Página 18 dos resultados de 1811 itens digitais encontrados em 0.029 segundos

What do the public think about economic and social rights?: research report to inform the debate about a Bill of Rights and a written constitution

Vizard, Polly
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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Breaking the ‘class’ ceiling?: social mobility into Britain's elite occupations

Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel; Miles, Andrew
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2015 Português
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In this paper we use the unusually large sample size of the Great British Class Survey to compare rates of social mobility into different elite occupations. We find a distinction between ‘traditional’ professions, such as law, medicine and finance, which are dominated by the children of higher managers and professionals, and technical or emerging high-status occupations, particularly those related to IT, that appear to recruit more widely. Second, we find that even when the upwardly mobile are successful in entering elite occupations they invariably fail to accumulate the same economic, cultural and social capital as those from privileged backgrounds. While many such differences may be explained by inheritance, we also find that the mobile tend to have considerably lower incomes. Investigating this further we demonstrate that even when controlling for important variables such as schooling, education, location, age, and cultural and social capital, the upwardly mobile in eight occupations – located largely in the business sector – have considerably lower incomes than their higher-origin colleagues. These findings underline the value of analyses of mobility into specific high-status occupations as well as illustrating how, beyond entry...

Book review: The origins of active social policy: labour market and childcare policies in a comparative perspective

Peach, Donna
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/07/2013 Português
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"The Origins of Active Social Policy: Labour Market and Childcare Policies in a Comparative Perspective." Giuliano Bonoli. Oxford University Press. March 2013. --- Since the mid 1990s, governments throughout Europe have invested massively in two areas: active labour market policy and childcare. The result, a more active welfare state, seems a rather solid achievement, likely to survive the turbulent post-crisis years. This book contains case studies of policy trajectories in seven European countries and advanced statistical analysis of spending figures. Giuliano Bonoli provides a rich and well-referenced narrative, which readers can use to scaffold their understanding of Western European social policies, writes Donna Peach.

Book review: Diversity in family life: gender, relationships and social change

Peach, Donna
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2013 Português
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"Diversity in Family Life: Gender, Relationships and Social Change." Elisabetta Ruspini. Policy Press. June 2013. --- As new forms of ‘non-traditional’ families grow in number, there is a need to understand these new arrangements and models of parenthood. This book discusses examples of the relationship between changing gender identities and processes of family formation in the Western experience. It aims to show that in the 21st century it is possible to form a family without sex, without children, without a shared home, without a partner, without a working husband, or without heterosexual orientation. Donna Peach finds this an interesting and innovative book that serves to disrupt not only traditional constructions of family but also the links between research, academia and social media.

Portuguese drug policy shows that decriminalisation can work, but only alongside improvements in health and social policies

Stevens, Alex
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2012 Português
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Today the Home Affairs Select Committee in the United Kingdom releases a report on drug policy. The report draws on lessons from Portugal’s decriminalisation of drug possession and puts forward a case for the UK reconsidering its own policies. Alex Stevens assesses the situation in Portugal, noting that while decriminalisation has coincided with a fall in the most problematic forms of drug use, it is not the only factor. The expansion of drug treatments and the Portuguese welfare state have also played a role, illustrating the importance of improving social and health policies in addition to decriminalisation.

The role of schools in supporting HIV-affected children in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Andersen, Louise Buhl
Fonte: Institute of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Institute of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Aim: To establish an overview of school-based interventions carried out to support the health and well-being of vulnerable children in Zimbabwe and similar socio-economic contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A literature search was carried out in Web of Knowledge using combinations of the following search terms: support, intervention, school, child, Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa, health, well-being, inclusion and enrolment. A total of 12 articles were identified as relevant to the research question and included in this review. Findings: Interventions in sub-Saharan Africa have been successful in implementing health knowledge at schools. Whereas a few studies have acknowledged the potential of schools to go beyond knowledge and facilitate a supportive and caring environment for vulnerable children, they tend to refer to studies reporting on externally implemented and resourced interventions. Limited attention has been given to the psychosocial well-being of children and children’s own experiences of school environments. Conclusion: Existing literature needs to be supplemented with research exploring pathways through which schools in challenging socio-economic contexts manage to support HIV-affected children by drawing on already available resources and by involving local communities. Furthermore...

Identifying vulnerable groups in the Kyrgyz labour market: some implications for the national poverty reduction strategy

Bernabe, Sabine; Kolev, Alexandre
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2003 Português
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This paper investigates the overlap between employment status and poverty, drawing particular attention to the working poor and precarious workers, and to the existence of multiple labor-related risks faced by specific groups. This analysis is undertaken using the Kyrgyz Poverty Monitoring Survey, which is the only survey to date that allows a comprehensive analysis of poverty and labor market outcomes in the Kyrgyz Republic. The period under investigation covers the years 1997-1998, for which data are available. A key finding of this analysis is the extreme vulnerability of low-educated people and women in Kyrgyzstan, who cumulated a high risk of being unemployed, of remaining longer in unemployment, of being discouraged, and if employed, of being low-paid or working in precarious jobs.

Changing poverty post-1997

Piachaud, David; Sutherland, Holly
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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The paper analyses changes in poverty in Britain since 1997. A poverty level of 60 percent of median equivalised income is used. The first part examines the changes that occurred between 1996/7 and 2000/1 as shown by the Family Resources Survey, on which government estimates of Households Below Average Income are based. There was a small reduction in poverty overall and a larger proportionate fall in child poverty. This fall was attributable in part to increased employment and in part to changes in benefits and tax credits which increased for some, particularly for families on low earnings with children, but fell relative to median incomes for many of those without children and not in employment. The second part assesses policy changes implemented or announced for the period 2000/1 to 2003/4 by means of a micro-simulation model, POLIMOD, using a sample from the Family Resources Survey. The impact of policy changes is to reduce poverty compared to its prospects under previous policies. But, relative to a poverty level that rises in real terms in step with median incomes, future reductions in poverty are likely to be small. In order to keep on track towards the goal of halving child poverty by 2010, further policy measures will be required.

How effective is the British government's attempt to reduce child poverty?

Piachaud, David; Sutherland, Holly
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2000 Português
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The new Labour Government in Britain has made the reduction of child poverty one of its central objectives. This paper describes the specific initiatives involved in Labour's approach and weighs them up in terms of their potential impact. After setting out the extent of the problem of child poverty, the causes are discussed and Britain's problem is set in international perspective. The impact on child poverty of policies designed to raise incomes directly is analysed using micro-simulation modelling. A major emphasis of current policy is on the promotion of paid work, and we explore the potential for poverty reduction of increasing the employment of parents. We find that at its maximum, increasing paid work could roughly double the reduction in child poverty achieved by tax and benefit policies alone - a combined decrease of 1.85 million children in poverty. However, a more realistic forecast of increases in parental employment suggests that the number of children in poverty may be reduced by 1 million by 2002. The policies that address long-term disadvantage are also discussed and finally the whole programme is assessed and future strategy is considered.

Broadband adoption in low-income communities

Dharma, Dailey; Amelia, Bryne; Powell, Alison; Joe, Karaganis; Jaewon, Chung
Fonte: Social Science Research Council Publicador: Social Science Research Council
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
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The social function of the Internet has changed dramatically in recent years. What was, until recently, a supplement to other channels of information and communication has become increasingly a basic requirement of social and economic inclusion. Educational systems, employers, and government agencies at all levels have shifted services online—and are pushing rapidly to do more. Price remains only one factor shaping the fragile equilibrium of home broadband adoption, and library and community organizations fill the gap by providing critical training and support services while under severe economic pressures. Commissioned by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to analyze the factors shaping low rates of adoption of home broadband services in low-income and other marginalized communities, this SSRC study is one of the only large-scale qualitative investigations of barriers to adoption in the US and complements FCC survey research on adoption designed to inform the 2010 National Broadband Plan. The study draws on some 170 interviews of non-adopters, community access providers, and other intermediaries conducted across the US in late 2009 and early 2010 and identifies a range of factors that make broadband services hard to acquire and even harder to maintain in such communities.

Social media didn’t start the fire: proposals for the temporary shutdown of social media during riots are unlikely to prevent further unrest

Reilly, Paul
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2011 Português
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The impact of the riots that took place across England last month are still reverberating. We have seen long sentences handed down for those involved and rhetoric from the government on the social media that was seen to have helped rioters organise themselves. Paul Reilly evaluates these accusations and concludes that a focus on the disruptive potential of social media obscures the need for an inquest into the contexts and motivations of those who riot.

The riots and phone hacking saga remind us how fragile public confidence in government and corporations has become. Greater leadership, transparency and accountability are the first steps towards regaining this trust

Bratton, William J.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2011 Português
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The recent riots in the UK and high-level crimes such as phone hacking, and the MPs expenses scandal, reveal a lack of public confidence in the police, government and big business. Special police advisor William J. Bratton CBE draws on his experience in law enforcement and corporate leadership and finds that tough standards on accountability and transparency are needed to clean up crime at all levels of society.

Tenant Futures: external evaluation of the National Communities Resource Centre tenant training programme

Herden, Eileen
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /07/2014 Português
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This is an evaluation of the Tenant Futures programme, developed and run by the National Communities Resource Centre (NCRC) at Trafford Hall and funded by the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG).

Citizenship education should give young people the skills and knowledge to participate in political debate on social media

Shephard, Mark; Quinlan, Stephen; Taqq, Stephen; Paterson, Londsay
Fonte: Democratic Audit UK Publicador: Democratic Audit UK
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2014 Português
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Young people engage increasingly interact on social media, including engaging in political debate. Mark Shephard, Stephen Quinlan, Stephen Tagg and Lindsay Paterson have studied this form of discussion, and believe it offers potential to increase political literacy and engagement. However, there are important lessons that need to be learned by users of social media platforms, including about the accuracy of information and dealing with inflammatory statements. This post is part of our series on youth participation.

Those who believe hard work determines who gets ahead are less likely to support preferential hiring for women and African Americans

Wilkins, Vicky; Wenger, Jeffrey
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2014 Português
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Much conservative ideology is underpinned by the idea that in a just world, people should get what they deserve through hard work and opportunity. But if the world is not a just one, does people’s understanding of deservingness influence their support for government and its policies? Using results of the General Social Survey from between 1994 and 2006, Vicky Wilkins and Jeffrey Wenger find that individuals’ beliefs about deservingness influence the public’s support for particular policies, including affirmative action. They write that those who believe that luck is the most important determinant of getting ahead are more likely to support hiring preferences for women and African Americans, whereas those who believe hard work is the key are less likely to support preferential hiring.

Intimate partner violence in Rwanda: women’s voices

Mannell, Jenevieve; Jackson, Sharon
Fonte: Health, Community and Development Group, Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Health, Community and Development Group, Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2014 Português
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This report examines women’s responses to situations of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Rwanda. We draw on interviews with women who have experienced violence, focus groups with community members, and interviews with service providers. IPV is broadly defined here, consistent with how participants talked about violence in their own lives. Their definition of IPV included physical, economic, sexual and psychological forms of violence perpetrated by their intimate partners, including married and unmarried partners. This report was written by researchers belonging to the Health, Community and Development Group at the London School of Economics. The report is the result of a preliminary set of interviews and focus groups with individuals in Rwanda. It is not a formal research study, but rather an initial investigation carried out for the purposes of strengthening community responses to intimate partner violence and collaboration among non-governmental organisations working in this area.

Same-sex sexual attraction does not spread in adolescent social networks

Brakefield, Tiffany A.; Mednick, Sara C.; Wilson, Helen W.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.
Fonte: Springer New York Publicador: Springer New York
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/02/2014 Português
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Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks.

Revelations of dysfunctional governance in Wandsworth Prison are a reflection of the precariousness of bureaucratic arrangements throughout the public sector and their potential to unravel

Bastow, Simon
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/08/2011 Português
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Last Wednesday’s resoundingly critical report on HMP Wandsworth by the Chief Inspector of Prisons, Nick Hardwick, found evidence of severe deficiencies in many aspects of the prison’s management, staff culture, conditions and regimes. The report is now especially prescient given that London’s prisons were ‘filled to capacity’ after the recent riots. Simon Bastow argues that this is a stark reminder of how governance dysfunction can remain latent in a public sector system, while at the same time, can appear to be gradually improving.

Research report 1997-2001

Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
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Rather than an Annual Report for 2001, the Economic and Social Research Council which provides CASE’s core funding requested us to prepare a review of the Centre’s activities for the whole four year period from October 1997 when we started work. This report forms the main part of our submission which the Council will use in deciding whether to extend CASE’s funding for a further five years from October 2002. A separate Appendix presents performance indicators listing our output and activities for the four years from October 1997 under the headings of publications, external relations, financial resources and staff resources. A final summary table in the Appendix compares key elements in these over the four years.

Research report 1997-2001 : appendix : performance indicators

Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
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Rather than an Annual Report for 2001, the Economic and Social Research Council which provides CASE’s core funding requested us to prepare a review of the Centre’s activities for the whole four year period from October 1997 when we started work. This report forms the main part of our submission which the Council will use in deciding whether to extend CASE’s funding for a further five years from October 2002. A separate Appendix presents performance indicators listing our output and activities for the four years from October 1997 under the headings of publications, external relations, financial resources and staff resources. A final summary table in the Appendix compares key elements in these over the four years.