Página 19 dos resultados de 585 itens digitais encontrados em 0.003 segundos

Easier access to education reduces inequality between genders but increases inequality within gender

Koutmeridis, Theodore
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/06/2014 Português
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From Plato and Marx to Piketty’s recent ‘Capital in the 21st Century’, scholars have always been worried about growing inequality. Even though most studies focus on the vicious consequences of rising economic inequality, the recent experience is more perplexing, as inequality has not increased in all dimensions. In particular, over the past four decades increasing U.S. wage inequality within gender has coincided with narrowing inequality between genders, while at the same time access to higher education has become more equal. Theodore Koutmeridis provides an explanation for the combination of these seemingly contradictory facts. He shows that equality of educational opportunity in the US has decreased wage inequality between genders, while at the same time it has increased wage inequality within gender, by boosting the education and experience wage premium.

In schools in the ‘New Latino Diaspora’ Spanish speaking families now have access to school practices but still have difficulty actively engaging with them

Lowenhaupt, Rebecca
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2014 Português
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In recent years the ‘Latino Diaspora’ has spread to states in the Midwest and Northeast, which have relatively little tradition of serving the needs of immigrants. Using Wisconsin as a case study, Rebecca Lowenhaupt examines how schools are supporting Latino students and their families. She finds that while schools largely ensure Spanish translation and interpretation of various school processes such as parent-teacher conferences, Spanish-speaking families tend not to join in key school activities such as meetings and events. She argues that schools with changing demographics have much to gain from seeking ways to foster active participation and agency among immigrant families by going beyond traditional methods of engagement.

In Mexico, women can take increased roles in local politics in response to the ‘crisis’ of migration to the U.S.

Andrews, Abigail
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/07/2014 Português
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Many communities in Mexico have been deeply affected by the large-scale emigration of workers to the U.S. Abigail Andrews examines the effects of migration on one such village, San Miguel. She finds that far from a source of “freedom,” for this community migration was a source of strain. She writes that with so many people having left the village to work in the U.S., the community’s system of participatory self-government was in crisis. Meanwhile, in the U.S., migrants from San Miguel faced persecution and abuse, since most of them were undocumented immigrants. This drove several migrant women of the village to return home. When the women returned, they took on central roles in local politics, in order to protect their communal way of life and sustain an alternative to living in the United States.

Procedures at the U.S.- Mexico border can be a life-or-death issue for unaccompanied children

Rosenbloom, Rachel E.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/07/2014 Português
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Since October, more than 57,000 unaccompanied children, mostly from Central America, have arrived at the U.S.-Mexico border. Fleeing epidemic levels of gang violence, these children are automatically placed into the custody of the Department of Health and Human Services, and receive a full evaluation of their eligibility to remain in the United States. This week House Republicans proposed changes to a 2008 law covering unaccompanied children, which would make it much harder for these children to receive services or adjudication of their claims. Rachel E. Rosenbloom argues that these proposed changes, if enacted, would lead many children to give up bona fide claims for asylum and other forms of relief, putting them at further risk.

The Affordable Care Act’s birth control mandate was an important factor in Barack Obama’s 2012 reelection

Deckman, Melissa; McTague, John
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2014 Português
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Prior to the 2012 presidential election, Democrats accused the Republican Party of waging a ‘war on women’ over their opposition to abortion, and to the Affordable Care Act’s mandate for employers to provide birth control coverage as part of their workplace based health insurance. In new research, Melissa Deckman and John McTague investigate how this narrative affected the outcome of the election. They find that whilevoters’ attitudes about abortion had no direct influence on whether they voted for Mitt Romney or Obama, attitudes about the birth control mandate, however, were significantly related to voting for Obama. They also write that voters were less likely to view Republican opposition to the birth control mandate as an issue of women’s personal sexual behavior, and instead perceived it as more in tune with their attitudes towards health care and social welfare in general.

The legalization of same-sex marriage in a state is a signal that causes certain groups to change their opinion to support the policy

Kreitzer, Rebecca; Hamilton, Allison; Tolbert, Caroline
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/07/2014 Português
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Five years ago, Iowa became the third U.S. state to allow same-sex marriages when the state Supreme Court issued a unanimous and very unpopular decision in the case Varnum v. Brien. Since this decision, public attitudes towards same-sex marriage in the state, and the United States in general, have changed dramatically. Rebecca Kreitzer, Allison Hamilton and Caroline Tolbert draw on a unique panel telephone survey in which the same individuals are interviewed before and after the Iowa Supreme Court legalized same-sex marriage to understand what groups of citizens were most likely to change their opinions on marriage rights in response to the Court’s decision. We find that the signaling of new social norms by the Court pressured some respondents to modify their attitudes. As the states continue on this rapid trajectory of legalizing same-sex marriage, we may see substantial shifts in attitudes towards LGBT rights.

The rise of personal computers has helped to narrow the wage gap between men and women

Beaudry, Paul; Lewis, Ethan
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/07/2014 Português
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In the past four decades the gap in pay between men and women has progressively narrowed, though it remains a prominent feature of the labor market. In new research Paul Beaudry and Ethan Lewis find that much of the decline in the gender wage gap can be attributed to the growing take up of personal computers (PCs) in the workplace. They also find that the more educated a market’s workers are, the more beneficial it is to adopt PCs, as they raise the skills of those in cognitive jobs more than in others.

Younger Blacks are less likely to suggest that discrimination explains racial disparities, tending to ascribe them to Blacks’ lack of will to “pull up their bootstraps”

Smith, Candis Watts
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/07/2014 Português
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Five decades on from the end of institutionalized segregation in the U.S., racial disparities between blacks and white endure. Despite these persistent inequalities, there has been a shift among Blacks away from believing that these disparities are caused by continuing discrimination and prejudice. In new research, Candis Watts Smith finds that this change in attitudes is has been driven in part by the growing cohort of young blacks who have grown up in an America that eschews institutional racism. She writes that Blacks born after 1976 are more likely to suggest that racial disparities are due to Blacks’ lack of motivation to pull themselves out of poverty, rather than because of structural discrimination.

World wide street

Hall, Suzanne
Fonte: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), University of Oxford Publicador: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), University of Oxford
Tipo: Book Section; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Cities and energy: urban morphology and heat energy demand

Fonte: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: LSE Cities, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2014 Português
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LSE Cities has published a new report and paper on the impact of urban morphology on heat energy demand in cities in collaboration with the European Institute for Energy Research (EIFER) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The research report ‘Cities and Energy: Urban Morphology and Heat Energy Demand’ focuses on heat energy efficiencies created by the spatial configuration of cities and is based on the identification of the five most dominant residential building typologies in each of the four largest European cities: London, Paris, Berlin and Istanbul. The paper authored by Philipp Rode, Christian Keim, Guido Robazza, Pablo Viejo and James Schofield presents the overall methodology and findings and is published under the same title in Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 41(1) 138 – 162. The study focuses exclusively on theoretical heat-energy demand related to design issues at their most fundamental level: building design and urban form. In Europe, approximately 70 per cent of energy use in residential buildings is heating related. Previous research has identified three types of intervention that could play equally important roles in reducing heat-energy demand: behavioural adjustments, technological advancement and design considerations. Focussing on the latter...

Models of governance of public services: empirical and behavioural analysis of 'econs' and 'humans'

Bevan, Gwyn; Fasolo, Barbara
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Book Section; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2013 Português
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How can individuals best be encouraged to take more responsibility for their well-being and their environment or to behave more ethically in their business transactions? Across the world, governments are showing a growing interest in using behavioural economic research to inform the design of nudges which, some suggest, might encourage citizens to adopt beneficial patterns of behaviour. In this fascinating collection, leading academic economists, psychologists and philosophers reflect on how behavioural economic findings can be used to help inform the design of policy initiatives in the areas of health, education, the environment, personal finances and worker remuneration. Each chapter is accompanied by a shorter 'response' that provides critical commentary and an alternative perspective. This accessible book will interest academic researchers, graduate students and policy-makers across a range of disciplinary perspectives. A selection of the world's leading behavioural economists apply behavioural science research to practical policy concerns in the areas of health, education, the environment, personal finances and worker remuneration Will appeal to people across a range of disciplinary backgrounds - students, practitioners and policy makers who are interested in the contributions that behavioural economics can make. Each chapter is accompanied by a shorter 'response' to provide commentary and an alternative perspective to help readers engage more fully with the issues raised.

'Women can do what men can do': the causes and consequences of flexibility in gender divisions of labour in Kitwe, Zambia

Evans, Alice
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Economic insecurity has catalysed growing flexibility in gender divisions of labour in Kitwe, Zambia. People's resulting exposure to, as well as collective reflection about, a critical mass of women performing work that was previously presumed to be beyond their capabilities, and valorised because of its association with masculinity, appears to erode gender stereotypes relating to competence and status. It is this weakening of gender beliefs, rather than women's increased access to resources per se, that appears to have directly undermined gender-status inequalities. This article's portrayal of growing gender egalitarianism contrasts with (though does not dispute the empirical claims of) earlier accounts of economic crisis in Zambia, which emphasised women's increased burdens. Some domains, such as unpaid care work, continue to be marked by persistent inequalities; however, drawing on ethnographic research (comprising life history narratives, group interviews and observation), it is argued that this is not necessarily an indicator of women's low status generally.

Family dynamics and internet use in Britain: what role do children play in adults' engagement with the internet?

Eynon, Rebecca; Helsper, Ellen
Fonte: Routledge Publicador: Routledge
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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The importance of considering the family context in the adoption and use of the Internet are well recognised. Supporters of the digital inclusion agenda often see children as a way to increase the digital skills and use of the Internet by parents and older adults. However, there is a limited amount of research that has explored whether this is really the case. Using two nationally representative survey data sets from Britain, this paper aims to better understand the links between children and adults' use of the Internet within the same household. In this paper, we ask what influence children have on adults' Internet use, skills and engagement. The paper concludes that while children might influence uptake, characteristics of the adult (for example. education, age and social capital) are more important in relation to their skills and engagement with the Internet.

Revisiting Milgram’s cyranoid method: experimenting with hybrid human agents

Corti, Kevin; Gillespie, Alex
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2014 Português
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In two studies based on Stanley Milgram’s original pilots, we present the first systematic examination of cyranoids as social psychological research tools. A cyranoid is created by cooperatively joining in real-time the body of one person with speech generated by another via covert speech shadowing. The resulting hybrid persona can subsequently interact with third parties face-to-face. We show that naïve interlocutors perceive a cyranoid to be a unified, autonomously communicating person, evidence for a phenomenon Milgram termed the “cyranic illusion.” We also show that creating cyranoids composed of contrasting identities (a child speaking adult-generated words and vice versa) can be used to study how stereotyping and person perception are mediated by inner (dispositional) vs. outer (physical) identity. Our results establish the cyranoid method as a unique means of obtaining experimental control over inner and outer identities within social interactions rich in mundane realism.

Decorative justice: deconstructing the relationship between the arts and imprisonment

Cheliotis, Leonidas
Fonte: International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy Publicador: International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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This article synthesises diverse material to discuss both state use of the arts for the purposes of controlling prisoners and the broader public, and the use made of the arts by prisoners and portions of the broader public as tools of resistance to penal states. The article proceeds with an analysis of the politics surrounding and underpinning the philosophy, formation, operation, effectiveness, and research evaluation of arts‐in‐prisons programmes in the contemporary Anglo‐American world. It argues that arts‐in‐prisons programmes and pertinent evaluation research are often employed as means to a variety of latent ignoble ends, with 'decorative justice' – the function of masking the injustices and painful nature of imprisonment behind claims of fairness, benevolence and care – chief amongst these ends.

Gratitude and athletes’ life satisfaction: a intra-individual analysis on the moderation of ambivalence over emotional expression

Chen, Lung Hung; Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Shouming
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2015 Português
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Research on gratitude usually focus on how trait gratitude can contribute to higher subjective well-being, but rarely focus on the role of state gratitude in shaping one’s subjective well-being at a given moment. Focusing on intra-individual differences, the first aim of this study is to examine whether state gratitude will contribute to higher state life satisfaction. Nevertheless, state gratitude may not always contribute to higher state life satisfaction. The second aim of this study is to determinate that when ambivalence over emotional expression in a given moment becomes higher, the association between state gratitude and state life satisfaction will become weaker. Twenty-nine elite student athletes were recruited and completed weekly questionnaires measuring gratitude, life satisfaction, and ambivalence over emotional expression across 10 weeks. Results of hierarchical linear modeling support hypotheses, showing that weekly gratitude positively predicted weekly life satisfaction, but this association was weaker when weekly ambivalence over emotional expression was higher than lower. Contributions to gratitude studies are discussed.

In politics, caricatures can become facts, and that is bad for everyone

Cacciatore, Michael; Yeo, Sara K.; Sceufele, Dietram A.; Xenos, Michael A.; Choi, Doo-Hun; Brossard, Dominique; Becker, Amy B.; Corley, Elizabeth A.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/2014 Português
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The distortion of facts is nothing new to politics and election campaigns. But, with the rise of the internet and 24-hour news cycle, rumors and conspiracy theories can now spread easier than ever through social networks to reach potential voters. Michael Cacciatore and co-authors look at two examples from the 2008 presidential election campaign to better understand how unsubstantiated rumors can become facts in voters’ minds. They find that values, including political ideology and evangelical Christian status, were primarily responsible for propelling misperceptions about President Barack Obama’s faith, while media use played a more important role in driving the misperception that Sarah Palin, and not Saturday Night Live’s Tina Fey, was responsible for the “I can see Russia from my house” quote. The latter finding lends some credibility to the so-called “lamestream media” effect often espoused by prominent Republican figures.

Egyptian media under transition: in the name of the regime... in the name of the people?

El Issawi, Fatima
Fonte: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Polis fellow Fatima El-Issawi looks at post-uprising Egyptian Media in a new report following her previous research on media in Libya and Tunisia.

The great global switch-off: international coverage in UK public service broadcasting

Harding, Phil
Fonte: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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A new report by Polis, Oxfam and the International Broadcasting Trust (IBT).

Is comment free? Ethical, editorial and political problems of moderating online news

Trygg, Sanna
Fonte: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: POLIS, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Polis visiting research fellow Sanna Trygg explores why we moderate public comment and the effects of different moderation policies.