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Cell Growth Inhibition by Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors Is Mediated by Gain of Geranylgeranylated RhoB

Du, Wei; Lebowitz, Peter F.; Prendergast, George C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 Português
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Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.

Shp-2 Tyrosine Phosphatase Functions as a Negative Regulator of the Interferon-Stimulated Jak/STAT Pathway

You, Min; Yu, De-Hua; Feng, Gen-Sheng
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1999 Português
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Shp-2 is an SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. Although the mechanism remains to be defined, substantial experimental data suggest that Shp-2 is primarily a positive regulator in cell growth and development. We present evidence here that Shp-2, while acting to promote mitogenic signals, also functions as a negative effector in interferon (IFN)-induced growth-inhibitory and apoptotic pathways. Treatment of mouse fibroblast cells lacking a functional Shp-2 with IFN-α or IFN-γ resulted in an augmented suppression of cell viability compared to that of wild-type cells. To dissect the molecular mechanism, we examined IFN-induced activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, using a specific DNA probe (hSIE). The amounts of STAT proteins bound to hSIE upon IFN-α or IFN-γ stimulation were significantly increased in Shp-2−/− cells. Consistently, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Stat1 upon IFN-γ treatment and, to a lesser extent, upon IFN-α stimulation were markedly elevated in mutant cells. Furthermore, IFN-γ induced a higher level of caspase 1 expression in Shp-2−/− cells than in wild-type cells. Reintroduction of wild-type Shp-2 protein reversed the hypersensitivity of Shp-2−/− fibroblasts to the cytotoxic effect of IFN-α and IFN-γ. Excessive activation of STATs by IFNs was also diminished in mutant cells in which Shp-2 had been reintroduced. Together...

Functional Domains of c-myc Promoter Binding Protein 1 Involved in Transcriptional Repression and Cell Growth Regulation

Ghosh, Asish K.; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 Português
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We initially identified c-myc promoter binding protein 1 (MBP-1), which negatively regulates c-myc promoter activity, from a human cervical carcinoma cell expression library. Subsequent studies on the biological role of MBP-1 demonstrated induction of cell death in fibroblasts and loss of anchorage-independent growth, reduced invasive ability, and tumorigenicity of human breast carcinoma cells. To investigate the potential role of MBP-1 as a transcriptional regulator, a chimeric protein containing MBP-1 fused to the DNA binding domain of the yeast transactivator factor GAL4 was constructed. This fusion protein exhibited repressor activity on the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter via upstream GAL4 DNA binding sites. Structure-function analysis of mutant MBP-1 in the context of the GAL4 DNA binding domain revealed that MBP-1 transcriptional repressor domains are located in the N terminus (amino acids 1 to 47) and C terminus (amino acids 232 to 338), whereas the activation domain lies in the middle (amino acids 140 to 244). The N-terminal domain exhibited stronger transcriptional repressor activity than the C-terminal region. When the N-terminal repressor domain was transferred to a potent activator, transcription was strongly inhibited. Both of the repressor domains contained hydrophobic regions and had an LXVXL motif in common. Site-directed mutagenesis in the repressor domains indicated that the leucine residues in the LXVXL motif are required for transcriptional repression. Mutation of the leucine residues in the common motif of MBP-1 also abrogated the repressor activity on the c-myc promoter. In addition...

E2F4 Actively Promotes the Initiation and Maintenance of Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Cell Differentiation

Persengiev, Stephan P.; Kondova, Ivanela I.; Kilpatrick, Daniel L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 Português
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E2F transcription factors play a critical role in cell cycle progression through the regulation of genes required for G1/S transition. They are also thought to be important for growth arrest; however, their potential role in the cell differentiation process has not been previously examined. Here, we demonstrate that E2F4 is highly upregulated following the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF), while E2F1, E2F3, and E2F5 are downregulated. Immunoprecipitation and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that both the nuclear localization of E2F4 and its association with the Rb family member p130 increased following neuronal differentiation. The forced expression of E2F4 markedly enhanced the rate of PC12 cell differentiation induced by NGF and also greatly lowered the rate at which cells lost their neuronal phenotype following NGF removal. Importantly, this effect occurred in the absence of any significant change in the growth regulation of PC12 cells by NGF. Further, the downregulation of E2F4 expression with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibited NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating an important role for this factor during PC12 cell differentiation. Finally, E2F4 expression was found to increase dramatically in the developing rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum...

ei24, a p53 Response Gene Involved in Growth Suppression and Apoptosis

Gu, Zhengming; Flemington, Cathy; Chittenden, Thomas; Zambetti, Gerard P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2000 Português
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DNA damage and/or hyperproliferative signals activate the wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein, which induces a G1 cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Although the mechanism of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest is fairly well defined, the p53-dependent pathway regulating apoptosis is poorly understood. Here we report the functional characterization of murine ei24 (also known as PIG8), a gene directly regulated by p53, whose overexpression negatively controls cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death. Ectopic ei24 expression markedly inhibits cell colony formation, induces the morphological features of apoptosis, and reduces the number of β-galactosidase-marked cells, which is efficiently blocked by coexpression of Bcl-XL. The ei24/PIG8 gene is localized on human chromosome 11q23, a region frequently altered in human cancers. These results suggest that ei24 may play an important role in negative cell growth control by functioning as an apoptotic effector of p53 tumor suppressor activities.

Inhibition of the Motility and Growth of B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells by Dominant Negative Mutants of Dok-1

Hosooka, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Hiroshi; Horikawa, Tatsuya; Matozaki, Takashi; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Kasuga, Masato
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2001 Português
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Dok-1 (p62Dok) is a multiple-site docking protein that acts downstream of receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Although it has been proposed to contribute to the control of cell growth and migration through association with the Ras GTPase-activating protein and the adapter protein Nck, the role of Dok-1 remains largely unknown. The functions of Dok-1 have now been investigated by the generation of two different COOH-terminal truncation mutants of this protein: one (DokPH+PTB) containing the pleckstrin homology and phosphotyrosine-binding domains, and the other (DokPH) composed only of the pleckstrin homology domain. Both of these mutant proteins were shown to act in a dominant negative manner. Overexpression of each of the mutants in highly metastatic B16F10 mouse melanoma cells thus both inhibited the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous Dok-1 induced by cell adhesion as well as reduced the association of the endogenous protein with cellular membranes and the cytoskeleton. Overexpression of DokPH+PTB in these cells also markedly reduced both the rates of cell spreading, migration, and growth as well as the extent of Ras activation. The effects of DokPH on these processes were less pronounced than were those of DokPH+PTB, indicating the importance of the phosphotyrosine-binding domain. These results suggest that at least in B16F10 cells...

Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Activates Serum Response Factor Gene Expression by Multiple Distinct Signaling Mechanisms

Spencer, Jeffrey A.; Major, Michael L.; Misra, Ravi P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 Português
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Serum response factor (SRF) plays a central role in the transcriptional response of mammalian cells to a variety of extracellular signals. It is a key regulator of many cellular early response genes which are believed to be involved in cell growth and differentiation. The mechanism by which SRF activates transcription in response to mitogenic agents has been extensively studied; however, significantly less is known about regulation of the SRF gene itself. Previously, we identified distinct regulatory elements in the SRF promoter that play a role in activation, including a consensus ETS domain binding site, a consensus overlapping Sp/Egr-1 binding site, and two SRF binding sites. We further showed that serum induces SRF by a mechanism that requires an intact SRF binding site, also termed a CArG box. In the present study we demonstrate that in response to stimulation of cells by a purified growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), the SRF promoter is upregulated by a complex pathway that involves at least two independent mechanisms: a CArG box-independent mechanism that is mediated by an ETS binding site, and a novel CArG box-dependent mechanism that requires both an Sp factor binding site and the CArG motifs for maximal stimulation. Our analysis indicates that the CArG/Sp element activation mechanism is mediated by distinct signaling pathways. The CArG box-dependent component is targeted by a Rho-mediated pathway...

Calcium and S100B Regulation of p53-Dependent Cell Growth Arrest and Apoptosis

Scotto, Christian; Deloulme, Jean Christophe; Rousseau, Denis; Chambaz, Edmond; Baudier, Jacques
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
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In glial C6 cells constitutively expressing wild-type p53, synthesis of the calcium-binding protein S100B is associated with cell density-dependent inhibition of growth and apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. A functional interaction between S100B and p53 was first demonstrated in p53-negative mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF cells) by sequential transfection with the S100B and the temperature-sensitive p53Val135 genes. We show that in MEF cells expressing a low level of p53Val135, S100B cooperates with p53Val135 in triggering calcium-dependent cell growth arrest and cell death in response to UV irradiation at the nonpermissive temperature (37.5°C). Calcium-dependent growth arrest of MEF cells expressing S100B correlates with specific nuclear accumulation of the wild-type p53Val135 conformational species. S100B modulation of wild-type p53Val135 nuclear translocation and functions was confirmed with the rat embryo fibroblast (REF) cell line clone 6, which is transformed by oncogenic Ha-ras and overexpression of p53Val135. Ectopic expression of S100B in clone 6 cells restores contact inhibition of growth at 37.5°C, which also correlates with nuclear accumulation of the wild-type p53Val135 conformational species. Moreover, a calcium ionophore mediates a reversible G1 arrest in S100B-expressing REF (S100B-REF) cells at 37.5°C that is phenotypically indistinguishable from p53-mediated G1 arrest at the permissive temperature (32°C). S100B-REF cells proceeding from G1 underwent apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. Our data support a model in which calcium signaling and S100B cooperate with the p53 pathways of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis.

The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein Affects Myeloid Cell Growth, Differentiation, and Apoptosis†

Shaknovich, Rita; Yeyati, Patricia L.; Ivins, Sarah; Melnick, Ari; Lempert, Cheryl; Waxman, Samuel; Zelent, Arthur; Licht, Jonathan D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 Português
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The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) gene, which is disrupted in therapy-resistant, t(11;17)(q23;q21)-associated acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), is expressed in immature hematopoietic cells and is down-regulated during differentiation. To determine the role of PLZF in myeloid development, we engineered expression of PLZF in murine 32Dcl3 cells. Expression of PLZF had a dramatic growth-suppressive effect accompanied by accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 compartment of the cell cycle and an increased incidence of apoptosis. PLZF-expressing pools also secreted a growth-inhibitory factor, which could explain the severe growth suppression of PLZF-expressing pools that occurred despite the fact that only half of the cells expressed high levels of PLZF. PLZF overexpression inhibited myeloid differentiation of 32Dcl3 cells in response to granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors. Furthermore, cells that expressed PLZF appeared immature as demonstrated by morphology, increased expression of Sca-1, and decreased expression of Gr-1. These findings suggest that PLZF is an important regulator of cell growth, death, and differentiation. Disruption of PLZF function associated with t(11;17) may be a critical event leading to APL.

Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Is Sufficient for Cell Cycle Entry and Promotes Cellular Changes Characteristic of Oncogenic Transformation

Klippel, Anke; Escobedo, Maria-Amelia; Wachowicz, Matthew S.; Apell, Gerald; Brown, Timothy W.; Giedlin, Martin A.; Kavanaugh, W. Michael; Williams, Lewis T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 Português
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Using a new inducible form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) we have found that PI 3-kinase activation has the following effects on cell growth and proliferation. (i) Activation of PI 3-kinase was sufficient to promote entry into S phase of the cell cycle within several hours. This was shown by activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) and Cdk2 and by the induction of DNA synthesis. (ii) PI 3-kinase activation alone was not, however, sufficient to provide for progression through the entire cell cycle. Instead, prolonged activation of PI 3-kinase in the absence of serum stimulation resulted in apoptosis. It is possible that the cells undergo apoptosis because the PI 3-kinase-induced entry into the cell cycle is abnormal. For example, we found that the cyclin E-Cdk2 complex, which normally disappears after entry into S phase of the cell cycle, fails to be downregulated following induction by PI 3-kinase. (iii) Finally, we found that prolonged activation of PI 3-kinase in the presence of serum resulted in cellular changes that resemble those associated with oncogenic transformation. The cells reached high densities, were irregular and refractile in appearance, and formed colonies in soft agar. In contrast, neither PI 3-kinase nor serum stimulation alone could induce these changes. Our results suggest that activation of PI 3-kinase promotes anchorage-independent cell growth and entry into the cell cycle but does not abrogate the growth factor requirement for cell proliferation.

RACK1, an Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) Receptor-Interacting Protein, Modulates IGF-I-Dependent Integrin Signaling and Promotes Cell Spreading and Contact with Extracellular Matrix

Hermanto, Ulrich; Zong, Cong S.; Li, Weiqun; Wang, Lu-Hai
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 Português
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The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR) is known to regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, cell differentiation, and cell transformation. IRS-1 and Shc, substrates of the IGF-IR, are known to mediate IGF-IR signaling pathways such as those of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which are believed to play important roles in some of the IGF-IR-dependent biological functions. We used the cytoplasmic domain of IGF-IR in a yeast two-hybrid interaction trap to identify IGF-IR-interacting molecules that may potentially mediate IGF-IR-regulated functions. We identified RACK1, a WD repeat family member and a Gβ homologue, and demonstrated that RACK1 interacts with the IGF-IR but not with the closely related insulin receptor (IR). In several types of mammalian cells, RACK1 interacted with IGF-IR, protein kinase C, and β1 integrin in response to IGF-I and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulation. Whereas most of RACK1 resides in the cytoskeletal compartment of the cytoplasm, transformation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells by v-Src, oncogenic IR or oncogenic IGF-IR, but not by Ros or Ras, resulted in a significantly increased association of RACK1 with the membrane. We examined the role of RACK1 in IGF-IR-mediated functions by stably overexpressing RACK1 in NIH 3T3 cells that expressed an elevated level of IGF-IR. RACK1 overexpression resulted in reduced IGF-I-induced cell growth in both anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions. Overexpression of RACK1 also led to enhanced cell spreading...

Low-Molecular-Weight Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Is a Positive Component of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Pathway

Park, Eui Kyun; Warner, Neil; Mood, Kathleen; Pawson, Tony; Daar, Ira O.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2002 Português
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Low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) has been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and actin rearrangement mediated by several receptor tyrosine kinases, including platelet-derived growth factor and epidermal growth factor. Here we identify the Xenopus laevis homolog of LMW-PTP1 (XLPTP1) as an additional positive regulator in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway during Xenopus development. XLPTP1 has an expression pattern that displays substantial overlap with FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) during Xenopus development. Using morpholino antisense technology, we show that inhibition of endogenous XLPTP1 expression dramatically restricts anterior and posterior structure development and inhibits mesoderm formation. In ectodermal explants, loss of XLPTP1 expression dramatically blocks the induction of the early mesoderm gene, Xbrachyury (Xbra), by FGF and partially blocks Xbra induction by Activin. Moreover, FGF-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase is also inhibited by XLPTP1 morpholino antisense oligonucleotides; however, introduction of RNA encoding XLPTP1 is able to rescue morphological and biochemical effects of antisense inhibition. Inhibition of FGF-induced MAP kinase activity due to loss of XLPTP1 is also rescued by an active Ras...

Nuclear Factor YY1 Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor β- and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Cell Differentiation

Kurisaki, Keiko; Kurisaki, Akira; Valcourt, Ulrich; Terentiev, Alexei A.; Pardali, Katerina; ten Dijke, Peter; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Ericsson, Johan; Moustakas, Aristidis
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 Português
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868.5074%
Smad proteins transduce transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals that regulate cell growth and differentiation. We have identified YY1, a transcription factor that positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes, as a novel Smad-interacting protein. YY1 represses the induction of immediate-early genes to TGF-β and BMP, such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene (PAI-1) and the inhibitor of differentiation/inhibitor of DNA binding 1 gene (Id-1). YY1 inhibits binding of Smads to their cognate DNA elements in vitro and blocks Smad recruitment to the Smad-binding element-rich region of the PAI-1 promoter in vivo. YY1 interacts with the conserved N-terminal Mad homology 1 domain of Smad4 and to a lesser extent with Smad1, Smad2, and Smad3. The YY1 zinc finger domain mediates the association with Smads and is necessary for the repressive effect of YY1 on Smad transcriptional activity. Moreover, downregulation of endogenous YY1 by antisense and small interfering RNA strategies results in enhanced transcriptional responses to TGF-β or BMP. Ectopic expression of YY1 inhibits, while knockdown of endogenous YY1 enhances, TGF-β- and BMP-induced cell differentiation. In contrast...

The Drosophila Poly(A) Binding Protein-Interacting Protein, dPaip2, Is a Novel Effector of Cell Growth

Roy, Guylaine; Miron, Mathieu; Khaleghpour, Kianoush; Lasko, Paul; Sonenberg, Nahum
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 Português
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The 3′ poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs and the poly(A) binding protein (PABP) play important roles in the regulation of translation. Recently, a human PABP-interacting protein, Paip2, which disrupts the PABP-poly(A) interaction and consequently inhibits translation, was described. To gain insight into the biological role of Paip2, we studied the Drosophila melanogaster Paip2 (dPaip2). dPaip2 is the bona fide human Paip2 homologue, as it interacts with dPABP, inhibits binding of dPABP to the mRNA poly(A) tail, and reduces translation of a reporter mRNA by ∼80% in an S2 cell-free translation extract. Ectopic overexpression of dPaip2 in Drosophila wings and wing discs results in a size reduction phenotype, which is due to a decrease in cell number. Clones of cells overexpressing dPaip2 in wing discs also contain fewer cells than controls. This phenotype can be explained by a primary effect on cell growth. Indeed, overexpression of dPaip2 in postreplicative tissues inhibits growth, inasmuch as it reduces ommatidia size in eyes and cell size in the larval fat body. We conclude that dPaip2 inhibits cell growth primarily by inhibiting protein synthesis.

Disruption of the Rb-Raf-1 Interaction Inhibits Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis

Dasgupta, Piyali; Sun, Jiazhi; Wang, Sheng; Fusaro, Gina; Betts, Vicki; Padmanabhan, Jaya; Sebti, Saïd M.; Chellappan, Srikumar P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) plays a vital role in regulating mammalian cell cycle progression and inactivation of Rb is necessary for entry into S phase. Rb is inactivated by phosphorylation upon growth factor stimulation of quiescent cells, facilitating the transition from G1 phase to S phase. Although the signaling events after growth factor stimulation have been well characterized, it is not yet clear how these signals contact the cell cycle machinery. We had found previously that growth factor stimulation of quiescent cells lead to the direct binding of Raf-1 kinase to Rb, leading to its inactivation. Here we show that the Rb-Raf-1 interaction occurs prior to the activation of cyclin and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and facilitates normal cell cycle progression. Raf-1-mediated inactivation of Rb is independent of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, as well as cyclin-dependent kinases. Binding of Raf-1 seemed to correlate with the dissociation of the chromatin remodeling protein Brg1 from Rb. Disruption of the Rb-Raf-1 interaction by a nine-amino-acid peptide inhibits Rb phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated capillary tubule formation. Delivery of this peptide by a carrier molecule led to a 79% reduction in tumor volume and a 57% reduction in microvessel formation in nude mice. It appears that Raf-1 links mitogenic signaling to Rb and that disruption of this interaction could aid in controlling proliferative disorders.

Growth Rate and Cell Size Modulate the Synthesis of, and Requirement for, G1-Phase Cyclins at Start

Schneider, Brandt L.; Zhang, Jian; Markwardt, J.; Tokiwa, George; Volpe, Tom; Honey, Sangeet; Futcher, Bruce
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2004 Português
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869.8656%
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commitment to cell cycle progression occurs at Start. Progression past Start requires cell growth and protein synthesis, a minimum cell size, and G1-phase cyclins. We examined the relationships among these factors. Rapidly growing cells expressed, and required, dramatically more Cln protein than did slowly growing cells. To clarify the role of cell size, we expressed defined amounts of CLN mRNA in cells of different sizes. When Cln was expressed at nearly physiological levels, a critical threshold of Cln expression was required for cell cycle progression, and this critical threshold varied with both cell size and growth rate: as cells grew larger, they needed less CLN mRNA, but as cells grew faster, they needed more Cln protein. At least in part, large cells had a reduced requirement for CLN mRNA because large cells generated more Cln protein per unit of mRNA than did small cells. When Cln was overexpressed, it was capable of promoting Start rapidly, regardless of cell size or growth rate. In summary, the amount of Cln required for Start depends dramatically on both cell size and growth rate. Large cells generate more Cln1 or Cln2 protein for a given amount of CLN mRNA, suggesting the existence of a novel posttranscriptional size control mechanism.

Reversal of Growth Suppression by p107 via Direct Phosphorylation by Cyclin D1/Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4

Leng, Xiaohong; Noble, Martin; Adams, Peter D.; Qin, Jun; Harper, J. Wade
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2002 Português
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p107 functions to control cell division and development through interaction with members of the E2F family of transcription factors. p107 is phosphorylated in a cell cycle-regulated manner, and its phosphorylation leads to its release from E2F. Although it is known that p107 physically associates with E- and A-type cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complexes through a cyclin-binding RXL motif located in the spacer domain, the mechanisms underlying p107 inactivation via phosphorylation remain poorly defined. Recent genetic evidence indicates a requirement for cyclin D1/Cdk4 complexes in p107 inactivation. In this work, we provide direct biochemical evidence for the involvement of cyclin D1/Cdk4 in the inactivation of p107's growth-suppressive function. While coexpression of cyclin D1/Cdk4 can reverse the cell cycle arrest properties of p107 in Saos-2 cells, we find that p107 in which the Lys-Arg-Arg-Leu sequence of the RXL motif is replaced by four alanine residues is largely refractory to inactivation by cyclin D/Cdk4, indicating a role for this motif in p107 inactivation without a requirement for its tight interaction with cyclin D1/Cdk4. We identified four phosphorylation sites in p107 (Thr-369, Ser-640, Ser-964, and Ser-975) that are efficiently phosphorylated by Cdk4 but not by Cdk2 in vitro and are also phosphorylated in tissue culture cells. Growth suppression by p107 containing nonphosphorylatable residues in these four sites is not reversed by coexpression of cyclin D1/Cdk4. In model p107 spacer region peptides...

Requirement of PDZ-Containing Proteins for Cell Cycle Regulation and Differentiation in the Mouse Lens Epithelium

Nguyen, Minh M.; Nguyen, Marie L.; Caruana, Georgina; Bernstein, Alan; Lambert, Paul F.; Griep, Anne E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2003 Português
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The roles of PDZ domain-containing proteins such as Dlg and Scrib have been well described for Drosophila; however, their requirement for mammalian development is poorly understood. Here we show that Dlg, Scrib, MAGI1, MAGI3, and MPDZ are expressed in the mouse ocular lens. We demonstrate that the increase in proliferation and defects in cellular adhesion and differentiation observed in epithelia of lenses that express E6, a viral oncoprotein that can bind to several PDZ proteins, including the human homologs of Dlg and Scrib, is dependent on E6's ability to bind these proteins via their PDZ domains. Analyses of lenses from mice carrying an insertional mutation in Dlg (dlggt) show increased proliferation and proliferation in spatially inappropriate regions of the lens, a phenotype similar to that of lenses expressing E6. The results from this study indicate that multiple PDZ domain-containing proteins, including Dlg and Scrib, may be required for maintaining the normal pattern of growth and differentiation in the lens. Furthermore, the phenotypic similarities among the Drosophila dlg mutant, the lenses of dlggt mice, and the lenses of E6 transgenic mice suggest that Dlg may have a conserved function in regulating epithelial cell growth and differentiation across species.

RNF5, a RING Finger Protein That Regulates Cell Motility by Targeting Paxillin Ubiquitination and Altered Localization

Didier, Christine; Broday, Limor; Bhoumik, Anindita; Israeli, Sharon; Takahashi, Shoichi; Nakayama, Koh; Thomas, Sheila M.; Turner, Christopher E.; Henderson, Scott; Sabe, Hisataka; Ronai, Ze'ev
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 Português
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RNF5 is a RING finger protein found to be important in the growth and development of Caenorhabditis elegans. The search for RNF5-associated proteins via a yeast two-hybrid screen identified a LIM-containing protein in C. elegans which shows homology with human paxillin. Here we demonstrate that the human homologue of RNF5 associates with the amino-terminal domain of paxillin, resulting in its ubiquitination. RNF5 requires intact RING and C-terminal domains to mediate paxillin ubiquitination. Whereas RNF5 mediates efficient ubiquitination of paxillin in vivo, protein extracts were required for in vitro ubiquitination, suggesting that additional modifications and/or an associated E3 ligase assist RNF5 targeting of paxillin ubiquitination. Mutant Ubc13 efficiently inhibits RNF5 ubiquitination, suggesting that RNF5 generates polychain ubiquitin of the K63 topology. Expression of RNF5 increases the cytoplasmic distribution of paxillin while decreasing its localization within focal adhesions, where it is primarily seen under normal growth. Concomitantly, RNF5 expression results in inhibition of cell motility. Via targeting of paxillin ubiquitination, which alters its localization, RNF5 emerges as a novel regulator of cell motility.

The Intracellular Form of Notch Blocks Transforming Growth Factor β-Mediated Growth Arrest in Mv1Lu Epithelial Cells

Rao, Prakash; Kadesch, Tom
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2003 Português
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Notch signaling influences a variety of cell fate decisions during development, and constitutive activation of the pathway can provoke unbridled cell growth and cancer. The mechanisms by which Notch affects cell growth are not well established. We describe here a novel link between Notch and cell cycle control. We found that Mv1Lu epithelial cells harboring an oncogenic form of Notch (NICD) are resistant to the cell cycle-inhibitory effects of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). NICD did not affect TGF-β signaling per se but blocked induction of the Cdk inhibitor p15INK4B. c-Myc, whose down-regulation by TGF-β is required for p15INK4B induction, remained elevated in the NICD-expressing cells. c-Myc expression was also maintained in low serum, indicating that Notch's effects on c-Myc are not specific to TGF-β. Our results are consistent with a model in which a strong Notch signal indirectly deregulates c-Myc expression and thereby renders Mv1Lu epithelial cells resistant to growth-inhibitory signals.