Página 18 dos resultados de 380 itens digitais encontrados em 0.038 segundos

Azeite e dieta mediterrânica num modelo de neoplasia experimental da mama

Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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Epidemiologic data reveal an important role of food and nutrition in breast cancer risk. Foods and nutrients, as well as processing and cooking techniques can have a protective or pejorative in carcinogenesis process, also in the mammary gland. The human nutrition complexity and the growing need to identify foods and nutrients involved and also the mechanisms through which they exert their effect motivated experimental studies using laboratory animals. Because the experimental conditions are fully established and had been previously validated, in this type of studies it is possible to investigate the role of foods and nutrients, isolated or combined, on mammary gland carcinogenesis chemically induced with specific and well known carcinogens. The present work pretends to continue a previous investigation project about the role of Mediterranean diet type in mammary carcinogenesis. In that project, female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and submitted to 7,12 dimetilbenzantrancene administration. Necropsy procedure was conducted in all the surviving animals after 150 days. The internal and external compartments were examined and all mammary or extra-mammary tumors were removed for further analysis. Considering biologic materials and results from the previous work...

Significância clínica da presença de Staphylococcus Coagulase-negativo isolados de recém-nascidos de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal em Brasília - DF

Cordeiro, Denise Nogueira da Gama
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Medicina, 2007.; Introdução e Objetivos – Há longo tempo os S. coagulase-negativo (SCoN) vem sendo reconhecidos como contaminantes em culturas pois fazem parte da flora da pele humana e das membranas mucosas. Nas últimas décadas eles emergiram como agentes etiológicos em infecções e são tanto causas importantes de infecções da corrente sanguínea nosocomiais, principalmente nas unidades de terapia intensivas neonatais (UTIN), quanto os contaminantes mais comuns das hemoculturas. Um elemento central da imunidade inata no recém-nascido, o neutrófilo, é imaturo, com deficiência na aderência, quimiotaxia e fagocitose, o que pode de alguma maneira explicar por que estes pacientes são tão susceptíveis às infecções por esse agente infeccioso. A freqüência de sobrevivência desses pacientes tem aumentado significantemente, porém a custo de necessidade prolongada, de cateteres venosos centrais, ventilação mecânica, nutrição parenteral e tratamento antimicrobiano. Esses materiais médicos artificiais podem ser colonizados pelo estafilococo, que forma um biofilme aderente no dispositivo, resiste às defesas do hospedeiro e tem uma susceptibilidade diminuída aos agentes antimicrobianos. Sinais clínicos de sepse nos recém-nascidos são inespecíficos e marcadores hematológicos e inflamatórios tem sido indicadores úteis para a identificação dos recém-nascidos sépticos. Julgar a significância clínica do estafilococo coagulase-negativo é vital...

Role of Dietary Fat in Human Nutrition: IV. Experimental and Clinical Evidence Relating to the Effect of Dietary Fat Upon Health in Man

Van Itallie, Theodore B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1957 Português
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Fibroblast growth factor 21 is a metabolic regulator that plays a role in the adaptation to ketosis12345

Domouzoglou, Eleni M; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2011 Português
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Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was originally identified as a member of the FGF family in homology studies and is a member of the endocrine FGF subfamily that lacks heparin binding domains and is released into the circulation. A potential role as a metabolic regulator emerged when FGF21 was shown to increase glucose uptake in adipocytes. Subsequently, marked elevations in FGF21 expression were observed in mice that ate a ketogenic diet and when fasting, which suggests that FGF21 expression plays a role in the adaptation to metabolic states that require increased fatty acid oxidation. Consistent with this evidence, FGF21 knockout mice were not able to respond appropriately to consumption of a ketogenic diet. FGF21 expression is downstream of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α in the liver and PPARγ in adipose tissue. FGF21 concentrations are higher in both rodent and human obesity, and recent data suggest that obesity may be an FGF21-resistant state. Recent data increasingly suggest that FGF21 is an important metabolic regulator that may have potential clinical implications.

Pharmacokinetics of Oral Taurine in Healthy Volunteers

Ghandforoush-Sattari, Mohammadreza; Mashayekhi, Siminozar; Krishna, Channarayapatna V.; Thompson, John P.; Routledge, Philipp A.
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is a normal constituent of the human diet. Little is known of the pharmacokinetics of taurine in man after oral administration. We studied the pharmacokinetics of 4 g taurine in eight healthy male volunteers (median age 27.5, range 22–45) following orally administration in the fasting state in the morning. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals and plasma taurine concentration was measured by a modified HPLC method. Data were subjected to noncompartmental analysis. Maximum plasma taurine concentration (Cmax) was measured at 1.5 ± 0.6 hr after administration as 86.1 ± 19.0 mg/L (0.69 ± 0.15 mmol). Plasma elimination half-life (T1/2) and the ratio of clearance/bioavailability (Cl/F) were 1.0 ± 0.3 hr and 21.1 ± 7.8 L/hr, respectively. Since taurine is occasionally used in therapeutics as a medicine, the pharmacokinetics and effects of oral taurine in healthy volunteers would be useful in the future studies of taurine in pharmacology and nutrition.

Internal frontier: The pathophysiology of the small intestine

Sugimura, Haruhiko; Osawa, Satoshi
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Even though the small intestine occupies a major portion of the abdominal space and is essential for life, in most pathology textbooks any chapter on small intestinal diseases, especially in human beings, is typically shorter than those for other gastrointestinal organs. Clinical and experimental investigations of the small intestine in various clinical situations, such as nutrition management, obesity interventions, and emergency care, have elucidated several important biological problems associated with the small intestine, the last frontier of gastroenterology. In this issue, a review by Professor Basson and his team at Michigan State University sheds light on the changes in the human small intestine under various conditions based on their clinical and surgical experience. With the advent of recent innovations in enteroscopy, a form of endoscopy used to examine deep within the small intestine, the issue that they highlighted, i.e., mucosal adaptation and atrophy of the human small intestine, has emerged as a major and manageable challenge for gastroenterologists in general, including the readers of the World Journal of Gastroenterology.

Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review

Singh, Hemant K.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/02/2013 Português
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Āyurveda, the science (ved) of life (ayu), owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry) and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating) plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years.

Higher Dietary Flavonol Intake Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes12

Jacques, Paul F.; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J.; Meigs, James B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Substantial experimental evidence suggests that several flavonoid classes are involved in glucose metabolism, but few clinical or epidemiologic studies exist that provide supporting human evidence for this relationship. The objective of this study was to determine if habitual intakes of specific flavonoid classes are related to incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We followed 2915 members of the Framingham Offspring cohort who were free of T2D at baseline from 1991 to 2008. Diabetes was defined by either elevated fasting glucose (≥7.0 mmol/L) or initiation of hypoglycemic medication during follow-up. Dietary intakes of 6 flavonoid classes and total flavonoids were assessed using a validated, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We observed 308 incident cases of T2D during a mean follow-up period of 11.9 y (range 2.5–16.8 y). After multivariable adjusted, time-dependent analyses, which accounted for long-term flavonoid intake during follow-up, each 2.5-fold increase in flavonol intake was associated with a 26% lower incidence of T2D [HR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.90); P-trend = 0.003] and each 2.5-fold increase in flavan-3-ol intake was marginally associated with an 11% lower incidence of T2D [HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.00); P-trend = 0.06]. No other associations between flavonoid classes and risk of T2D were observed. Our observations support previous experimental evidence of a possible beneficial relationship between increased flavonol intake and risk of T2D.

Recent Achievements in Stem Cell Therapy for Pediatric Gastrointestinal Tract Disease

Bae, Sun Hwan
Fonte: The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Publicador: The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The field of stem cell research has been rapidly expanding. Although the clinical usefulness of research remains to be ascertained through human trials, the use of stem cells as a therapeutic option for currently disabling diseases holds fascinating potential. Many pediatric gastrointestinal tract diseases have defect in enterocytes, enteric nervous system cells, smooth muscles, and interstitial cells of Cajal. Various kinds of therapeutic trials using stem cells could be applied to these diseases. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in stem cell applications for pediatric gastrointestinal tract diseases.

Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications

Azqueta, Amaya; Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A. S.; O’Neill Gaivão, Isabel; Collins, Andrew
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/08/2014 Português
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Cellular repair enzymes remove virtually all DNA damage before it is fixed; repair therefore plays a crucial role in preventing cancer. Repair studied at the level of transcription correlates poorly with enzyme activity, and so assays of phenotype are needed. In a biochemical approach, substrate nucleoids containing specific DNA lesions are incubated with cell extract; repair enzymes in the extract induce breaks at damage sites; and the breaks are measured with the comet assay. The nature of the substrate lesions defines the repair pathway to be studied. This in vitro DNA repair assay has been modified for use in animal tissues, specifically to study the effects of aging and nutritional intervention on repair. Recently, the assay was applied to different strains of Drosophila melanogaster proficient and deficient in DNA repair. Most applications of the repair assay have been in human biomonitoring. Individual DNA repair activity may be a marker of cancer susceptibility; alternatively, high repair activity may result from induction of repair enzymes by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations.

Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/11/2014 Português
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After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together...

Higher Dietary Flavonol Intake Is Associated with Lower Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes12

Jacques, Paul F.; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J.; Meigs, James B.; Dwyer, Johanna T.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.812102%
Substantial experimental evidence suggests that several flavonoid classes are involved in glucose metabolism, but few clinical or epidemiologic studies exist that provide supporting human evidence for this relationship. The objective of this study was to determine if habitual intakes of specific flavonoid classes are related to incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We followed 2915 members of the Framingham Offspring cohort who were free of T2D at baseline from 1991 to 2008. Diabetes was defined by either elevated fasting glucose (≥7.0 mmol/L) or initiation of hypoglycemic medication during follow-up. Dietary intakes of 6 flavonoid classes and total flavonoids were assessed using a validated, semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We observed 308 incident cases of T2D during a mean follow-up period of 11.9 y (range 2.5–16.8 y). After multivariable adjusted, time-dependent analyses, which accounted for long-term flavonoid intake during follow-up, each 2.5-fold increase in flavonol intake was associated with a 26% lower incidence of T2D [HR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.90); P-trend = 0.003] and each 2.5-fold increase in flavan-3-ol intake was marginally associated with an 11% lower incidence of T2D [HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.00); P-trend = 0.06]. No other associations between flavonoid classes and risk of T2D were observed. Our observations support previous experimental evidence of a possible beneficial relationship between increased flavonol intake and risk of T2D.

Diagnósticos de Enfermagem identificados na admissão hospitalar de idosos, para tratamento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis.; Nursing diagnostic identified in the hospital admission of elderly people for non transmissible chronic illnesses treatment

GUEDES, Helisamara Mota
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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In accordance with the necessity of rethinking the nurse performance towards to the health program of elderly people, it appears the necessity of knowing these people human answers at the moment of the hospital admission. The nursing diagnostic knowledge will allow the assistance planning to these aged ones, and also, to prepare the nursing team to attend these answers. Objectives: to analyze these population characteristics such as: age, sex, occupation, education, civil state, religion, monthly income, number of children, origin, number of chronic illnesses, ways of admissions to the hospital and previous internments, according to their gender; to identify in accordance to the Taxonomy of NANDA (2006) Nursing Diagnostic among the interned ones for clinical treatment; to describe the related factors of risk and defining characteristics of the identified diagnostic of nursing in this population. Methodology: it is related to a descriptive study, quantitative boarding, in 28 aged ones admitted during the first 24 hours in the medical clinic, situated in a center-west region Hospital School. The data collection occurred between August to October, 2007, by means of an instrument usage, half-structuralized for the elderly people evaluation. For the identification of the nursing diagnostic...

Some Priority Challenges of the Nursing Sector in India

Raha, Shomikho; Berman, Peter; Bhatnagar, Aarushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This note identifies some key areas for priority action in the current favorable contest for policy in the nursing sector in India. The present policy focus on increasing the number of nurses and nurse training centers is understandable given the countries nurse-to-population ratio is very low. However; based on evidence from Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, the findings presented here suggest that such a focus on numbers alone are not the priority concerns of nursing.

Analyzing Changes in Health Financing Arrangements in High-Income Countries : A Comprehensive Framework Approach

Busse, Reinhard; Schreyögg, Jonas; Gericke, Christian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This review is one in a series of analytic efforts designed to inform the policy debate related to health financing. The authors review evidence on health financing arrangements in high income countries as well as reforms over the last 30 years and to identify key policy lessons from this experience for low and middle income countries. Methodology: The review is based on a conceptual framework of health financing "functions". 25 high-income countries have been grouped for comparative evaluative purposes into three groups, based on the main mechanism of financing health care (social health insurance, taxes, private). Decisions on coverage and benefit entitlements as well as various functions of health care financing (i.e. collecting, pooling and purchasing) are described and analyzed.

Generic Drug Policies in Latin America

Homedes, Núria; López Linares, Roberto; Ugalde, Antonio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The World Health Organization and pharmaceutical experts have recommended that Generic Drug Policies be implemented to improve the availability of affordable medicines. This document reports on the status of generic drug policies in Latin America. The data presented are based on several sources: a survey conducted in 2003, archival information, and official health and pharmaceutical policy documents. The survey revealed that countries use different definitions for the terms generic and bioequivalence severely curtailing the ability to make comparisons across countries. There is also ample variability in the periods allowed for drug registration and registration charges. Although most countries in the region are becoming increasingly dependent on pharmaceutical imports, many have sizeable local pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity. The need to adopt common definitions for technical terms, the urgency of improving quality controls and the importance of strengthening generic drug programs are highlighted.

Probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal disorders

Davidson, G.; Butler, R.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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17.120391%
Probiotics have been defined most recently as living microorganisms which, upon ingestion in certain numbers, exact health benefits beyond inherent general nutrition. They have been a part of human nutrition for centuries, but in recent years they have been more closely studied for their potential to improve health and treat disease. This review of probiotics is not extensive, highlighting the most recent reviews and well controlled clinical studies in both animals and humans. The safety issues are also discussed as well as potential mechanisms of action. The importance of studying each probiotic bacterium individually in each condition where a health benefit is claimed is highlighted by Lactobacillus GG, the most widely studied probiotic which has proven benefit in reducing the severity and duration of viral diarrhea but no benefit against bacterial diarrhea.

Mutations in known monogenic High Bone Mass loci only explain a small proportion of High Bone Mass cases

Gregson, Celia L.; Wheeler, Lawrie; Hardcastle, Sarah A.; Appleton, Louise H.; Addison, Kathryn A.; Brugmans, Marieke; Clark, Graeme R.; Ward, Kate A.; Paggiosi, Margaret; Stone, Mike; Thomas, Joegi; Agarwal, Rohan; Poole, Kenneth E. S.; McCloskey, Eugene
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
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This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Wiley via http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2706; High bone mass (HBM) can be an incidental clinical finding; however, monogenic HBM disorders (eg, LRP5 or SOST mutations) are rare. We aimed to determine to what extent HBM is explained by mutations in known HBM genes. A total of 258 unrelated HBM cases were identified from a review of 335,115 DXA scans from 13 UK centers. Cases were assessed clinically and underwent sequencing of known anabolic HBM loci: LRP5 (exons 2, 3, 4), LRP4 (exons 25, 26), SOST (exons 1, 2, and the van Buchem's disease [VBD] 52-kb intronic deletion 3?). Family members were assessed for HBM segregation with identified variants. Three-dimensional protein models were constructed for identified variants. Two novel missense LRP5 HBM mutations ([c.518C>T; p.Thr173Met], [c.796C>T; p.Arg266Cys]) were identified, plus three previously reported missense LRP5 mutations ([c.593A>G; p.Asn198Ser], [c.724G>A; p.Ala242Thr], [c.266A>G; p.Gln89Arg]), associated with HBM in 11 adults from seven families. Individuals with LRP5 HBM (?prevalence 5/100,000) displayed a variable phenotype of skeletal dysplasia with increased trabecular BMD and cortical thickness on HRpQCT...

Are Self-report Measures Able to Define Individuals as Physically Active or Inactive?

Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.; Donnelly, Alan E.; Brage, S?ren; Ekelund, Ulf
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins via http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000000760; Purpose: Assess the agreement between commonly used self-report methods compared with objectively measured physical activity (PA) in defining the prevalence of individuals compliant with PA recommendations. Methods: Time spent in moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was measured at two time points in 1713 healthy individuals from 9 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire (RPAQ), the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the short European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity Questionnaire (EPIC-PAQ). Individuals were categorized as active (e.g. reporting ?150 min of MVPA per week) or inactive, based on the information derived from the different measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses and Kappa statistics were performed to evaluate the three PAQs ability to correctly categorize individuals as active or inactive. Results: Prevalence estimates of being sufficiently active varied significantly (p for all <0.001) between self-report measures (IPAQ 84.2 % [95% CI 82.5 to 85.9]...

Folatos y vitamina B12 en la salud humana

Brito,Alex; Hertrampf,Eva; Olivares,Manuel; Gaitán,Diego; Sánchez,Hugo; Allen,Lindsay H; Uauy,Ricardo
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Chile, folate deficiency is virtually nonexistent, while vitamin B12 deficiency affects approximately 8.5-51% depending on the cut-off value used to define deficiency. Folate is found naturally mainly in vegetables or added as folic acid to staple foods. Vitamin B12 in its natural form is present only in foods of animal origin, which is why deficit is more common among strict vegetarians and populations with a low intake of animal foods. Poorfolate status in vulnerable women of childbearing age increases the risk of neural tube birth defects, so the critical time for the contribution of folic acid is several months before conception since neural tube closure occurs during the first weeks of life. The absorption of vitamin B12 from food is lower in older adults...