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A 68-Nucleotide Sequence within the 3′ Noncoding Region of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Negative-Strand RNA Binds to Four MA104 Cell Proteins

Hwang, You-Kyung; Brinton, Margo A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 Português
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The 3′ noncoding region (NCR) of the negative-strand RNA [3′(−)NCR RNA] of the arterivirus simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) is 209 nucleotides (nt) in length. Since this 3′ region, designated 3′(−)209, is the site of initiation of full-length positive-strand RNA and is the template for the synthesis of the 5′ leader sequence, which is found on both full-length and subgenomic mRNAs, it is likely to contain cis-acting signals for RNA synthesis and to interact with cellular and viral proteins to form replication complexes. Gel mobility shift assays showed that cellular proteins in MA104 S100 cytoplasmic extracts formed two complexes with the SHFV 3′(−)209 RNA, and results from competition gel mobility shift assays demonstrated that these interactions were specific. Four proteins with molecular masses of 103, 86, 55, and 36 kDa were detected in UV-induced cross-linking assays, and three of these proteins (103, 55, and 36 kDa) were also detected by Northwestern blotting assays. Identical gel mobility shift and UV-induced cross-linking patterns were obtained with uninfected and SHFV-infected extracts, indicating that the four proteins detected are cellular, not viral, proteins. The binding sites for the four cellular proteins were mapped to the region between nt 117 and 184 (68-nt sequence) from the 3′ end of the SHFV negative-strand RNA. This 68-nt sequence was predicted to form two stem-loops...

Determinants of Entry Cofactor Utilization and Tropism in a Dualtropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Primary Isolate

Smyth, Robert J.; Yi, Yanjie; Singh, Anjali; Collman, Ronald G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 Português
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain 89.6 is a dualtropic isolate that replicates in macrophages and transformed T cells, and its envelope mediates CD4-dependent fusion and entry with CCR5, CXCR-4, and CCR3. To map determinants of cofactor utilization by 89.6 and determine the relationship between cofactor use and tropism, we analyzed recombinants generated between 89.6 and T-cell-tropic (HXB) or macrophage-tropic (JRFL) strains. These chimeras showed that regions of 89.6 env outside V3 through V5 determine CXCR-4 utilization and T-cell line tropism as well as CCR5 utilization and macrophage tropism. However, the 89.6 env V3 domain also conferred on HXB the ability to use CCR5 for fusion and entry but not the ability to establish productive macrophage infection. CCR3 use was conferred on HXB by 89.6 env V3 or V3 through V5 sequences. While replacement of the 89.6 V3 through V5 region with HXB sequences abrogated CCR3 utilization, replacement of V3 or V4 through V5 separately did not. Thus, CCR3 use is determined by sequences within V3 through V5 and most likely can be conferred by either the V3 or the V4 through V5 domains. These results indicate that cofactor utilization and tropism in this dualtropic isolate are determined by complex interactions among multiple env segments...

Equine Endothelial Cells Support Productive Infection of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

Maury, Wendy; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Bradley, Sarahann
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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Previous cell infectivity studies have demonstrated that the lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infects tissue macrophages in vivo and in vitro. In addition, some strains of EIAV replicate to high titer in vitro in equine fibroblasts and fibroblast cell lines. Here we report a new cell type, macrovascular endothelial cells, that is infectible with EIAV. We tested the ability of EIAV to infect purified endothelial cells isolated from equine umbilical cords and renal arteries. Infectivity was detected by cell supernatant reverse transcriptase positivity, EIAV antigen positivity within individual cells, and the detection of viral RNA by in situ hybridization. Virus could rapidly spread through the endothelial cultures, and the supernatants of infected cultures contained high titers of infectious virus. There was no demonstrable cell killing in infected cultures. Three of four strains of EIAV that were tested replicated in these cultures, including MA-1, a fibroblast-tropic strain, Th.1, a macrophage-tropic strain, and WSU5, a strain that is fibroblast tropic and can cause disease. Finally, upon necropsy of a WSU5-infected horse 4 years postinfection, EIAV-positive endothelial cells were detected in outgrowths of renal artery cultures. These findings identify a new cell type that is infectible with EIAV. The role of endothelial cell infection in the course of equine infectious anemia is currently unknown...

Subcellular Redistribution of Pit-2 Pi Transporter/Amphotropic Leukemia Virus (A-MuLV) Receptor in A-MuLV-Infected NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: Involvement in Superinfection Interference

Jobbagy, Zsolt; Garfield, Susan; Baptiste, Lisa; Eiden, Maribeth V.; Anderson, Wayne B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2000 Português
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Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) utilizes the Pit-2 sodium-dependent phosphate transporter as a cell surface receptor to infect mammalian cells. Previous studies established that infection of cells with A-MuLV resulted in the specific down-modulation of phosphate uptake mediated by Pit-2 and in resistance to superinfection with A-MuLV. To study the mechanisms underlying these phenomena, we constructed plasmids capable of efficiently expressing ɛ epitope- and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged human Pit-2 proteins in mammalian cells. Overexpression of ɛ-epitope-tagged Pit-2 transporters in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in a marked increase in sodium-dependent Pi uptake. This increase in Pi uptake was specifically blocked by A-MuLV infection but not by infection with ecotropic MuLV (E-MuLV) (which utilizes a cationic amino acid transporter, not Pit-2, as a cell surface receptor). These data, together with the finding that the tagged Pit-2 transporters retained their A-MuLV receptor function, indicate that the insertion of epitope tags does not affect either retrovirus receptor or Pi transporter function. The overexpressed epitope-tagged transporters were detected in cell lysates, by Western blot analysis using both ɛ-epitope- and GFP-specific antibodies as well as with Pit-2 antiserum. Both the epitope- and GFP-tagged transporters showed almost exclusive plasma membrane localization when expressed in NIH 3T3 cells...

Simian and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nef Proteins Use Different Surfaces To Downregulate Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigen Expression

Swigut, Tomek; Iafrate, A. John; Muench, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Skowronski, Jacek
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
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Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef proteins are related regulatory proteins that share several functions, including the ability to downregulate class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and CD4 expression on the cell surface and to alter T-cell-receptor-initiated signal transduction in T cells. We compared the mechanisms used by SIV mac239 Nef and HIV-1 Nef to downregulate class I MHC and found that the ability of SIV Nef to downregulate class I MHC requires a unique C-terminal region of the SIV mac239 Nef molecule which is not found in HIV-1 Nef. Interestingly, mutation of the PxxP motif in SIV Nef, unlike in HIV-1 Nef, does not affect class I MHC downregulation. We also found that downregulation of class I MHC by SIV Nef requires a conserved tyrosine in the cytoplasmic domain of the class I MHC heavy chain and involves accelerated endocytosis of class I complexes, as previously found with HIV-1 Nef. Thus, while SIV and HIV-1 Nef proteins use a similar mechanism to downregulate class I MHC expression, they have evolved different surfaces for molecular interactions with cell factors that regulate class I MHC traffic. Mutations in the C-terminal domain of SIV mac239 Nef selectively disrupt class I MHC downregulation...

Identification of a Linear Heparin Binding Domain for Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Attachment Glycoprotein G

Feldman, Steven A.; Hendry, R. Michael; Beeler, Judy A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 Português
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. Infection is mediated, in part, by an initial interaction between attachment protein (G) and a highly sulfated heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (Gag) located on the cell surface. Synthetic overlapping peptides derived from consensus sequences of the G protein ectodomain from both RSV subgroups A and B were tested by heparin-agarose affinity chromatography for their abilities to bind heparin. This evaluation identified a single linear heparin binding domain (HBD) for RSV subgroup A (184A→T198) and B (183K→K197). The binding of these peptides to Vero cells was inhibited by heparin. Peptide binding to two CHO cell mutants (pgsD-677 and pgsA-745) deficient in heparan sulfate or total Gag synthesis was decreased 50% versus the parental cell line, CHO-K1, and decreased an average of 87% in the presence of heparin. The RSV-G HBD peptides were also able to inhibit homologous and heterologous virus infectivity of Vero cells. These results indicate that the sequence 184A/183K→198T/K197 for RSV subgroups A and B, respectively, defines an important determinant of RSV-G interactions with heparin.

Genetic Dissection of Cell Growth Arrest Functions Mediated by the Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Gene Product, Zta

Rodriguez, Antonio; Armstrong, Monica; Dwyer, Daniel; Flemington, Erik
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1999 Português
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Expression of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency-associated genes activates cell cycle progression and drives immortalization of the infected cell. In contrast, progression of the EBV replication program occurs most efficiently in growth-arrested cells. Previous studies showed that the EBV-encoded immediate-early transcription factor, Zta, can induce expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27, the tumor suppressor, p53, and cell growth arrest. Moreover, Zta-mediated induction of growth arrest occurs independently of its transcriptional transactivation function. Here we show that substitution of Zta’s basic DNA binding domain with the analogous region of the Zta homologue, c-Fos, abrogates Zta’s ability to induce growth arrest and to induce p21, p27, or p53 expression, suggesting that protein-protein interactions between this region of Zta and key cell cycle control proteins are involved in signaling cell cycle arrest. We also show that despite the crucial role for Zta’s basic domain in eliciting cell growth arrest, its amino terminus is required for efficient induction of p27 and it modulates the level of p53 induction. Last, we provide evidence that Zta-mediated inductions of p21, p27, and p53 occur...

Functional Analysis of Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Deletion Mutants Lacking the Small Hydrophobic and/or Attachment Glycoprotein Gene

Techaarpornkul, Sunee; Barretto, Naina; Peeples, Mark E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2001 Português
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) produces three envelope glycoproteins, the attachment glycoprotein (G), the fusion (F) protein, and the small hydrophobic (SH) protein. It had been assumed, by analogy with other paramyxoviruses, that the G and F proteins would be required for the first two steps of viral entry, attachment and fusion. However, following repeated passage in cell culture, a viable mutant RSV that lacked both the G and SH genes was isolated (R. A. Karron, D. A. Buonagurio, A. F. Georgiu, S. S. Whitehead, J. E. Adamus, M. L. Clements-Mann, D. O. Harris, V. B. Randolph, S. A. Udem, B. R. Murphy, and M. S. Sidhu, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:13961–13966, 1997). To explore the roles of the G, F, and SH proteins in virion assembly, function, and cytopathology, we have modified the full-length RSV cDNA and used it to rescue infectious RSV lacking the G and/or SH genes. The three resulting viruses and the parental virus all contain the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene that serves to identify infected cells. We have used purified, radiolabeled virions to examine virus production and function, in conjunction with GFP to quantify infected cells. We found that the G protein enhances virion binding to target cells but plays no role in penetration after attachment. The G protein also enhances cell-to-cell fusion...

Active and Selective Transcytosis of Cell-Free Human Immunodeficiency Virus through a Tight Polarized Monolayer of Human Endometrial Cells

Hocini, Hakim; Becquart, Pierre; Bouhlal, Hicham; Chomont, Nicolas; Ancuta, Petronela; Kazatchkine, Michel D.; Bélec, Laurent
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 Português
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We report that both primary and laboratory-adapted infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates in a cell-free form are capable of transcytosis through a tight and polarized monolayer of human endometrial cells. Trancytosis of cell-free HIV occurs in a strain-selective fashion and appears to be dependent on interactions between HIV envelope glycoproteins and lectins on the apical membrane of the epithelial cells. These findings provide new insights into the initial events occurring during heterosexual transmission of the virus.

Membrane Fusion Tropism and Heterotypic Functional Activities of the Nipah Virus and Hendra Virus Envelope Glycoproteins

Bossart, Katharine N.; Wang, Lin-Fa; Flora, Michael N.; Chua, Kaw Bing; Lam, Sai Kit; Eaton, Bryan T.; Broder, Christopher C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 Português
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Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are novel paramyxoviruses from pigs and horses, respectively, that are responsible for fatal zoonotic infections of humans. The unique genetic and biological characteristics of these emerging agents has led to their classification as the prototypic members of a new genus within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily called Henipavirus. These viruses are most closely related to members of the genus Morbillivirus and infect cells through a pH-independent membrane fusion event mediated by the actions of their attachment (G) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. Understanding their cell biological features and exploring the functional characteristics of the NiV and HeV glycoproteins will help define important properties of these emerging viruses and may provide new insights into paramyxovirus membrane fusion mechanisms. Using a recombinant vaccinia virus system and a quantitative assay for fusion, we demonstrate NiV glycoprotein function and the same pattern of cellular tropism recently reported for HeV-mediated fusion, suggesting that NiV likely uses the same cellular receptor for infection. Fusion specificity was verified by inhibition with a specific antiserum or peptides derived from the α-helical heptads of NiV or HeV F. Like that of HeV...

Structure-Function Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 gD and gH-gL: Clues from gDgH Chimeras

Cairns, Tina M.; Milne, Richard S. B.; Ponce-de-Leon, Manuel; Tobin, Deanna K.; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 Português
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In alphaherpesviruses, glycoprotein B (gB), gD, gH, and gL are essential for virus entry. A replication-competent gL-null pseudorabies virus (PrV) (B. G. Klupp and T. C. Mettenleiter, J. Virol. 73:3014-3022, 1999) was shown to express a gDgH hybrid protein that could replace gD, gH, and gL in cell-cell fusion and null virus complementation assays. To study this phenomenon in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), we constructed four gDgH chimeras, joining the first 308 gD amino acids to various gH N-terminal truncations. The chimeras were named for the first amino acid of gH at which each was truncated: 22, 259, 388, and 432. All chimeras were immunoprecipitated with both gD and gH antibodies to conformational epitopes. Normally, transport of gH to the cell surface requires gH-gL complex formation. Chimera 22 contains full-length gH fused to gD308. Unlike PrV gDgH, chimera 22 required gL for transport to the surface of transfected Vero cells. Interestingly, although chimera 259 failed to reach the cell surface, chimeras 388 and 432 exhibited gL-independent transport. To examine gD and gH domain function, each chimera was tested in cell-cell fusion and null virus complementation assays. Unlike PrV gDgH, none of the HSV-1 chimeras substituted for gL for fusion. Only chimera 22 was able to replace gH for fusion and could also replace either gH or gD in the complementation assay. Surprisingly...

Cell Cycle Perturbations Induced by Infection with the Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Their Effect on Virus Replication

Dove, Brian; Brooks, Gavin; Bicknell, Katrina; Wurm, Torsten; Hiscox, Julian A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
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In eukaryotic cells, cell growth and division occur in a stepwise, orderly fashion described by a process known as the cell cycle. The relationship between positive-strand RNA viruses and the cell cycle and the concomitant effects on virus replication are not clearly understood. We have shown that infection of asynchronously replicating and synchronized replicating cells with the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a positive-strand RNA virus, resulted in the accumulation of infected cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Analysis of various cell cycle-regulatory proteins and cellular morphology indicated that there was a down-regulation of cyclins D1 and D2 (G1 regulatory cyclins) and that a proportion of virus-infected cells underwent aberrant cytokinesis, in which the cells underwent nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, division. We assessed the impact of the perturbations on the cell cycle for virus-infected cells and found that IBV-infected G2/M-phase-synchronized cells exhibited increased viral protein production when released from the block when compared to cells synchronized in the G0 phase or asynchronously replicating cells. Our data suggested that IBV induces a G2/M phase arrest in infected cells to promote favorable conditions for viral replication.

Characterization of the Early Steps of Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Using Luciferase Reporter Viruses

Koutsoudakis, George; Kaul, Artur; Steinmann, Eike; Kallis, Stephanie; Lohmann, Volker; Pietschmann, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 Português
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The lack of an efficient system to produce hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles has impeded the analysis of the HCV life cycle. Recently, we along with others demonstrated that transfection of Huh7 hepatoma cells with a novel HCV isolate (JFH1) yields infectious viruses. To facilitate studies of HCV replication, we generated JFH1-based bicistronic luciferase reporter virus genomes. We found that RNA replication of the reporter construct was only slightly attenuated and that virus titers produced were only three- to fivefold lower compared to the parental virus, making these reporter viruses an ideal tool for quantitative analyses of HCV infections. To expand the scope of the system, we created two chimeric JFH1 luciferase reporter viruses with structural proteins from the Con1 (genotype 1b) and J6CF (genotype 2a) strains. Using these and the authentic JFH1 reporter viruses, we analyzed the early steps of the HCV life cycle. Our data show that the mode of virus entry is conserved between these isolates and involves CD81 as a key receptor for pH-dependent virus entry. Competition studies and time course experiments suggest that interactions of HCV with cell surface-resident glycosaminoglycans aid in efficient infection of Huh7 cells and that CD81 acts during a postattachment step. The reporter viruses described here should be instrumental for investigating the viral life cycle and for the development of HCV inhibitors.

Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Controls Viral Chromatin Modifications through Effects on Kinetics of Virus Growth and Cell Cycle Progression▿

Dahl, Jean; Chen, H. Isaac; George, Michael; Benjamin, Thomas L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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575.57%
Minichromosomes of wild-type polyomavirus were previously shown to be highly acetylated on histones H3 and H4 compared either to bulk cell chromatin or to viral chromatin of nontransforming hr-t mutants, which are defective in both the small T and middle T antigens. A series of site-directed virus mutants have been used along with antibodies to sites of histone modifications to further investigate the state of viral chromatin and its dependence on the T antigens. Small T but not middle T was important in hyperacetylation at major sites in H3 and H4. Mutants blocked in middle T signaling pathways but encoding normal small T showed a hyperacetylated pattern similar to that of wild-type virus. The hyperacetylation defect of hr-t mutant NG59 was partially complemented by growth of the mutant in cells expressing wild-type small T. In contrast to the hypoacetylated state of NG59, NG59 minichromosomes were hypermethylated at specific lysines in H3 and also showed a higher level of phosphorylation at H3ser10, a modification associated with the late G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. Comparisons of virus growth kinetics and cell cycle progression in wild-type- and NG59-infected cells showed a correlation between the phase of the cell cycle at which virus assembly occurred and histone modifications in the progeny virus. Replication and assembly of wild-type virus were completed largely during S phase. Growth of NG59 was delayed by about 12 h with assembly occurring predominately in G2. These results suggest that small T affects modifications of viral chromatin by altering the temporal coordination of virus growth and the cell cycle.

Insertion of the Two Cleavage Sites of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein in Sendai Virus Fusion Protein Leads to Enhanced Cell-Cell Fusion and a Decreased Dependency on the HN Attachment Protein for Activity▿

Rawling, Joanna; García-Barreno, Blanca; Melero, José A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cell entry by paramyxoviruses requires fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane. Fusion is mediated by the viral fusion (F) glycoprotein and usually requires the aid of the attachment glycoprotein (G, H or HN, depending on the virus). Human respiratory syncytial virus F protein (FRSV) is able to mediate membrane fusion in the absence of the attachment G protein and is unique in possessing two multibasic furin cleavage sites, separated by a region of 27 amino acids (pep27). Cleavage at both sites is required for cell-cell fusion. We have investigated the significance of the two cleavage sites and pep27 in the context of Sendai virus F protein (FSeV), which possesses a single monobasic cleavage site and requires both coexpression of the HN attachment protein and trypsin in order to fuse cells. Inclusion of both FRSV cleavage sites in FSeV resulted in a dramatic increase in cell-cell fusion activity in the presence of HN. Furthermore, chimeric FSeV mutants containing both FRSV cleavage sites demonstrated cell-cell fusion in the absence of HN. The presence of two multibasic cleavage sites may therefore represent a strategy to regulate activation of a paramyxovirus F protein for cell-cell fusion in the absence of an attachment protein.

Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Tax Relieves Repression of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene Expression▿

Edwards, Dustin C.; Marriott, Susan J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia. The transforming ability of Tax, the viral oncoprotein, is believed to depend on interactions with cell cycle regulators and on transactivation of genes that control cellular proliferation, including proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a cofactor associated with DNA replication and repair. Tax associates with cellular transcription factors to alter their affinity for cognate DNA elements, leading to increased or decreased transcription from that promoter. Although it has been demonstrated that Tax transactivates the PCNA promoter, the mechanism of transcriptional activation is unknown. Here we report a cellular complex that binds specifically to a novel site within the minimal Tax-responsive element of the TATAA-less PCNA promoter. Mutation at this binding site or Tax expression inhibited complex formation and increased promoter activity, suggesting that the complex is a transcriptional repressor. The activation of PCNA gene expression by Tax and consequential decrease in nucleotide excision repair mediated by PCNA overexpression could contribute to the reduced DNA repair capacity and genomic instability observed in HTLV-1-infected cells.

Modeling Adenovirus Latency in Human Lymphocyte Cell Lines ▿ †

Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A.; Gooding, Linda R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180)...

Annexin II Binds to Capsid Protein VP1 of Enterovirus 71 and Enhances Viral Infectivity ▿

Yang, Su-Lin; Chou, Ying-Ting; Wu, Cheng-Nan; Ho, Mei-Shang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is mostly self-limited but may be complicated with a severe to fatal neurological syndrome in some children. Understanding the molecular basis of virus-host interactions might help clarify the largely unknown neuropathogenic mechanisms of EV71. In this study, we showed that human annexin II (Anx2) protein could bind to the EV71 virion via the capsid protein VP1. Either pretreatment of EV71 with soluble recombinant Anx2 or pretreatment of host cells with an anti-Anx2 antibody could result in reduced viral attachment to the cell surface and a reduction of the subsequent virus yield in vitro. HepG2 cells, which do not express Anx2, remained permissive to EV71 infection, though the virus yield was lower than that for a cognate lineage expressing Anx2. Stable transfection of plasmids expressing Anx2 protein into HepG2 cells (HepG2-Anx2 cells) could enhance EV71 infectivity, with an increased virus yield, especially at a low infective dose, and the enhanced infectivity could be reversed by pretreating HepG2-Anx2 cells with an anti-Anx2 antibody. The Anx2-interacting domain was mapped by yeast two-hybrid analysis to VP1 amino acids 40 to 100, a region different from the known receptor binding domain on the surface of the picornavirus virion. Our data suggest that binding of EV71 to Anx2 on the cell surface can enhance viral entry and infectivity...

Increased Early RNA Replication by Chimeric West Nile Virus W956IC Leads to IPS-1-Mediated Activation of NF-κB and Insufficient Virus-Mediated Counteraction of the Resulting Canonical Type I Interferon Signaling

Scherbik, S. V.; Pulit-Penaloza, J. A.; Basu, M.; Courtney, S. C.; Brinton, M. A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Although infections with “natural” West Nile virus (WNV) and the chimeric W956IC WNV infectious clone virus produce comparable peak virus yields in type I interferon (IFN) response-deficient BHK cells, W956IC infection produces higher levels of “unprotected” viral RNA at early times after infection. Analysis of infections with these two viruses in IFN-competent cells showed that W956IC activated NF-κB, induced higher levels of IFN-β, and produced lower virus yields than WNV strain Eg101. IPS-1 was required for both increased induction of IFN-β and decreased yields of W956IC. In Eg101-infected cells, phospho-STAT1/STAT2 nuclear translocation was blocked at all times analyzed, while some phospho-STAT1/STAT2 nuclear translocation was still detected at 8 h after infection in W956IC-infected mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and early viral protein levels were lower in these cells. A set of additional chimeras was made by replacing various W956IC gene regions with the Eg101 equivalents. As reported previously, for three of these chimeras, the low early RNA phenotype of Eg101 was restored in BHK cells. Analysis of infections with two of these chimeric viruses in MEFs detected lower early viral RNA levels, higher early viral protein levels...

Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Is a Receptor for Human Herpesvirus 8 and Interacts with Envelope Glycoprotein K8.1

Birkmann, Alexander; Mahr, Kerstin; Ensser, Armin; Yağuboğlu, Svenja; Titgemeyer, Fritz; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Neipel, Frank
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 Português
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An immunodominant envelope glycoprotein is encoded by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (also termed Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) K8.1 gene. The functional role of glycoprotein K8.1 is unknown, and recognizable sequence homology to K8.1 is not detectable in the genomes of most other closely related gammaherpesviruses, such as herpesvirus saimiri or Epstein-Barr virus. In search for a possible function for K8.1, we expressed the ectodomain of K8.1 fused to the Fc part of human immunoglobulin G1 (K8.1ΔTMFc). K8.1ΔTMFc specifically bound to the surface of cells expressing glycosaminoglycans but not to mutant cell lines negative for the expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Binding of K8.1ΔTMFc to mammalian cells could be blocked by heparin. Interestingly, the infection of primary human endothelial cells by HHV-8 could also be blocked by similar concentrations of heparin. The specificity and affinity of these interactions were then determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements using immobilized heparin and soluble K8.1. This revealed that K8.1 binds to heparin with an affinity comparable to that of glycoproteins B and C of herpes simplex virus, which are known to be involved in target cell recognition by binding to cell surface proteoglycans...