This thesis offers a study of the impact of American domestic politics on President Jimmy
Carter’s role as diplomat-in-chief during the Camp David peace process. It argues that Carter’s
personal involvement in fostering an Egyptian-Israeli dialogue, the Camp David Accords and
Palestinian autonomy talks created a circular pattern of influence between domestic politics and
foreign affairs. Carter’s role as president-mediator engaged political actors, focused public attention
and raised the domestic stakes. As his term progressed, he subordinated diplomatic objectives to
political needs, which in fact had grown more urgent by controversy in Arab-Israeli negotiations.
As chief diplomat, Carter became intimately identified with American policy, which was
completely imbued with his own political character. That activated a number of reinforcing
domestic factors, some general to American foreign policy and others specific to the Arab-Israeli
arena, which served to constrain what he could achieve. By examining newly released archival
material, and engaging with news reportage and opinion polling, this thesis demonstrates how
advice reaching the president from multiple sources – his domestic, foreign and media advisors –
served to augment the other.
This thesis does not purport to offer a complete history of the Camp David peace process...
This thesis develops a public interest methodology for assessing the impact of
regulatory reforms in microfinance, applies this methodology to the case study of
Uganda and explains the results by analysing the political economy of policy
change. It thus combines public and private interest approaches in assessing microfinance regulation.
Firstly, the study develops a methodology for regulatory impact assessment based
on the public interest theory of regulation. The first step is an analysis of market
failures as the main rationale for regulation. Regulatory objectives are then defined with reference to these market failures. Finally, a variety of quantitative and
qualitative impact indicators are identified to measure the benefits of regulation
with reference to the achievement of the regulatory objectives while also considering the costs. Secondly, the thesis applies this rationale-objectives-indicators approach to the new legal framework for microfinance deposit-taking institutions
(MDIs) in Uganda using similar, but unregulated microfinance institutions as a
control group. The results show that the MDI regime‘s generally positive impact
was only achieved at substantial cost to the regulator and regulated institutions
and is skewed towards safety and soundness and systemic stability without adequate consideration of other objectives such as consumer protection and access.
A European consensus on the centrality of education for the guarantee and promotion of religious freedoms has emerged over the last two decades. Initially articulated in the human rights discourse of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and subsequently elaborated through the Council of Europe’s Recommendations, Declarations, Research Projects and Reference Books, this frame of reference forms a normative and legislative basis for states in Europe.
Long national traditions of particular approaches to the ‘protected spaces’ of religion and education, however, render the development of common policies and practices amongst states problematic. This thesis examines the impact of the European framework of freedoms of religion and education on states’ education systems. An important contribution to the scholarship of social constructivism and interpretivist studies, the thesis contextualizes the research question within the conceptual framework of Europeanization. The nature and extent of the Europeanization process are approached through the structured comparative study of two cases: France and Greece. The respective educational provisions towards religion classify these countries as two of the hardest critical cases in this area of Europeanization in seemingly opposing ways. The thesis utilizes discourse analysis of the key documents of national education...
This thesis examines the connections between ideologies of modernity and social power for three interrelated sets of elites in Mozambique. My research is based on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork primarily, but not solely, among the now adult children of high-ranking members of Frelimo (Mozambican Liberation Front, the ruling party since independence) and those closely associated with the party in the capital city of Maputo. It examines how elites’ transforming relationship to the project of modernity has allowed them to survive periods of dramatic social change while maintaining power, although in a modified form. The thesis argues that “local” understandings of modernity held by dominant groups in Mozambique have created the wider political field that unifies elites and creates the parameters in which they operate. It allows them both to control the positions that underwrite their social power and to attempt to justify their positions of power. The thesis examines the source of elites’ social dominance and how it has been transformed over the generations. I also investigate how recent social, political and economic changes have created a growing backlash among social groups who were once Frelimo’s strongest supporters. The thesis argues that through the acquisition and monopolisation of “modern” skills...
This thesis is an ethnographic study of the Ashéninka, an indigenous Amazonian group of eastern central Peru. While situating the Ashéninka ethnographically within Amazonian anthropology the project specifically seeks to understand the nature of Ashéninka society, notions of sociality and forms of self-identification. It also examines how these forms of thought and practice shape the Ashéninka’s continuing interactions with Peruvian national society.
My research first seeks to understand the underlying mechanisms that help Ashéninka householders to maintain their independent lifestyles. In common with other
Amazonian groups, the Ashéninka are most concerned with how to achieve a peaceful existence and ‘live well’. Unlike other groups, however, they believe that this is best
achieved by living apart from each other, in autonomous households. Attempting to illustrate what this means in practical terms, my thesis notes the importance of social
gatherings centred on the consumption of masato (manioc beer) in maintaining flexible links between disparate individuals and households. I argue that these gatherings, which are open to everyone (including strangers), provide the Ashéninka with a bounded and defined area in which general sociality can occur without infringing on individuals’ autonomy. Analysis...
Consumer choice has become a key reform trend in the provision of public services in Western European welfare states. Research on the welfare effects of choice reforms – including greater provider choice for the individual and competition between providers – has largely focused on economic evaluations of the extrinsic (outcome) effects of choice, thereby leaving its intrinsic, or procedural, value unexplored. The overarching objective of this thesis is to investigate the welfare effects of choice in the provision of health and long-term care (LTC) and their implications for equity. The thesis utilises the subjective well-being approach – incorporating both procedural and outcome utility from choice – to measure welfare effects based on quantitative analysis of survey data. Welfare effects and equity implications are examined in relation to: competition in health care in the English National Health System (NHS); choice of care package in the German long-term care system; and individual preferences and views of choice as a priority in the provision of health care in three NHS countries. The thesis argues that both service characteristics – extent of competition, information availability, technical complexity – and individual capabilities – ability to process information...
The past decade has seen a growing interest in the application of the Payments for Environmental Services (PES) instrument, in part for its apparent ability to alleviate
poverty and inspire sustainable environmental practices. More recently, PES programmes have been advocated for use within marine environments. However, concerns have been raised relating to their applicability in this context, e.g. ill-defined property rights and more fluid environmental services. Yet these issues have received little critical scrutiny. This thesis presents one of the first empirical analyses of the applicability of PES to the marine and coastal context, more specifically its suitability to small-scale artisanal fisheries. The first part of the thesis analyses expert opinions in order to identify what
opportunities and, indeed, what obstacles remain for PES more broadly in the marine environment. The second part delves a little deeper in order to identify those
determinants which can encourage adoption of marine PES within artisanal fishing communities are reported on, paying particular attention to those characteristics
important for low-income and vulnerable groups. In addition, the thesis investigates how PES adoption can be influenced by several key design parameters. Analyses are
based on primary data collected from six artisanal fishing villages in Mtwara...
National minorities, who claim autonomy and self-government rights, have always been a controversial problem in the fields of international law, political theory and
nationalism. Multiculturalism and egalitarianism are two approaches that have long been discussed in all of these fields and implemented in various contexts. The success of policies that seem to be associated with these two approaches, however, has varied from one case to another. This study asks if failures of these approaches have anything to do with the contexts in which they take place. If so, what is the context in which these approaches prove to be futile? Theorists themselves explain aspects of an ideal context under which their theories can become fruitful. These ideal contexts and circumstances are, however, unrealistic; and their assumptions about the nature of social relationships do not always correspond with the reality. This study aims to find a more reliable criterion to assess the applicability of
multiculturalism and egalitarianism. The thesis explains the relationship between national minorities and the state through a phenomenological paradigm. In this paradigm national minorities, the thesis argues, vary according to the state nationalisms they have experienced in the past. The thesis analyses the relational nature of minority and state nationalisms from this inter-subjective perspective. Within this framework...
This thesis is concerned with the relationship between the mass media and national identity. It uses methodological triangulation involving multiple methods and multiple sets of data to investigate the ways in which the mass media and television in particular have contributed to the formation of national identity in Taiwan. The Taiwanese case markedly points to the inadequacy of a widely held assumption bout the influence of the media on the formation of national identity: that national media foster national identity and global media weaken national identity. The thesis argues against this simplistic assumption, which reflects two dominant perspectives in the study of nationalism and communication the diffusionist view of national identity-formation, and the transmission view of communication. Both perspectives underestimate the complexity of the media-identity relationship and cannot adequately accommodate the Taiwanese case. This thesis provides an alternative perspective that stresses national identity-formation as a conjunctural mediation process between media representation and audience reception, whereby the powerful media and the active audience co-exist. As a constitutive part of the national discursive space that contains both text and reader...
The most serious foreign policy challenge that the Russian Federation faced from 1991 to 1996 was whether and how to respond to outbreaks of conflict within its neighbouring states. Unlike under the Soviet Union, there were open, diverse and complex debates about whether Russia should react to these conflicts, and if so, by what means. These foreign policy debates among the political elite and the ensuing policies form the subject of this thesis. The thesis asks what the dominant ideas expressed in these debates about foreign policy were, and whether they were reflected in Russia's policies towards specific military conflicts in the CIS States. To answer these questions, the thesis first derives insights about the role of ideas and debates within international relations literature which are helpful for the subsequent analysis of Russian foreign policy debates. It then identifies the dominant foreign policy ideas and foreign policy orientations, traces the major stages in the debates and the policies, and compares Russia's political debates, policies and actions towards the Moldova- Transdniestria, Georgia-Abkhazia and Tajikistan conflicts. Using interviews and both primary and secondary sources, the general finding of the thesis is that broad foreign policy ideas and orientations provided the backdrop against which debates occurred and policies were formulated or pursued. Ideas and debates were crucial factors in developing and defining an official pragmatic nationalist foreign policy orientation that crystallised in the later period. On the whole...
This thesis is based on a comparative case study of two bustee neighbourhoods located in two separate wards of Calcutta, and of the factors which have affected the performance of public officials providing primary health care services to their inhabitants. It is argued that poor bureaucratic performance and a lack of accountability lie at the heart of problems with the health system in West Bengal. The thesis evaluates the effectiveness of 'governance' reforms, comprising decentralisation and the application of the principles of New Public Management (NPM), on the performance of public officials. NPM and decentralisation apply the core assumptions of neo-classical economics to the study of bureaucratic decision-making. The thesis argues that local officials in Calcutta may not always have chosen to behave in a way which maxmised their personal welfare, but that history, culture and politics may have affected the choices that they made. The thesis questions the view that decentralization necessarily leads to greater community participation challenges contemporary notions of what constitutes 'civil society' and suggests a more nuanced view of the relationship between civil society and good government. It questions NPM's claims to universality...
The purpose of this thesis is to provide a comprehensive account and detailed analysis of the forces that led to the emergence and consolidation of the Syrian-Iranian alliance during a turbulent decade in the modern history of the Middle East. The alliance between the two states, which has now lasted over twenty years, has proved to be an enduring feature of the political landscape of this troubled region. Moreover, since its inception, it has had a significant impact in terms of moulding events and bringing about major changes in the contemporary Middle East. The thesis sets out to demonstrate that, contrary to prevailing views (due in large part to the authoritarian nature of the Syrian and Iranian regimes and their unpopularity in the West), the alliance between them has been essentially defensive in nature. It emerged in response to acts of aggression orchestrated by Iraq (1980) and Israel (1982), in both cases with the tacit support and prior knowledge of the United States. As a result of the research undertaken for this thesis, three distinct phases in the evolution and institutionalization of the Damascus-Tehran axis can be discerned. One chapter is devoted to each of these phases, constituting the three core sections of the thesis. A brief introduction sets out to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the genesis and evolution of the Syrian-lranian nexus. The first core chapter...
Soon after Yoweri Museveni's military seizure of power in Uganda in 1986, an insurgency war broke out in the north-eastern region of Teso. After six years of fighting a resolution was mediated by a number of agents drawn partly from the Museveni government and partly from local, indigenous resources in Teso. Today, despite lingering resentment against Museveni, the Teso insurgency is one of the few rare cases in Africa were a conflict was resolved by peaceful means. Taking a lead from Vivienne Jabri's Discourses on Violence the thesis seeks to situate the emergence and support of the Teso insurgency within the discourse that prevailed in the region at the time. The fighting was enabled by an interpretation of the Museveni government as being hostile to the people of Teso, yet it was also facilitated by a prevailing culture of violence. Understanding what causes an insurgency provides valuable insights into understanding what causes peace. The thesis therefore seeks to situate the emergence and support for peace in discourse. It discusses the different governmental and non-governmental agents that played a role in transforming the 'conflict discourse' into a 'peace discourse'. Reflecting back on the past of the insurgency and looking forward to the future...
Relying on new empirical data, derived from a survey, and supplemented by an extensive study of available secondary material, this thesis represents the first attempt systematically to explore key issues regarding occupational welfare in Russia, with special reference to health care. The thesis is divided into three parts: a discussion of the problematic; an investigation of the evolution of policy; and an examination of primary and secondary empirical data. The fundamental theoretical problems of occupational welfare are approached in the light of research in the West, in the Soviet Union and in post-Soviet Russia with emphasis both on divergences and commonalities. It is argued that any endeavour to separate Soviet and Western experiences is artificial and ultimately unproductive. Rather, the analytical penetration of ideological barriers renders possible an examination of their fruitful interaction. On the basis of existing knowledge two perspectives of occupational welfare -- social policy and organisation -- are introduced. An attempt to formulate a general definition of the notion of occupational welfare is also made. The evolution of occupational welfare and in particular its health care component are examined in their context...
The thesis will highlight both qualitatively and quantitatively that during the twentieth century
the English population experienced unprecedented improvements in mortality and particularly
morbidity, which has provided a substantial boost to standards of living and economic
development. Despite the extensiveness of these health improvements, there have been a very
limited number of attempts to evaluate and quantify these valuable improvements. None of the
existing studies that quantitatively assess improved health actually measure health per se, as
they all utilise mortality as a proxy. Furthermore, there have been no historical studies that aim
to map the evolution of improving health from the perspective of quality of life for illness
sufferers. The thesis will fill all of these voids through developing a quantitative health
(mortality and morbidity) measuring tool that is capable of providing (monetary) estimates
about the contribution of improved health to standards of living and economic developments
in twentieth century England. This will be applied to key case study illnesses (blindness,
breast cancer, stomach cancer and tuberculosis) and then extrapolated forward to include all
illnesses which will be combined with mortality in order to provide an aggregate health index
for twentieth century England.
The results of this exercise provide a significant contribution to the twentieth century health
and economic history of England. The thesis findings that...
This thesis studies the application of geometric concepts and methods in the analysis
of strategic-form games, in particular bimatrix games. Our focus is on three
geometric concepts: the index, geometric algorithms for the computation of Nash
equilibria, and polytopes.
The contribution of this thesis consists of three parts. First, we present an algorithm
for the computation of the index in degenerate bimatrix games. For this, we define
a new concept, the “lex-index” of an extreme equilibrium, which is an extension of
the standard index. The index of an equilibrium component is easily computable
as the sum of the lex-indices of all extreme equilibria of that component.
Second, we give several new results on the linear tracing procedure, and its bimatrix
game implementation, the van den Elzen-Talman (ET) algorithm. We compare
the ET algorithm to two other algorithms: On the one hand, we show that the
Lemke-Howson algorithm, the classic method for equilibrium computation in bimatrix
games, and the ET algorithm differ substantially. On the other hand, we
prove that the ET algorithm, or more generally, the linear tracing procedure, is a
special case of the global Newton method, a geometric algorithm for the computation
of equilibria in strategic-form games. As the main result of this part of the
Turkey’s European Union (EU) membership aspirations form a critical junction on the
road to further European integration. During the past decade, the role of
nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) as facilitators of the accession process has
grown exponentially in relevance. In Turkey’s case, specific policies have emerged to
support this element of the pre-accession process. By targeting NGOs, these policies
aim to Europeanise and democratise Turkish civil society and in so doing prepare
Turkey for eventual EU accession. This logic draws on the liberal democratic tradition
that anticipates democratisation to be a key outcome of NGO support. The thesis
questions the appropriateness of such assumptions, since Turkish NGOs respond to EU
policy in a variety of locally meaningful ways that may circumvent the stated policy
outcomes. The wider the gap between policy and reality, the more space there is for
NGOs to exercise their agency, and more uncertain the Europeanisation processes
The thesis starts out by juxtaposing the European and Turkish perspectives in
turn. The EU approach suggests that NGOs behave similarly across different cultural
contexts and can be called upon to perform a variety of roles deemed useful for the
overall policy process. However...
This thesis seeks to understand why civil society organisations (CSOs) in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) began to mobilise in the 1990s and why government overtures to consulting CSOs on trade matters emerged from around the same time. In
addition, this thesis examines the ways in which different types of CSOs have mobilised
on trade issues and the ways in which governments have included CSOs in trade
consultations. To answer the “why” questions, this thesis posits that both material and
ideational factors were important for motivating CSOs to conceive of themselves as
needing to mobilise on trade matters in the context of the 1990s. The material and
ideational factors of note here are: shifts in the direction of neo-liberal policy orientation,
towards a focus on globalisation and towards emphasising good governance. These have
impacted on actor interests and perceptions. Despite ideational and material factors
impacting on CSO interest perceptions and on government approaches to trade matters,
these factors cannot account for variations in the types of CSOs that mobilise and that
governments consult on trade matters. This is where institutional factors become
important. Institutions can help one to understand how different CSOs have mobilized
and how CSOs have been included on trade matters at the region level and across three
case studies (Barbados...
The explanation of social behaviour requires an understanding of individual
orientations to social issues as these exist relative to others. This thesis argues
that whilst the attitude concept and social representations have illuminated
certain aspects of social behaviour, both are handicapped by a restricted focus.
The former’s focus on the evaluation of attitude objects excludes a reference to
wider societal processes. The latter provides an account of societal
contingencies, but excludes an explanation of individual orientations towards
objects and issues in the social environment. This thesis postulates the point of
view concept to bridge this gap, that provides an explanation of social
behaviour at the situational level. This complements attitude and social
representations in a nested, multilevel explanation of social behaviour. The
point of view is defined as an outlook towards a social event, expressed as a
claim, which can be supported by an argument of opinion based on a system of
knowledge from which it derives its logic. It reflects an individual’s
orientation towards a social object, relative to others. This thesis has
demonstrated, in a series of empirical studies, that the point of view can be
typified in three categories. A monological point of view is closed to another’s
perspective. A dialogical point of view acknowledges another’s perspective
but dismisses it as wrong. A metalogical point of view acknowledges the
relativity of its’ perspective...
This thesis is concerned with measurements used in economic activity and
investigates how historical markets managed transactional problems due to
unreliable measurements. Existing literature has generally associated the problems of
measurements in historical markets with the lack of uniformity in weights and
measures. This thesis shows that metrological standardization was not sufficient to
ensure reliability of measurements. Markets developed mensuration practices that
enabled markets to address specific transactional issues in micro-contexts. This
involved, in addition to the use of standardized metrology, improved governance of
transactions, third party monitoring and guaranteeing, and other institutional
solutions. Historical institutional arrangements were altered or replaced as a result of
changing or standardizing mensuration practices.
The thesis also makes a conceptual contribution in terms of understanding the
process of standardization. It shows how, while standards can be inflexible and
rationalized (i.e. limited in number), standardized practices can incorporate a number
of such standards and be flexible in terms which standard to be used in a given
context. Analytically, standardized practices are institutional objects that are
determined endogenously and are formed in 'packages' that create interlinks