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O percurso escolar dos alunos disléxicos

Coelho, Cláudia Carvalho
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 03/01/2012 Português
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As Dificuldades de Aprendizagem (DA) referem-se a uma discrepância significativa entre o rendimento escolar do sujeito e aquilo que era esperado que realize, em função da idade e nível intelectual. A própria expressão Dificuldades de Aprendizagem aparece, por vezes, acompanhada do termo escolar, outras vezes, faz-se acompanhar de forma explícita à leitura, as denominadas dificuldades específicas na aprendizagem da leitura ou dislexia. Esta é desordem mais prevalente de entre todas as que se inserem no espectro das DA. No presente trabalho pretendemos averiguar o percurso escolar dos alunos disléxicos, o tipo de medidas educativas que usufruíram e a importância das mesmas nesse percurso. É nosso intuito perceber de que forma a dislexia colocou um entrave à realização pessoal, escolar e profissional desses alunos e identificar quais as suas perspectivas futuras. No presente estudo adoptámos uma metodologia de investigação qualitativa tendo sido realizadas entrevistas a 41 encarregados de educação de alunos com dislexia de dois agrupamentos de escolas do distrito de Viseu. Os resultados demonstram, em linhas gerais, que a dislexia constitui um obstáculo à progressão escolar e tem efeitos a longo prazo, não só no que diz respeito à componente escolar...

Literacia familiar: contributos para a promoção e desenvolvimento de boas práticas literácitas em contexto socio económico desfavorecido

Alves, Rita Isabel Lourenço
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /05/2015 Português
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Dissertação apresentada à Escola Superior de Educação de Lisboa para a obtenção de grau de Mestre em Didática da Língua Portuguesa no 1.º e 2.º Ciclos do Ensino Básico; O presente trabalho pretende contribuir para o estudo de competências na área da Língua Portuguesa, nomeadamente, ao nível da aprendizagem da leitura e da escrita. Para isso, focámo-nos no estudo das práticas de literacia de pais (Mata, 2006), avaliámos o nível de desenvolvimento de literacia dos seus filhos (Villas-Boas, 2001) e aplicámos um programa de boas práticas de literacia. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi promover boas práticas de literacia, junto de um grupo de alunos do 1.º ano e suas famílias, numa escola inserida num Território Educativo de Intervenção Prioritária. A população abrangida por este estudo foi composta por duas turmas de 1.º ano do 1.º Ciclo do Ensino Básico. A turma do grupo experimental foi abrangida pelo programa de boas práticas de literacia, enquadrado na disciplina de “Outras Expressões”, nas Atividades de Enriquecimento Curricular. A planificação do programa foi definida tendo por base objetivos concretos para aquela população e tendo em conta o projeto Cancioneiro Infanto-Juvenil para a Língua Portuguesa...

Santuário da Nossa Senhora do Cabo Espichel. Sentido para um restauro

Álvaro, Alexandre Borges
Fonte: Faculdade de Arquitectura de Lisboa Publicador: Faculdade de Arquitectura de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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Tese de Mestrado em Arquitectura; O Santuário de Nossa Senhora do Cabo situa-se no extremo do Cabo Espichel, no município de Sesimbra. Hoje, é notória uma grande ambiguidade entre a qualidade e o significado do lugar e da arquitectura e o estado de abandono em que este se encontra. Esta dissertação insere-se num momento em que este lugar volta à atenção das pessoas, através de recentes propostas de intervenção e da comemoração simbólica dos 600 anos de culto. Os objectivos principais são determinar se o santuário é uma obra que merece ser conservada e, se sim, de que maneira e que aspectos da sua forma são substanciais para tal. Utilizando um processo de leitura da arquitectura que se foca em três dimensões essenciais – história, forma e significado – tenta-se encontrar a essência do conjunto arquitectónico através da experiência que o visitante dele faz (pois só desta maneira é possível compreender a sua verdadeira qualidade); depois, tenta-se perceber que aspectos da forma encerram esse conteúdo, e de que maneira devem ser conservados ou revelados para que a arquitectura viva e opere no seu habitante.Como conclusão, procede-se a uma sistematização de actos de restauro que estão de acordo com essa identidade e com o objectivo de a revelarem...

Preschool foundations of early reading acquisition

Rvachew, Susan; Savage, Robert
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2006 Português
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The present paper describes research on the skills and processes associated with word and text reading acquisition in preschool children and during the first years of school. The aim is to provide an overview that gives a sense of the important milestones in language and literacy acquisition. A comparison of children’s performances against these milestones may thus guide effective intervention for health professionals, parents and other professionals. Also summarized and explored are the role of speech perception and production, grammatical and syntactic skills, and metacognitive skills, including phonological awareness.

Effects of Fact Retrieval Tutoring on Third-Grade Students with Math Difficulties with and without Reading Difficulties

Powell, Sarah R.; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of fact retrieval tutoring as a function of math difficulty (MD) subtype, that is, whether students have MD alone (MD-only) or have concurrent difficulty with math and reading (MDRD). Third graders (n = 139) at two sites were randomly assigned, blocking by site and MD subtype, to four tutoring conditions: fact retrieval practice, conceptual fact retrieval instruction with practice, procedural computation/estimation instruction, and control (no tutoring). Tutoring occurred for 45 sessions over 15weeks for 15–25 minutes per session. Results provided evidence of an interaction between tutoring condition and MD subtype status for assessment of fact retrieval. For MD-only students, students in both fact retrieval conditions achieved comparably and outperformed MD-only students in the control group as well as those in the procedural computation/estimation instruction group. By contrast, for MDRD students, there were no significant differences among intervention conditions.

Early Screening for Risk of Reading Disabilities: Recommendations for a Four-Step Screening System

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Response-to-intervention (RTI) models incorporate a screening process to identify students who appear to be at risk for learning disabilities (LDs). The purpose of this position article is to incorporate what is known about screening into a flexible, yet comprehensive screening system to help school psychologists and other school administrators in establishing school-specific screening procedures. The authors begin by discussing past. research on screening for reading disabilities (RDs) within the RTI framework. Then, they propose a four-step screening system advocating a short screener (Step I), progress monitoring (Step 2), follow-up testing (Step 3), and ongoing revision of procedures and cut scores (Step 4). Their goal is to improve screening within RTI systems with practical procedures to permit schools to implement state-of-the-art screening batteries that accurately and efficiently distinguish students who are at high risk for RD.

Community Participation in Public Schools : The Impact of Information Campaigns in Three Indian States

Pandey, Priyanka; Goyal, Sangeeta; Sundararaman, Venkatesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This study evaluates the impact of a community-based information campaign on school performance from a cluster randomized control trial. The campaign consisted of eight to nine public meetings in each of 340 treatment villages across three Indian states to disseminate information to the community about its state mandated roles and responsibilities in school management. The findings from the first follow-up 2-4 months after the campaign show that providing information through a structured campaign to communities had a positive impact in all three states. In two states there was a significant and positive impact on reading (14-27 percent) in one of the three grades tested; in the third state there was a significant impact on writing in one grade (15 percent) and on mathematics in the other grade tested (27 percent). The intervention is associated with improvement in teacher effort in two states. Some improvements occurred in the delivery of certain benefits entitled to students (stipend, uniform, and mid day meal) and in process variables such as community participation in each of the three states. Follow-up research needs to examine whether there is a systematic increase in learning when the impact is measured over a longer time period and whether a campaign sustained over a longer time is able to generate greater impact on school outcomes.

Developing Social-Emotional Skills for the Labor Market : The PRACTICE Model

Guerra, Nancy; Modecki, Kathryn; Cunningham, Wendy
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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Although there is a general agreement in the literature of the importance of social-emotional skills for labor market success, there is little consensus on the specific skills that should be acquired or how and when to teach them. The psychology, economics, policy research, and program implementation literatures all touch on these issues, but they are not sufficiently integrated to provide policy direction. The objective of this paper is to provide a coherent framework and related policies and programs that bridge the psychology, economics, and education literature, specifically that related to skills employers value, non-cognitive skills that predict positive labor market outcomes, and skills targeted by psycho-educational prevention and intervention programs. The paper uses as its base a list of social-emotional skills that employers value, classifies these into eight subgroups (summarized by PRACTICE), then uses the psychology literature -- drawing from the concepts of psycho-social and neuro-biological readiness and age-appropriate contexts -- to map the age and context in which each skill subset is developed. The paper uses examples of successful interventions to illustrate the pedagogical process. The paper concludes that the social-emotional skills employers value can be effectively taught when aligned with the optimal stage for each skill development...

Estrategias de comprensi??n lectora para estudiantes de primer grado de Educaci??n Primaria

Guti??rrez-Braojos, Calixto; Salmer??n-P??rez, Honorio
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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La competencia lectora es una de las herramientas psicol??gicas m??s relevantes en los procesos de aprendizaje y ense??anza. Su car??cter transversal conlleva efectos colaterales positivos o negativos sobre el resto de ??reas acad??micas. En las ??ltimas d??cadas, se ha enfatizado el papel de las estrategias de aprendizaje, como herramientas psicol??gicas que facilitan a los estudiantes el proceso transaccional lector. En este texto, definimos las estrategias de aprendizaje que facilitan el proceso lector en educaci??n primaria. Posteriormente se explicitan algunos programas de intervenci??n, t??cnicas e instrumentos de evaluaci??n ??tiles en dichos niveles educativos.; Literacy skill is one of the most important psychological tools in both learning and teaching processes. Its transversal character carries positive or negative collateral effects on other academic areas. In the recent decades, the role of learning strategies has been emphasized as important psychological tools that facilitate students to achieve reader skills. In this text, we define learning strategies that facilitate the reading process and comprehension in elementary school and firsts grade students. Furthermore, we discuss intervention programs...

Understanding India’s Urban Frontier; What is Behind the Emergence of Census Towns in India?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Urban Study
Português
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According to the latest census of 2011, the urbanization level in India has increased from 27.8 percent in 2001 to 31.2 percent in 2011, and for the first time, the absolute increase in urban population exceeded the increase in rural population. India has different administrative arrangements for rural and urban areas, which are based on the 73rd and 74th amendments to the Constitution of India respectively. Since the census towns (CTs) continue to be governed by rural administrative arrangements this situation raises an additional set of questions, in addition to the nature of economic transformation, related to the trade-offs-between rural and urban status. The report shall try and find answers to the following questions: (a) how does their governance affect the settlements economically and spatially?; (b) what underpins the economic dynamics of these settlements?; and (c) what are the drivers of change in land use and what relationships, if any, are there between agglomeration of settlements and economic and social and governance processes? The report is organized into two main parts. The first part provides a reading of the existing literature on small towns along the three main axis of research: governance...

Afghanistan : Country Gender Assessment, National Reconstruction and Poverty Reduction, the Role of Women in Afghanistan's Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Gender Assessment (CGA); Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Throughout the 20th century, the debate on women's rights and their role in Afghan society has been closely interlinked with the national destiny. Women not only carry the burden of symbolizing the honor of the family, but often are seen as embodying the national honor as well. Gender has thus been one of the most politicized issues in Afghanistan over the past 100 years, and attempts at reform have been denounced by opponents as un-Islamic and a challenge to the sanctity of the faith and family. During the years of turmoil, concerns about women's security led to the imposition of ever-stricter interpretations of socially acceptable female behavior, supported by the most conservative reading of the holy scriptures. Despite the rhetoric, women suffered from very serious human rights violations throughout the conflict. With the overthrow of the Taliban regime in 2001, Afghanistan embarked upon a new beginning, recognizing anew the contribution of the female half of its society. This Country Gender Assessment report identifies critical areas in which gender-responsive actions are likely to enhance growth, poverty reduction and human well-being. The extent of gender discrimination in Afghanistan is pervasive, and the present report focuses on a few key sectors deemed particularly important for both short- and long-term interventions. Gender gaps are widespread in health...

Memoria del paesaggio urbano in un confronto tra oriente e occidente

HYUN, KYUNG AH
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This research deals with the reading of the urban landscape through the semiological analysis that accompanied the traditional analysis, identifies problems and promotes the recovery of memory in non-interactive relationship between nature and the city in a confrontation between East and West. Some recent restoration and enhancement of the natural element in the cities confirm what is important for their inhabitants the memory of the natural root element to be transmitted to future generations. In every person and at the base of all his behavior, there is stored information, called traditional knowledge, that every generation has always sought in its own way to transfer to the next. The emotional factor is always associated information, and they are memorized in terms of where the emotion is important. If the emotion is too little or none existent, information will be deleted. Based on these considerations associated with the operation of memory we fix the following objective: read in the contemporary city, what is left of the memory of nature, and then decide how to save themselves and to hand it down to posterity. This reinforcement that justifies why this thesis derives from the study of the problems of modernity. We hypothesize that the difference is not so much to create problems as the resemblance...

“SlutWalk is ‘kind of like feminism’”: A critical reading of Canadian mainstream news coverage of SlutWalk

McNicol, LAUREN
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Since its inception in April 2011, “SlutWalk” has grown from a Toronto-based rally and march against victim-blaming and sexual violence into a globalized movement spanning six continents. Given that its mainstream visibility is unprecedented for any contemporary feminist movement, SlutWalk represents a unique opportunity to examine representations of feminist politics in the Canadian mainstream news media. Drawing on the theoretical and methodological tools of feminism and cultural studies, I offer a contextualized reading and discourse analysis of the representations of SlutWalk across print, radio, and televisual media during its first nine months of press. On the surface, the media portrays SlutWalk in a fair and positive light, taking seriously its messages about police accountability, victim solidarity, and women’s liberation as key tenets for ending victim-blaming. Nonetheless, these “fair” messages are constituted by and constitutive of neoliberal, white supremacist, and postfeminist discourses of the “reality” of sexual violence, which undermine intersectional feminist efforts to eradicate sexual violence. I argue that mainstream media representations of SlutWalk reproduce a watered-down version of feminism and a decontextualized understanding of sexual violence that resonates most with white...

A interrelação fala, leitura e escrita em duas crianças com síndrome de Down; The interrelation between speech read and white with two Down's syndrome children

Carla Salati Almeida Ghirello-Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2010 Português
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Esta tese apresenta e analisa o acompanhamento fonoaudiológico longitudinal de duas crianças com Síndrome de Down: ML e AM. Objetiva compreender a relação estabelecida entre linguagem oral e escrita no início dessas crianças do mundo das letras. Buscou-se identificar como os sujeitos da pesquisa adquiriram autonomia na fala por meio da mediação considerando, para tanto, o papel do outro/interlocutor. No início desse processo, a escrita funcionou como sustentação da materialidade da fala e, posteriormente, ganhou corpo como uma nova possibilidade de linguagem. Este trabalho tem ancoragem teórica na Neurolinguística Discursiva que concebe a linguagem, sintaticamente, como indeterminada e heterogênea, e semanticamente, humana, como lugar de interação e de interlocução em uma relação dinâmica e constitutiva entre sujeitos. A análise dos dados foi feita com base no conceito de dado-achado, produzido no momento da interação, e, no momento da análise, como um achado acionado pela teorização. No início do trabalho, observou-se que ML e AM apresentavam diferenças significativas em relação à oralidade indicando uma discrepância em relação à fala e seu funcionamento. Este fato, porém, não foi impeditivo e nem demarcou diferenças significativas em relação à leitura e à escrita. Além disso...

Ler e escrever para aprender ciências da natureza

Pedrosa, Cédric Soares
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Ensino do 1º e 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico; O seguinte documento foi elaborado com o objetivo de relatar o estágio pedagógico no âmbito da Prática de Ensino Supervisionada. Esta fase académica representou um enorme momento de aprendizagem como futuro professor no 1º e 2º Ciclo do Ensino Básico. De forma gradual, foi promovida a observação, implementação, avaliação e reflexão de inúmeras estratégias de investigação pedagógica que sustentaram a melhoria do processo ensino e aprendizagem dos alunos e do professor estagiário. Proporcionou, simultaneamente, a compreensão do funcionamento e da organização escolar. Depois de conhecer as dificuldades dos alunos e as prioridades da professora orientadora, foi desenvolvido um projeto que pretende levar os alunos a recorrer à leitura e à escrita como ferramenta de aprendizagem para construir e exprimir conhecimento no domínio das Ciências da Natureza. Na perspetiva do professor estagiário, pretendeu-se desenvolver competências profissionais que envolvam conhecimento e problematização dos contextos de prática, assim como, desenvolver estratégias pedagógicas que sustentam a compreensão e melhoria do processo de ensino e aprendizagem no 1º e 2ºCiclo do Ensino Básico. Depois de fundamentar os benefícios que este projeto acarreta...

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI)☆

Norwalk, Kate E.; DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Despite growing interest in early intervention, there are few measures available to monitor the progress of early academic skills in preschoolers. The Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI; DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007) were developed as brief assessments of critical early literacy and numeracy skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure of the EARLI probes via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a sample of Head Start preschoolers (N = 289). A two-factor model with correlated error terms and a bifactor model provided comparable fit to the data, although there were some structural problems with the latter model. The utility of the bifactor model for explaining the structure of early academic skills as well as the utility of the EARLI probes as measures of literacy and numeracy skills in preschool are discussed.

A comparison of three interventions for increasing oral reading performance: Application of the instructional hierarchy

Daly, Edward J.; Martens, Brian K.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 Português
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The instructional hierarchy is a behavior-analytic model that links level of academic skill development (i.e., acquisition, fluency, generalization, adaptation) with appropriate instructional techniques. The present study used the instructional hierarchy to compare the effects of three instructional interventions (listening passage preview, subject passage preview, and taped words) on subjects' oral reading performance on word lists and passages. Subjects were 4 male students with learning disabilities who ranged in age from 8 years 10 months to 11 years 11 months. A multielement design was used to compare the effects of the three interventions to each other and to baseline. Results indicated that the listening passage preview intervention (which contained modeling, drill, and generalization components) produced the largest performance gains. The implications of these results for selecting academic interventions based on the instructional hierarchy are discussed.

P300 auditory cognitive evoked potential as an indicator of therapeutical evolution in students with developmental dyslexia

Alvarenga,Kátia de Freitas; Araújo,Eliene Silva; Ferraz,Érika; Crenitte,Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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Purpose: To verify the effectiveness of the Cognitive Auditory Evoked Potential-P300 (CAEP-P300) for monitoring the therapeutical evolution of students with developmental dyslexia. Methods: Twenty students diagnosed with developmental dyslexia, of both genders, aged between 8 and 14 years, divided into two randomized groups, one of them submitted to a phonological remediation program associated with reading and writing (GI), and the other one representing the control group (GII), participated in the study. The groups were paired up, and the individuals were submitted to two evaluations of the CAEP-P300 and the same interval was kept for both. Paired Student's t-test, ANOVA test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used, adopting 5% significance level. Results: The statistical comparison of the pre and post evaluations of each group demonstrated difference in the Phonological Awareness Test (p=0.000) and in the P300 latency (p=0.005) only for GI. Conclusion: CAEP-P300 use for monitoring the therapeutical evolution of children with developmental dyslexia is possible and represents a viable option for intervention programs.

Incidental Scene Text Understanding: Recent Progresses on ICDAR 2015 Robust Reading Competition Challenge 4

Yao, Cong; Wu, Jianan; Zhou, Xinyu; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Shuchang; Cao, Zhimin; Yin, Qi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2015 Português
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Different from focused texts present in natural images, which are captured with user's intention and intervention, incidental texts usually exhibit much more diversity, variability and complexity, thus posing significant difficulties and challenges for scene text detection and recognition algorithms. The ICDAR 2015 Robust Reading Competition Challenge 4 was launched to assess the performance of existing scene text detection and recognition methods on incidental texts as well as to stimulate novel ideas and solutions. This report is dedicated to briefly introduce our strategies for this challenging problem and compare them with prior arts in this field.; Comment: 3 pages, 2 figures, 4 tables

Da estereotipia à constituição da escrita num caso de autismo: Dois relatos...um percurso; From stereotypy to the constitution of literacy in a child with autism: two reports...and a route

Pavone, Sandra; Rubino, Rejane
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2003 Português
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The aim of this paper is to examine some clinical observations concerning the emergence of reading and writing in an autistic child. Reports of the psychoanalitical treatment and of the speech therapy are presented. Some questions about the course of treatment and the possibilities of subjective constitution in such cases are discussed. Finally, it explores the issue of interdisciplinary intervention and discusses some principles which guided the relation between the different clinical fields.; Este trabalho apresenta os relatos dos atendimentos psicanalítico e fonoaudiológico de uma criança autista, focalizando a emergência e os desdobramentos da leitura e da escrita nesse sujeito. As autoras propõem reflexões sobre alguns aspectos da direção do tratamento e interrogam os limites da constituição subjetiva nesses casos. Abordam ainda o tema das intervenções interdisciplinares e discutem os parâmetros que nortearam a aproximação das clínicas psicanalítica e fonoaudiológica.