making authority ultimately resided with state actors and institutions. Policy-making was informed by the interaction of state and non-state preferences. Rarely, however, were non-state preferences translated, unaltered, into policy. The case studies demonstrated that international policy-making authority and influence extended beyond state actors, but that states retained their autonomy and sovereignty in policy formation. 1 This thesis finds that non-state-centric approaches are analytically superior to state-centric perspectives. But synthetic analysis of state and non-state centric empirical observations goes even further...

European Union foreign policy and the Middle East peace process: 1991-2002.

Musu, Costanza
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis analyses European Union foreign policy towards the Middle East peace process in the years between 1991-2002: it examines in which measure disagreement has characterised relations among Member States in the context of the formulation of a European Middle East policy, and if it's possible to detect a trend towards the attainment of a broadly speaking "European perception" of the Arab-Israeli problem and of the policy Europe should adopt. The question at the heart of the thesis is: why has the EU spent so much time on Middle East policy, to so little effect. A set of possible answers has been tested: o due to the failure in reaching a sufficiently convergent approach among EU members o the EU lacks the relevant levers and instruments to affect the Middle East peace process o strategic US interests in the Middle East and the dynamics of EU-US relations have relegated the EU to a secondary role in the Middle East peace process The thesis argues that Member States' policy differences are being watered down through the practice of discussions aimed at the elaboration of a common European foreign policy, but that at the same time the Member States have only occasionally been able to identify common interests in a number sufficient to encourage the implementation of a collective European policy...

After the offence: The construction of crime and its consequences by families of serious offenders.

Condry, Rachel Frances
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis examines the experiences of relatives of those accused or convicted of serious offences such as murder, manslaughter, rape and sex offences. Relatives' accounts focus on the discovery of the offence as traumatic and life-changing, comparable in many ways to bereavement. Accounts of life before this point polarised and were either problem-identifying or normalising. Participants passed through several stages after discovering the offence as they began to feel they were coping and as the criminal justice process progressed. Responsibilities within the family were renegotiated and new responsibilities emerged which particularly revolved around the offender and his or her needs. Female relatives, and primarily mothers and wives, tended to take on these new tasks. Relatives experience secondary stigma because of their kin relationship to a serious offender, but this is more than just a stigma by association. Relatives are themselves subject to a 'web of shame' on the basis of contamination and blame. The thesis explores the accounts that relatives construct about the offence and about their own actions. When accounting for the offence, relatives were found to use 'actor adjustments' and 'act adjustments' of various types. Many participants were searching around for reasons and trying to understand why the offence had happened; formulating these accounts was part of that process. The thesis considers why relatives use self-help and what it offers. It is argued that self-help provides a 'collective narrative' for understanding experience which relatives use as a resource along with other sources to understand their circumstances. Most participants in the research were female...

Sources of financial fragility: The role of debt management.

Falcetti, Elisabetta
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The main aim of this thesis is to investigate from both a theoretical and empirical point of view how debt management may affect the choice of the monetary and exchange rate regimes and ultimately influence the stability of financial systems. The thesis is organised as follows. In Chapter 1, we develop a simple theoretical model to analyse how the choice of the maturity and denomination of public debt instruments affects the choice of the optimal monetary target. We then compare debt management to alternative institutional mechanism designs and find that delegation of monetary policy to an independent central banker is a better solution to inflationary temptations than the issuance of foreign or indexed debt. Chapter 2 extends the analysis and shows that foreign currency debt may reduce the probability of a collapse of a fixed exchange rate regime. However, conditional on a currency crisis, countries with larger shares of foreign currency debt tend to experience sharper devaluations. Econometric results referring to the countries adhering to the Exchange Rate Mechanism of the European Monetary System from 1979 to 1995 confirm these theoretical findings. In the second part of the thesis we look at the sources of financial vulnerability in a sample of emerging and developing countries from 1970 to 1997. In Chapter 3...

Governing the shipyards: Europeanisation and the German shipbuilding industry.

Seevaratnam, Vijayakala
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis examines processes of Europeanisation in the German shipbuilding industry between 1980 and 2002. In particular, it analyses the impact of European Union (EU) shipbuilding policy on German shipbuilding policy and German public and private actors. The thesis argues that the specific salient features of the shipbuilding industry are decisive in explaining what drives Europeanisation in the German shipbuilding industry in terms of the response of private actors. Their reaction to EU policy is inextricably linked to that of the public actors. Accordingly, the thesis highlights the interactive nature of the Europeanisation processes with which domestic public and private actors are involved. Thus, it argues that the analysis of 'EU action' and 'German reaction' in the field of shipbuilding needs to consider the impact of German public actors' responses to EU shipbuilding policy on those of domestic private actors, and vice versa. The response of German public actors - the Federal and Land governments - is analysed in terms of German shipbuilding policy content and institutional developments. German shipbuilding policy is shown to meet and exceed EU shipbuilding policy requirements. The impact of EU shipbuilding policy on private actors - German shipbuilding firms and the German shipbuilding association - is explored in terms of their interest representation activities and the shipbuilding projects for which they seek state support. German shipbuilding firms look increasingly to the EU as the channel through which to air their concerns and further their interests. Such a response is based on the realisation that the EU is able to secure benefits that the domestic governments cannot provide. Empirical analysis also shows that German shipbuilding firms have engaged in shipbuilding projects of the type encouraged by EU policy. This thesis suggests that Europeanisation processes are contingent and differentiated and due attention should be paid to various sets of domestic actors.

The development of communication between the government, the media and the people in Britain, 1945-51.

Moore, Martin
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis will argue that 1945-51 was a seminal period in the development of communication between the Government, the media and the people in Britain. The Attlee Government was the first British Government to fully engage with the dilemma of how a Government communicates with its citizens to sustain a credible democracy. To do this it established the modern machinery of Government communication and used the mass media extensively. Its experience, and in particular the crises it faced during its two terms in office, caused it to shift away from an idealistic vision of helping to develop an informed electorate towards the pragmatic use of information as a means of persuasion and a tool for engineering consent. The period laid the framework, in other words, of modern information management. In order to demonstrate this the thesis will show how the Government's attitudes changed over its period in office, and how its approach towards communication altered. It will start by examining how and why the Government established the machinery of communication in 1945. It will then seek to explain why the Government's relationship with the Press deteriorated so far and so fast, and with what consequences. It will try to demonstrate that there was the genuine possibility of radical reform of the Press and that it is important to understand why this did not happen. The thesis will go on to consider the closeness of the Government-BBC relationship after the war and how that closeness seriously damaged the credibility of the Corporation's monopoly. It will assess the Government's major experiment in film-making and why it found it so difficult to use film as a means of informing the public. And...

Why do Korean firms invest in the EU? Evidence from FDI in the peripheral regions.

Hwang, Ki-Sik
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis examines the question of why the Korean electronics firms invest in the EU. It applies conventional OLI (Ownership-Location-Internalisation) paradigm of Dunning to explain the motivations of Korean investment in the EU. The main questions in this thesis are: What are the nature of competitive Ownership (O) advantages of Korean firms and Location (L) advantages of the EU. And how do both O and L advantages affect Korean firms' decision to invest. This thesis raises questions about the 'reverse investment theory' and refutes the basic logic of this theory (e.g., no clear O advantages of Korean firms, high labour costs of the EU, and advanced technology access as the main investment motivation). It mainly argues that some 'cost saving factors' (such as low labour costs, various types of grants and ability to source low-cost components from Korean suppliers) in the EU have been major determinants for Korean firms in the EU. In other words, low production cost is one of the most important location advantages that needs to be provided in order for Korean consumer electronics Chaebols in the EU to keep their competitive ownership advantages. Therefore, EU peripheral regions have satisfied the requirements for Korean electronics investors by offering relatively low labour cost and various investment subsidies...

People and tigers: An anthropological study of the Sundarbans of West Bengal, India.

Jalais, Annu
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis examines how Sundarbans islanders living in the southern reclaimed islands of the Bengal delta both think about and 'interact with' the man-eating tigers of the region. The thesis classifies three broad occupational groups - forest workers, prawn collectors, and landowners - and discusses how they use different understandings of the tiger to draw distinctions between each other. It argues that the islanders' interactions with tigers articulate both social practices and understandings of the social, and that attitudes to the forest/land opposition divide people into the distinct groups of bhadralok and gramer lok. These interactions are discussed in connection with people's relation to their environment. The environment is understood both as a set of narratives - about humans and tigers sharing a cantankerous nature because of a harsh geography and of a common history of displacement - and as a practical experience - of working in the forest as crab, fish or honey collectors, especially by opposition to landowning cultivators. The thesis also looks at environmentalists' perceptions of the Sundarbans as 'tiger-land' and the repercussions of such an image on state policies for the region's people. This is undertaken through a discussion of how the portrayal of the Sundarbans as a wildlife area means that the Sundarbans inhabitants' demand for a more equal allocation of resources between them and tigers is not seen as legitimate by outsiders. Thus this thesis...

Theory and practice of civil society in Nigeria.

Obadare, Ebenezer Babatunde
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
What does the idea of civil society suggest in Nigeria? What does actually existing civil society look like. How do the notion(s) and reality of civil society in Nigeria relate to postulations in both global and indigenous literatures. These are the three critical problems that this thesis investigates. While the global literature variously denies, misunderstands, and ultimately misrepresents the reality of civil society in Nigeria, the Nigerian literature tends to perpetuate the same misrepresentation by uncritically apotheosising it. This study corrects the misapprehension in the two categories of analysis by attempting to show civil society in Nigeria in all its conceptual and actual complexity. In the process, significant insights into the nature of civil society, the state, and the market in Nigeria are generated. At the core of the thesis are two in-depth case studies which seek to exemplify the moral and thematic ambivalence of the idea of civil society in Nigeria. While one case study, an analysis of citizens' mass boycott of mobile phone services, shows up the 'civil' dimension of civil society, the other, an investigation of the protest spawned by the Miss World 2002 beauty pageant, exposes its 'uncivil' aspect. Drawing on these scenarios...

Church, state, and political culture in Greece since 1974: Secularisation, democratisation, westernisation.

Moskoff, Hercules
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis explores the relationship between religion and politics in contemporary (post-1974) Greece, and the implications of this relationship for the secularisation, democratisation, and westernisation of Greek society. In Part One, the thesis uses an institutional and historical analysis of Church-State relations to explain how tensions and contradictions rooted in earlier historical experiences have paved the way for relations between Church, State, and political culture since 1974. Part Two presents three case studies of contemporary Church- related movements that have affected both relations between Church and State and today's Greek political culture generally. Overall, the thesis will explore the major connections between the Greek-Orthodox Church and the political establishment, and determine to what degree they are affecting the process of modernisation. The main problems highlighted are: (a) the secularisation of Greek society and politics, and the ability of the Greek-Orthodox Church to resist or influence this process, especially within the context of the secularising policies of the government, Church-State separation, the contemporary resurgence of religion in public life; (b) the implications of Church-State separation for the democratisation process in Greece. The role of Orthodoxy in Greek politics is explored with the focus on foreign affairs...

State-corporate social development in South Africa: The role of the state in advancing corporate social engagement.

Segel, Kim Rael
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
The contemporary South African state seeks to ensure economic growth and global competitiveness whilst simultaneously redressing apartheid legacies. These are its twin imperatives to effect social and economic transformation. This thesis advances the framework of State-Corporate Social Development (SCSD) to describe and explain policies developed by the post-apartheid government to regulate the social and economic practices of business, and policies adopted by businesses in response. The thesis explores state-market dynamics as these relate to policies promoting black economic empowerment (BEE) in South Africa. Against this broad policy rubric, the research explores, within a wider nexus of stakeholder relationships, the interactions between business and government with reference to two sectors: investment companies and tourism. Extensive legislative and institutional mechanisms have been established to ensure a business environment conducive to government's political agenda. A key driver is the imperative to accelerate the integration of black South Africans into the economic mainstream through BEE policies. The state uses multiple levers to offer incentive or apply sanction. It is shown that the state, as a major consumer of goods and services...

The role of management accounting within the development of environmental management systems.

Holt, Andrew Derek
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis describes the role played by management accounting in environmental management initiatives within UK manufacturing operations. According to many authors, management accounting has the potential to contribute towards the generation and management of environmental information by modifying, developing and extending its practices and techniques towards an 'environment-related' form of accounting. However, there is little existing evidence of the widespread involvement of management accounting within UK environmental management. UK manufacturing organizations are generating internal information flows specifically targeted towards dealing with 'environmental'-induced uncertainty, and are also developing environmental management systems (EMS) to reduce their impact on the natural environment. Empirical research to date indicates that such 'environmental' information differs in its generation, uses and level of integration with traditional management information systems, such as management accounting. This thesis adds to this existing knowledge by contributing case study evidence of the role of management accounting within environmental management at three manufacturing sites in the UK. In order to explore the role of management accounting within corporate 'greening'...

The production of ambition: The making of a Baltic business elite.

Timm, Anja
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This dissertation comments on the current period of intense social change in the former Soviet Union by charting processes of elite production at a business school in Riga, Latvia. It is concerned with an ethnically diverse group of students from the Baltic states who attend a Swedish institution established to accelerate the transition. I suggest that rather than producing 'catalysts of change' the business school represents a foreign-direct-investment into human capital. The thesis tackles the transnational complexities of the organisation by combining ethnographic description with an analysis of the historical and ideological shifts in international relations and a review of the anthropological literature on socialism. The thesis also responds to the lack of anthropological research on elites by presenting the first ethnographic study of a business school. It investigates elite schooling practices and parameters through an engagement with the debates on reproduction in education. In Riga an off-the-peg curriculum sidelines issues specifically concerned with the Baltic context; instead of addressing local problems students are increasingly drawn towards transnational corporations. During their attendance they partially develop their own agenda...

Democratisation and the prevention of violent conflict in south eastern Europe: The cases of Bulgaria and Republic of Macedonia.

Engstrom, Jenny Marika
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis critically examines the common notion that the process of democratisation in multiethnic societies is directly linked with the emergence of ethnic nationalism and violent inter-communal conflict. Whereas generally assuming a positive relationship between democracy and the absence of violent conflict on the national as well as international level, academic studies maintain that this positive correlation does not apply to the actual process of democratisation, which, it is thought, may heighten interethnic tension and increase the risk of armed conflict in divided societies. Exposing the flaws in this argument, this thesis offers an alternative account of the relationship between democratisation and interethnic relations, suggesting that the former can in fact help to prevent violent conflict in societies divided along ethnic lines. Drawing on literature from democratisation theory and peace and conflict studies, and applying it to two case studies, Bulgaria and the Republic of Macedonia, this thesis shows that the development of democracy - albeit flawed - helped to moderate inter-communal tension between the ethnic Bulgarian majority and the Turkish minority in Bulgaria, and the ethnic Macedonian and Albanian communities in Macedonia. Comparing the experiences of Bulgaria and Macedonia in the 1990s...

The functioning and dysfunctioning of NGOs in transitional China: Change and continuity in state-society relations.

Lu, Yiyi
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
Despite the rapid development of NGOs in China in the last two decades and the growing interest in them in both academic and policy circles, research on Chinese NGOs has suffered from a lack of both detailed qualitative data and sophisticated analytical frameworks. The present thesis is an attempt to address both gaps in existing research. It draws on a large amount of information generated by in-depth case studies of NGOs, and it replaces the state-versus-society dichotomous framework that has underpinned most existing studies of Chinese NGOs with a new approach that disaggregates both the "state" and "society" and emphasizes their inter-penetration. The thesis challenges a number of existing analyses of Chinese NGOs. Contrary to common belief that Chinese NGOs lack autonomy from the state, it argues that many of them have in fact enjoyed a remarkable degree of de facto autonomy. Whilst Chinese NGOs are widely perceived as lacking many basic skills that urgently need to be developed by means of organizational capacity building programmes, the thesis suggests that many NGOs already possess sophisticated skills which may be different from those taught by standard NGO training programmes but which are well suited to the specific institutional context of transitional China. The thesis looks at how Chinese NGOs operate in this context and examines the key factors that have limited their usefulness both as service providers and as advocates for vulnerable and disadvantaged members of society. It concludes with some reflections on the evolution of state-society relations in post-reform China as revealed by this study of NGOs. It summarizes change and continuity in state-society relations in the notion of dependent autonomy. This means that social forces have gained substantial autonomy from the state...

Inventories in general equilibrium dynamics.

Shibayama, Katsuyuki
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis analyses inventories empirically and theoretically. Inventories are important in miderstanding business cycles, not only because inventory investment accounts for a large share of GDP growth rate. This thesis also emphasises the cyclicality of inventories. Often, business cycles are regarded as exponential decays, i.e., successive deviations from the steady state and their returning processes. In contrast, this thesis offers a battery of evidence that economic variables, such as sales and inventories, follow damping oscillations, i.e., stable sine waves. This means that a boom is the seed of the recession that follows, and vice versa. This thesis also reveals inventories' role in such endogenous cycles. The first chapter presents empirical evidence of periodicity. VAR estimations find evidence of sine waves - namely, complex roots. Indeed, the detected complex roots seem to capture the actual business cycles; the estimated lengths of one business cycle are close to those of the post-war average in both Japan and the United States. This chapter also shows that peaks and bottoms of inventories lag behind those of production; such a time lag is called a phase shift. In addition, this chapter finds that the U.S. Federal Reserve anticipates inventory cycles...

On the non-linear dynamics of financial market risk and liquidity.

Reusch, Christian
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis provides a novel empirical treatment of the dynamics of financial market risk and liquidity, two very important areas both for financial research as well as to practitioners in the financial markets: We devise empirical non-linear time series models of the two concepts that specifically take into account 'explosive', self-reinforcing dynamic patterns. While 'conventional' empirical models are often 'linear' and tend to neglect these effects, real-life evidence such as e.g. the 1987 crash, the large stock market drops on February 27th, 2007 or the huge losses posted by investment banks and hedge funds during July and August 2007, suggest that such an approach is warranted: In the first part of the thesis we extend a time series model of Value-at-Risk (VaR) with non-linear multiplicative features and endogenous regime thresholds. When estimated with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method against real data, the resulting 'Self- Exciting Threshold CAViaR' (Conditional Autoregressive Value-at- Risk) model is able to detect trigger thresholds for explosive market risk as well as the scale of such a possible expansion in risk. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to the 'Conditional Autoregressive Liquidity' (CARL) model...

Changing ethics of consumption in Hungary.

Pellandini-Simanyi, Lena
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
The thesis looks at changing everyday normative distinctions between consumption practices in three generations of Hungarian families and explores the ethical and practical beliefs that these distinctions are based on. It builds on the one hand on material culture studies, Miller's work in particular, which sees consumption as a realm objectifying relationships and cosmologies. On the other hand it takes up Slater's argument that different notions of needs mediate normative visions of how to live; hence people's diverse definitions of needs have to be taken seriously as a basis of a political debate. The fieldwork that forms the basis of the thesis was carried out in Budapest in 2005-2006 with eight families of two or three generations from different class backgrounds. The oldest generation grew up during pre-socialist times; the middle generation was born under socialism; while those in the youngest generation started their adult life under capitalism. The methods included individual and joint family interviews with observations in everyday contexts. First, the thesis investigates ethical and practical concerns that definitions of needs and 'appropriate' practices draw on in different generations. Second, by comparing different generations of the same families...

The independence of regulatory agencies in practice: The case of telecommunications regulators in the United Kingdom and France.

Dasgupta, Paolo Subrato
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
The PhD thesis examines the independence in practice of telecommunications regulatory agencies in France and the UK. It builds on existing literature, which has selectively focussed on formal delegation and institutional design of 'independent' regulators, in particular, on the statutory provisions defining their formal resources and formal constraints. This thesis' central research question is whether the independence of regulatory agencies in practice reflects their formal independence. The thesis aims to explain whether and how factors other than different formal institutional arrangements influence the policy-making of the two agencies examined. It develops and applies an analytical framework for studying whether and how regulatory agencies exploit, or are hindered by, formal and informal policy resources. Building on Nordlinger's work on state autonomy, which is defined as translating preferences into action, five non-formal indicators are proposed to assess the independence of regulators in practice. Participants and resources, preferences, processes, time-length of decision-making, and outcomes, are the indicators applied to selected subcases that help to evaluate the autonomy of the two telecommunications regulators, the Autorite de Regulation des Telecommunications (ART) and the Office of Telecommunications (Oftel). The findings counsel a comprehensive review of the conceptualisation of regulatory independence. The thesis shows that policy preferences guide whether and how formal institutional arrangements are used. The preference convergence and/or divergence that regulators face shape which policy resources will be deployed in support of...

A long goodbye: The politics and diplomacy of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, 1980-1992.

Kalinovsky, Artemy Mikhail
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.10558%
This thesis explores the politics and diplomacy of Soviet efforts to withdraw its troops from Afghanistan. Although Soviet leaders began looking for a way out of the conflict soon after the introduction of Soviet troops in December 1979, the war dragged on because Moscow was afraid of the damage that a failure in Afghanistan could do to its reputation as a leader of the communist world and a supporter of national liberation movements in the Third World. Even as Soviet diplomats engaged in international diplomacy in an effort to secure an agreement for a withdrawal, Moscow looked for ways to stabilise its client government in Kabul. This characterised Soviet policy in the region from 1979 onward, not only under the leadership of Leonid Brezhnev and Yuri Andropov, but even under the reform-minded Mikhail Gorbachev. In addition to providing a detailed study of an important and often-misinterpreted conflict, the thesis also situates the Soviet intervention within the growing body of scholarship seeking to understand the Cold War in global context, particularly with regard to the Third World. Thus the thesis focuses on the broader international dimensions of Soviet efforts in Afghanistan, particularly the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union...