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The political impediments to prosperity : an analysis of the political origins of business confidence

Heye, Christopher
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 232 leaves; 14870271 bytes; 14870029 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Christopher Heye.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Political Science, 1993.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 225-232).

Student political activism in the Viet Nam conflict : a case study of the evolution of activist student politics in Viet Nam, from independence to the Paris Accords, l954-l973.

Pratt, Dorothy Jane
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 307 leaves (13 fold.); 23581379 bytes; 23581135 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Thesis. 1975. Ph.D.--Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Political Science.; Vita.; Bibliography: leaves 300-306.

Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

Quinn, Edward J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 165 p.
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink of economic and cultural ruin. Conversely, Chile has passed beyond military government and begun democratic consolidation. With the healthiest economy in contemporary Latin America, Chile is poised to move beyond underdevelopment to modernity. Chile's success is the direct result of the fundamental restructuring and redirection of the nation's politics-economics paradigm undertaken by General Pinochet and the military but accepted, and today embraced, by the Chilean people. Development of a free market economic model that transcends partisan politics is the key to Chile's success and future. It is likewise a lesson Latin American states should incorporate in both national policies and international relations.; Lieutenant, United States Navy

Fiscal restraints and voter welfare

Besley, Timothy; Smart, Michael
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2005 Português
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This paper explores the logic of fiscal restraints in a political agency model with both moral hazard and adverse selection. The role of the political process is both to discipline incumbents who may act against the public interest and to sort in those politicians who are most likely act in voters’interests. We use the model to examine the optimality of ine¢ cient taxation, limits on the size of government, increasing trans- parency, and yardstick competition. Some conclusions are surprising. For example, we show that some forms of fiscal restraint can only be desirable when incumbents are su¢ ciently likely to be benevolent.

Good governance in crisis or a good crisis for governance?: a comparison of the EU and the US

Schelkle, Waltraud
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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The crisis since August 2007 provides an opportunity to observe the workings of good governance institutions under an extreme stress test and in radically different political settings. Institutions such as independent central banks, fiscal rules and regulatory oversight of public finances were meant to depoliticize macroeconomic stabilization. The comparison of responses to the crisis in the United States and in the European Union shows that good governance institutions are in crisis in the US while it has been a good crisis for governance so far in the EU. Levels of fiscal stimulus and monetary easing are surprisingly similar between the EU and the US, yet the ECB has maintained its independence and member states have been restrained from inserting protectionist elements in their stimulus measures. By contrast, the boundaries between economic stabilization and distributive politics have been wiped out in the US because neither the political forces in the states nor the economic forces in the financial sector erected many defences. In the EU, the boundaries as drawn are inimical to joint stabilization efforts but this is exactly why they are politically self-enforcing.

Europe’s prosperity is not to be built via political declarations and never-ending summits: promoting free, fair and open international trade and removing the remaining barriers to an effective single market in Europe are key for future growth

Nečas , Petr
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2012 Português
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The economic crisis means that Europe now faces a radical economic shift if it it is to secure economic growth in the long term. Petr Nečas, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, argues that while austerity and budgetary consolidation are immediately necessary, the EU also needs to pursue support measures to encourage competitiveness, increase European demand and resist calls for increased international trade protectionism.

With no political union in Europe, the Euro crisis may be a ‘never ending game’ for deep-rooted economic reasons

Hancké, Bob
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/03/2012 Português
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The long term causes of the Euro crisis were a Euro monetary policy that in combination with wage policies fuelled rapid growth and wage inflation in smaller economies like Greece, Portugal, Spain and Ireland, while simultaneously depressing growth in the stronger economies like Germany. Bob Hancké argues that fiscal federalism, i.e transfer arrangements between the faster and slower growing regions, may have softened the crisis. But for now it seems, there may be few ways out.

Despite its costs and limited effectiveness, the European Neighbourhood Policy’s symbolic commitment to engage beyond the EU may mean that it is doomed to survive

Pastorella, Guilia
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/03/2012 Português
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Set up to promote security and prosperity in the EU’s neighbors, the European Neighbourhood Policy has struggled in recent years to cope with the pace of change in the region. Giulia Pastorella argues that recent events such as the Arab Spring illustrate the ineffectiveness of the policy, with many countries making little progress. While reform is badly needed, budget squeezes, more assertive Middle Eastern regimes and a lack of political will within the EU all mean that it is likely that the policy will continue relatively unchanged for the time being.

Partisan bias in economic news: evidence on the agenda-setting behavior of U.S. newspapers

Larcinese, Valentino; Puglisi, Riccardo; Snyder, Jr., James M.
Fonte: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2008 Português
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We study the agenda-setting political behavior of a large sample of U.S. newspapers during the last decade, and the behavior of smaller samples for longer time periods. Our purpose is to examine the intensity of coverage of economic issues as a function of the underlying economic conditions and the political affiliation of the incumbent president, focusing on unemployment, inflation, the federal budget and the trade deficit. We investigate whether there is any significant correlation between the endorsement policy of newspapers, and the differential coverage of bad/good economic news as a function of the president’s political affiliation. We find evidence that newspapers with pro- Democratic endorsement pattern systematically give more coverage to high unemployment when the incumbent president is a Republican than when the president is Democratic, compared to newspapers with pro-Republican endorsement pattern. This result is not driven by the partisanship of readers. There is on the contrary no evidence of a partisan bias – or at least of a bias that is correlated with the endorsement policy – for stories on inflation, budget deficit or trade deficit.

The country behind the ballot box: the impact of political reform in Colombia during a humanitarian crisis

Ceballos, Marcela
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2005 Português
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This paper examines Colombian electoral behaviour variables from the 2003 mayoral and council elections (specifically voter participation and the effective number of political parties) to try to identify how they have changed since previous periods (1988-2000). The changes are examined within the political context of the last elections and the 2003 political reform, the dynamics of the internal armed conflict, and the nationwide humanitarian crisis. We also qualitatively analyse the relationship between election results, the regional dynamics of the internal armed conflict, and the effects of the political reform, using first hand data from four municipalities: Barranquilla (Atlántico), Pasto (Nariño), Arauca (Arauca) and Barrancabermeja (Santander). The effect of the armed conflict on electoral guarantees is also examined as it directly affects the scope of the political reform. The paper is divided into four parts. The first deals with some of the conceptual difficulties for democracy in Colombia (the armed conflict and humanitarian crisis). The second analyses the 2003 local elections and examines general electoral tendencies following the changes introduced by the political reform. The third explores the results of the qualitative analysis; and finally we make our conclusions...

Understanding the legacies of political violence: an examination of political conflict in Mpumalanga Township, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Bonnin, Debby
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
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This paper explores the severe rupture that occurred in the politics of KwaZulu-Natal in the mid 1980s. This rupture is captured in the violent form political conflict took as it griped the province during the latter 1980s and early 1990s. This broader process is examined through an investigation of local level political violence in Mpumalanga Township. During the 1980s, Mpumalanga Township (located about half way between Pietermaritzburg and Durban) was one of the areas most acutely affected by political violence. In order to understand how this rupture occurred and its consequences, it is necessary to look back at a complex set of processes that interlocked over space and time. Violence, it is argued, is embedded in the articulation between local, regional and national dynamics. There are complex relationships between, on the one hand, political interests, social groups and organisational forms, and on the other, the dynamics of gender and generation, with both feeding into political violence. A second dynamic that this paper explores is the form violence took. The legacies that remain ten years after peace was negotiated are a direct result of the modalities of the preceding violence. It is suggested that political violence exhibited a profoundly spatialised form in combination with gendered and generational forms. This can be seen at a number of levels. Firstly...

Political participation and war in Colombia

García, Miguel; Hoskin, Gary
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2003 Português
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This study analyses the impact of the war on political participation in the March 2002 elections to the lower house of the Colombian Congress. The specific research question is whether the dynamics of violence in Colombia has affected the way voters behaved in those elections. In order to provide some answers, this article seeks to pinpoint the relationship between war and democracy by focusing upon a key component of democratic regimes, namely political participation. The article is organized in five sections. The first consists of a theoretical overview of democracy and political participation. The second section, drawn principally from the press, provides evidence of the impact of the war upon the congressional and presidential campaigns. The third part discusses the evolution of political participation in Colombia. The fourth section is a quantitative analysis of the relationship between violence and political participation. Finally, the last section offers some conclusions about political participation and violence in Colombia. Although Colombian democracy is under assault from armed actors and undermined by socio-economic factors, its viability has not been contested to the point of regime collapse, nor is that likely to occur in the near future. While it is appropriate to label Colombia a crisis state...

The dissipation of political capital among Afghanistan’s Hazaras: 2001-2009

Ibrahimi, Niamatullah
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2009 Português
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This paper examines the historical background and political processes behind the formation of Hizb-e Wahdat-e Islami Afghanistan (The Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan). It lays out the evolving political agendas and strategies of the party during the years of civil war, Taliban rule and the post-2001 political process. The author concludes that by 2009 the party was so fragmented and divided that the political weight it carried in Afghanistan bore little resemblance to what it had first enjoyed.

Transformation from below in Bolivia and Bangladesh: decentralization, local governance, and systemic change

Faguet, Jean-Paul
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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I examine decentralization through the lens of the local dynamics it unleashed in the much-noted case of Bolivia and the less-noted case of Bangladesh. I argue that the national effects of decentralization are largely the sum of its local-level effects. Hence to understand decentralization we must first understand how local government works. This implies analysing not only decentralization, but also democracy, from the bottom up. Beginning with Bolivia, I explore the deep economic and institutional determinants of government quality in two extremes of municipal performance. From this I derive a model of local government responsiveness as the product of political openness and substantive competition. The quality of politics, in turn, emerges endogenously as a joint product of the lobbying and political engagement of local firms/interests, and the organizational density and ability of civil society. The model explains the micro-foundations of good vs. bad local government performance, and hence of Bolivia’s overall decentralization success. I then test these ideas using qualitative data from Bangladesh. The evidence shows that civic organizations worked with NGOs and local governments to effect transformative change from the grass-roots upwards – not just to public budgets and outputs...

Book review: politics in deeply divided societies

Edgar, Stacy
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/11/2012 Português
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This book provides an authoritative and systematic analysis of the politics of so-called ‘deeply divided societies’ in the post Cold War era. From Bosnia to South Africa, Northern Ireland to Iraq, it explains why such places are so prone to political violence, and demonstrates why – even in times of peace – the fear of violence continues to shape attitudes, entrenching divisions in societies that already lack consensus on their political institutions. Stacy Edgar believes for students of comparative politics, Adrian Guelke’s volume provides a valuable starting point in understanding political institutions in conflict-societies.

With markets often outperforming more traditional forecasting approaches, bookmakers could be useful to policy makers in predicting global trends and events.

Partridge, Matthew
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/08/2011 Português
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The recent ‘Arab Spring’ and the subsequent realignment of much of the political sphere of the Middle East took many traditional commentators by surprise. Matthew Partridge argues that, in light of this, the ‘prediction markets’ of political bookmakers may be able to provide a significant contribution to intelligence gathering by adding greater accuracy and objectivity to forecasting.

Book review: Border encounters: asymmetry and proximity at Europe’s frontiers, edited by Jutta Lauth Bacas and William Kavanagh

White, Anne
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2014 Português
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"Border Encounters: Asymmetry and Proximity at Europe’s Frontiers." Jutta Lauth Bacas and William Kavanagh (eds.). Berghahn Books. November 2013. --- Among the tremendous changes affecting Europe in recent decades, those concerning political frontiers have been some of the most significant. International borders are being opened in some regions while being redefined or reinforced in others. Border Encounters is rich in empirical detail, writes Anne White, and is also an excellent introduction to border theory, with a helpful literature review. Anthropological case studies from a number of European borderlands shed light on the questions of how, and to what extent, the border context influences the changing interactions and social relationships between people at a political frontier.

Institutionalised consensus in Europe’s parliament

Benedetto, Giacomo Giorgio Edward
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Embedded consensus has characterised the behaviour of the European Parliament since its foundation in the 1950s. This research tests the path dependence of consensus during the period of 1994 to 2002, in the light of the changing institutional powers of the Parliament. It challenges existing theory and empirical evidence drawn mainly from roll call votes that has concluded that the European Parliament has become more competitive internally in response to increased institutional powers. There are three causal factors that reinforce consensus: the need to reconcile national and ideological divisions within a multinational political system; the pull of external institutional factors such as institutional change or the separation of powers; and internal incentives for collusion between political actors influenced by the need to accommodate the interests of the national elites present at the level of the European Union. Switzerland, a multiple cleavage system of decentralised federalism that includes consociational characteristics and a separation of powers, provides a comparative reference point for institutionalised consensus. The hypotheses of institutionalised consensus are tested empirically in four ways: 1) by roll call votes between 1994 and 2001...

Satellite communications: the political determination of technological development, 1961-1975

Wasserman, Edward Jay
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/1979 Português
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The thesis sets forth a model relating political contention to technological development. The selective realisation of a technical potentiality is shown to have been determined by conflict and negotiation among shifting alliances of state and private-industrial entities, each attempting to impose its requirements upon an emergent technology and thereby to dictate the precise form and pace of technical development. The 'course of communications satellite development is examined during the technology's formative period from 1961 to 1975--as the product of struggles over technological control. Negotiation centered upon control, and contending modes of technical development were promoted and opposed on the basis of their perceived consequences upon the distribution of effective control over the technology. The initial mode of satellite development lasted from 1961 to 1971 and is characterised as pre-emptive underdevelopment; urgency and haste were combined with tight constraints on the qualitative breadth allowed to technological articulation. Pre-emptive underdevelopment derived from an uneasy political accommodation struck among constituencies dominant during this phases the U.S. government, American communications carrier industry and a Western European intergovernmental bloc. The reigning compromise was directed toward expediting satellite development sufficiently to forestall rival deployments without endangering existing and anticipated interests in both satellite and competitive technologies. Technical development beneath a minimum level risked undermining the regime of control by leaving open the possibility of rival satellite systems; but development beyond a maximum level would have harmed the outstanding industrial and political interests in whose defence control was sought...

A conditional theory of the ‘political resource curse:’ oil, autocrats, and strategic contexts

Ahmadov, Anar
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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A burgeoning literature argues that the abundance of oil in developing countries strengthens autocratic rule and erodes democracy. However, extant studies either show the average cross-national correlation between oil and political regime or develop particularistic accounts that do not easily lend themselves to theorizing. Consequently, we know little of the causal mechanisms that potentially link oil wealth to undemocratic outcomes and the conditions that would help explain the ultimate, not average, effect of oil on political regime. This study develops a conditional theory of the “political resource curse.” It does so by undertaking a statistical reassessment of the relationship between oil wealth and political regime and a nuanced qualitative examination of a set of carefully selected cases in order to contribute to developing an adequate account of causal mechanisms that transmit and conditions that shape the relationship between oil abundance and autocracy. It draws on qualitative and quantitative evidence collected over eighteen months of fieldwork in oil-rich former Soviet countries of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan, and the ‘counterfactual’ oil-poor Kyrgyzstan. Employing a theoretical framework that draws on insights from the rentier state theory...