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Intrinsic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Resistance of Hematopoietic Stem Cells Despite Coreceptor Expression

Shen, Hongmei; Cheng, Tao; Preffer, Frederick I.; Dombkowski, David; Tomasson, Michael H.; Golan, David E.; Yang, Otto; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Luster, Andrew D.; Scadden, David T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1999 Português
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Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with hematopoietic stem cells may define restrictions on immune reconstitution following effective antiretroviral therapy and affect stem cell gene therapy strategies for AIDS. In the present study, we demonstrated mRNA and cell surface expression of HIV-1 receptors CD4 and the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 in fractionated cells representing multiple stages of hematopoietic development. Chemokine receptor function was documented in subsets of cells by calcium flux in response to a cognate ligand. Productive infection by HIV-1 via these receptors was observed with the notable exception of stem cells, in which case the presence of CD4, CXCR-4, and CCR-5, as documented by single-cell analysis for expression and function, was insufficient for infection. Neither productive infection, transgene expression, nor virus entry was detectable following exposure of stem cells to either wild-type HIV-1 or lentivirus constructs pseudotyped in HIV-1 envelopes of macrophage-tropic, T-cell-tropic, or dualtropic specificity. Successful entry into stem cells of a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 construct demonstrated that the resistance to HIV-1 was mediated at the level of virus-cell membrane fusion and entry. These data define the hematopoietic stem cell as a sanctuary cell which is resistant to HIV-1 infection by a mechanism independent of receptor and coreceptor expression that suggests a novel means of cellular protection from HIV-1.

Differentiation of M1 Myeloid Precursor Cells into Macrophages Results in Binding and Infection by Theiler’s Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus and Apoptosis

Jelachich, M. L.; Bramlage, C.; Lipton, H. L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1999 Português
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Infection of susceptible mouse strains with BeAn, a less virulent strain of Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), results in immune system-mediated demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) similar to those in multiple sclerosis. Since macrophages appear to carry the major detectable antigen burden in vivo, and purification of sufficient cell numbers from the CNS for detailed analysis is difficult, macrophage-like cell lines provide an accessible system with which to study virus-macrophage interactions. The myeloid precursor cell line M1 differentiates in response to cytokines and expresses many characteristics of tissue macrophages. Incubation of TMEV with undifferentiated M1 cells produced neither infection nor apoptosis, whereas differentiated M1 (M1-D) cells developed a restricted virus infection and changes indicative of apoptosis. Virus binding and RNA replication as well as cellular production of alpha/beta interferons increased with differentiation. Although the amount of infectious virus was highly restricted, BeAn-infected M1-D cells synthesized and appropriately processed virus capsid proteins at levels comparable to those for permissive BHK-21 cells. Analysis of Bcl-2 protein family expression in undifferentiated and differentiated cells suggests that susceptibility of M1-D cells to apoptosis may be controlled...

Rubella Virus Capsid Associates with Host Cell Protein p32 and Localizes to Mitochondria

Beatch, Martin D.; Hobman, Tom C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
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680.5358%
Togavirus nucleocapsids have a characteristic icosahedral structure and are composed of multiple copies of a capsid protein complexed with genomic RNA. The assembly of rubella virus nucleocapsids is unique among togaviruses in that the process occurs late in virus assembly and in association with intracellular membranes. The goal of this study was to identify host cell proteins which may be involved in regulating rubella virus nucleocapsid assembly through their interactions with the capsid protein. Capsid was used as bait to screen a CV1 cDNA library using the yeast two-hybrid system. One protein that interacted strongly with capsid was p32, a cellular protein which is known to interact with other viral proteins. The interaction between capsid and p32 was confirmed using a number of different in vitro and in vivo methods, and the site of interaction between these two proteins was shown to be at the mitochondria. Interestingly, overexpression of the rubella virus structural proteins resulted in clustering of the mitochondria in the perinuclear region. The p32-binding site in capsid is a potentially phosphorylated region that overlaps the viral RNA-binding domain of capsid. Our results are consistent with the possibility that the interaction of p32 with capsid plays a role in the regulation of nucleocapsid assembly and/or virus-host interactions.

Interaction of Recombinant Norwalk Virus Particles with the 105-Kilodalton Cellular Binding Protein, a Candidate Receptor Molecule for Virus Attachment

Tamura, Masaru; Natori, Katsuro; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Takeda, Naokazu
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2000 Português
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Norwalk virus (NV), responsible for outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis, comprises the species of the genus Norwalk-like viruses in the family Caliciviridae. Although the study of the molecular biology of NV has been hampered by a lack of culture systems or small experimental animal models, virus-like particles (VLPs) generated with recombinant baculoviruses harboring the capsid protein gene of NV provide a useful tool for investigating NV-cell interactions. In this study, the attachment of the recombinant VLPs derived from the Ueno virus (UEV), a strain belonging to the genogroup II NVs, to mammalian and insect cells was examined. Kinetic analyses of the binding of the recombinant VLPs of the UEV (rUEVs) to Caco-2 cells demonstrated that the binding was specific and occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Approximately 7.5% of the prebound rUEVs were internalized into the Caco-2 cells. Enzymatic and chemical modification of Caco-2 cell surface molecules suggested that the binding was directly mediated by a protein-protein interaction. A virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) indicated that rUEVs appeared to bind to a 105-kDa molecule, designated as the NV attachment (NORVA) protein. Furthermore, the assay indicated that its native conformational structure was indispensable for the binding activity. In Caco-2 cells...

Roles of Nonstructural Protein nsP2 and Alpha/Beta Interferons in Determining the Outcome of Sindbis Virus Infection

Frolova, Elena I.; Fayzulin, Rafik Z.; Cook, Susan H.; Griffin, Diane E.; Rice, Charles M.; Frolov, Ilya
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 Português
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Alphaviruses productively infect a variety of vertebrate and insect cell lines. In vertebrate cells, Sindbis virus redirects cellular processes to meet the needs of virus propagation. At the same time, cells respond to virus replication by downregulating virus growth and preventing dissemination of the infection. The balance between these two mechanisms determines the outcome of infection at the cellular and organismal levels. In this report, we demonstrate that a viral nonstructural protein, nsP2, is a significant regulator of Sindbis virus-host cell interactions. This protein not only is a component of the replicative enzyme complex required for replication and transcription of viral RNAs but also plays a role in suppressing the antiviral response in Sindbis virus-infected cells. nsP2 most likely acts by decreasing interferon (IFN) production and minimizing virus visibility. Infection of murine cells with Sindbis virus expressing a mutant nsP2 leads to higher levels of IFN secretion and the activation of 170 cellular genes that are induced by IFN and/or virus replication. Secreted IFN protects naive cells against Sindbis virus infection and also stops viral replication in productively infected cells. Mutations in nsP2 can also attenuate Sindbis virus cytopathogenicity. Such mutants can persist in mammalian cells with defects in the alpha/beta IFN (IFN-α/β) system or when IFN activity is neutralized by anti-IFN-α/β antibodies. These findings provide new insight into the alphavirus-host cell interaction and have implications for the development of improved alphavirus expression systems with better antigen-presenting potential.

A Virus-Virus Interaction Circumvents the Virus Receptor Requirement for Infection by Pathogenic Retroviruses

Wensel, David L.; Li, Weihua; Cunningham, James M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2003 Português
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687.3962%
During ongoing C-type retrovirus infection, the probability of leukemia caused by insertional gene activation is markedly increased by the emergence of recombinant retroviruses that repeatedly infect host cells. The murine mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses with this property have acquired characteristic changes in the N-terminal domain of their envelope glycoprotein that specify binding to a different receptor than the parental ecotropic virus. In this report, we show that MCF virus infection occurs through binding to this receptor (termed Syg1) and, remarkably, by a second mechanism that does not utilize the Syg1 receptor. By the latter route, the N-terminal domain of the ecotropic virus glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface in a complex with its receptor activates the fusion mechanism of the MCF virus in trans. The rate of MCF virus spread through a population of permissive human cells was increased by establishment of trans activation, indicating that Syg1 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways function in parallel. Also, trans activation shortened the interval between initial infection and onset of cell-cell fusion associated with repeated infection of the same cell. Our findings indicate that pathogenic retrovirus infection may be initiated by virus binding to cell receptors or to the virus envelope glycoprotein of other viruses expressed on the cell surface. Also...

Virus-Host Cell Interactions during Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication: Impact of Polyprotein Expression on the Cellular Transcriptome and Cell Cycle Association with Viral RNA Synthesis

Scholle, Frank; Li, Kui; Bodola, Francis; Ikeda, Masanori; Luxon, Bruce A.; Lemon, Stanley M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2004 Português
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679.2676%
Considerable controversy surrounds the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein expression on viability of host cells and regulation of the cell cycle. Both promotion of cellular proliferation and apoptosis have been observed in different experimental systems. To determine whether expression of the entire complement of HCV proteins in the context of ongoing viral RNA replication significantly alters the host cell transcriptome and cell cycle regulatory processes, we carried out high-density oligonucleotide microarray studies and analyzed cell cycle distributions and S-phase entry in Huh7 cell clones harboring selectable, full-length, replicating HCV RNAs that express the entire genotype 1b, HCV-N polyprotein, and clonally related cells in which all viral RNA was eliminated by prior treatment with alpha interferon. Oligonucleotide microarray analyses revealed only subtle, coordinated differences in the mRNA profiles of cells containing replicating viral RNA and their interferon-cured progeny, with variation between different cell clones having a greater influence on the cellular transcriptome than the presence or absence of replicating HCV RNA. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated no significant differences in cell cycle distribution among populations of asynchronously growing cells of both types. Cell lines containing replicating viral RNA and their interferon-cured progeny were able to reenter the cell cycle similarly after transient G1 arrest. In contrast...

Actin Cytoskeletal Reorganizations and Coreceptor-Mediated Activation of Rac during Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Induced Cell Fusion†

Pontow, S. E.; Vander Heyden, N.; Wei, S.; Ratner, L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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The membrane fusion events which initiate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and promote cytopathic syncytium formation in infected cells commence with the binding of the HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) to CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor. Here, we show that HIV Env-coreceptor interactions activate Rac-1 GTPase and stimulate the actin filament network reorganizations that are requisite components of the cell fusion process. Disrupting actin filament dynamics with jasplakinolide or latrunculin A arrested fusion at a late step in the formation of Env-CD4-coreceptor complexes. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of living cells revealed vigorous activity of actin-based, target cell membrane extensions at the target cell-Env-expressing cell interface. The expression of dominant-negative forms of actin-regulating Rho-family GTPases established that HIV Env-mediated syncytium formation relies on Rac-1 but not on Cdc42 or Rho activation in target cells. Similar dependencies were found when cell fusion was induced by Env expressed on viral or cellular membranes. Additionally, Rac activity was specifically upregulated in a coreceptor-dependent manner in fusion reaction cell lysates. These results define a role for HIV Env-coreceptor interactions in activating the cellular factors essential for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and provide evidence for the participation of pertussis toxin-insensitive signaling pathways in HIV-induced membrane fusion.

Effects on Rotavirus Cell Binding and Infection of Monomeric and Polymeric Peptides Containing α2β1 and αxβ2 Integrin Ligand Sequences

Graham, Kate L.; Zeng, Weiguang; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jackson, David C.; Coulson, Barbara S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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683.0748%
Integrin-using rotaviruses bind MA104 cell surface α2β1 integrin via the Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) sequence in virus spike protein VP4 and interact with αxβ2 integrin during cell entry through outer capsid protein VP7. Infection is inhibited by the α2β1 ligand Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA) and the αxβ2 ligand Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro (GPRP), and virus-α2β1 binding is increased by α2β1 activation. In this study, we analyzed the effects of monomers and polymers containing DGEA-, GPRP-, and DGEA-related peptides on rotavirus binding and infection in intestinal (Caco-2) and kidney (MA104) cells and virus binding to recombinant α2β1. Blockade of rotavirus-cell binding and infection by peptides and anti-α2 antibody showed that Caco-2 cell entry is dependent on virus binding to α2β1 and interaction with αxβ2. At up to 0.5 mM, monomeric DGEA and DGAA inhibited binding to α2β1 and infection. At higher concentrations, DGEA and DGAA showed a reduced ability to inhibit virus-cell binding and infection that depended on virus binding to α2β1 but occurred without alteration in cell surface expression of α2, β2, or αvβ3 integrin. This loss of DGEA activity was abolished by genistein treatment and so was dependent on tyrosine kinase signaling. It is proposed that this signaling activated existing cell surface α2β1 to increase virus-cell attachment and entry. Polymeric peptides containing DGEA and GPRP or GPRP only were inhibitory to SA11 infection at approximately 10-fold lower concentrations than peptide monomers. As polymerization can improve peptide inhibition of virus-receptor interactions...

Noncytopathic Replication of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicons in Mammalian Cells

Petrakova, Olga; Volkova, Eugenia; Gorchakov, Rodion; Paessler, Slobodan; Kinney, Richard M.; Frolov, Ilya
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses are important, naturally emerging zoonotic viruses. They are significant human and equine pathogens which still pose a serious public health threat. Both VEE and EEE cause chronic infection in mosquitoes and persistent or chronic infection in mosquito-derived cell lines. In contrast, vertebrate hosts infected with either virus develop an acute infection with high-titer viremia and encephalitis, followed by host death or virus clearance by the immune system. Accordingly, EEE and VEE infection in vertebrate cell lines is highly cytopathic. To further understand the pathogenesis of alphaviruses on molecular and cellular levels, we designed EEE- and VEE-based replicons and investigated their replication and their ability to generate cytopathic effect (CPE) and to interfere with other viral infections. VEE and EEE replicons appeared to be less cytopathic than Sindbis virus-based constructs that we designed in our previous research and readily established persistent replication in BHK-21 cells. VEE replicons required additional mutations in the 5′ untranslated region and nsP2 or nsP3 genes to further reduce cytopathicity and to become capable of persisting in cells with no defects in alpha/beta interferon production or signaling. The results indicated that alphaviruses strongly differ in virus-host cell interactions...

Persistent Equine Arteritis Virus Infection in HeLa Cells▿

Zhang, Jianqiang; Timoney, Peter J.; MacLachlan, N. James; McCollum, William H.; Balasuriya, Udeni B. R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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682.0021%
The horse-adapted virulent Bucyrus (VB) strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV) established persistent infection in high-passage-number human cervix cells (HeLa-H cells; passages 170 to 221) but not in low-passage-number human cervix cells (HeLa-L cells; passages 95 to 115) or in several other cell lines that were evaluated. However, virus recovered from the 80th passage of the persistently infected HeLa-H cells (HeLa-H-EAVP80) readily established persistent infection in HeLa-L cells. Comparative sequence analysis of the entire genomes of the VB and HeLa-H-EAVP80 viruses identified 16 amino acid substitutions, including 4 in the replicase (nsp1, nsp2, nsp7, and nsp9) and 12 in the structural proteins (E, GP2, GP3, GP4, and GP5). Reverse genetic studies clearly showed that substitutions in the structural proteins but not the replicase were responsible for the establishment of persistent infection in HeLa-L cells by the HeLa-H-EAVP80 virus. It was further demonstrated that recombinant viruses with substitutions in the minor structural proteins E and GP2 or GP3 and GP4 were unable to establish persistent infection in HeLa-L cells but that recombinant viruses with combined substitutions in the E (Ser53→Cys and Val55→Ala), GP2 (Leu15→Ser...

HIV-1 Escape from the CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc Associated with an Altered and Less-Efficient Mechanism of gp120-CCR5 Engagement That Attenuates Macrophage Tropism▿

Roche, Michael; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Ellett, Anne; Posta, Filippo; Lee, Benhur; Jubb, Becky; Westby, Mike; Lewin, Sharon R.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Churchill, Melissa J.; Gorry, Paul R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 Português
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683.1745%
Maraviroc (MVC) inhibits the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by binding to and modifying the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops (ECLs). Resistance to MVC results from alterations in the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoproteins (Env) enabling recognition of the drug-bound conformation of CCR5. To better understand the mechanisms underlying MVC resistance, we characterized the virus-cell interactions of gp120 from in vitro-generated MVC-resistant HIV-1 (MVC-Res Env), comparing them with those of gp120 from the sensitive parental virus (MVC-Sens Env). In the absence of the drug, MVC-Res Env maintains a highly efficient interaction with CCR5, similar to that of MVC-Sens Env, and displays a relatively modest increase in dependence on the CCR5 N terminus. However, in the presence of the drug, MVC-Res Env interacts much less efficiently with CCR5 and becomes critically dependent on the CCR5 N terminus and on positively charged elements of the drug-modified CCR5 ECL1 and ECL2 regions (His88 and His181, respectively). Structural analysis suggests that the Val323 resistance mutation in the gp120 V3 loop alters the secondary structure of the V3 loop and the buried surface area of the V3 loop–CCR5 N terminus interface. This altered mechanism of gp120-CCR5 engagement dramatically attenuates the entry of HIV-1 into monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM)...

Replication-Competent Influenza A Virus That Encodes a Split-Green Fluorescent Protein-Tagged PB2 Polymerase Subunit Allows Live-Cell Imaging of the Virus Life Cycle

Avilov, Sergiy V.; Moisy, Dorothée; Munier, Sandie; Schraidt, Oliver; Naffakh, Nadia; Cusack, Stephen
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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678.619%
Studies on the intracellular trafficking of influenza virus ribonucleoproteins are currently limited by the lack of a method enabling their visualization during infection in single cells. This is largely due to the difficulty of encoding fluorescent fusion proteins within the viral genome. To circumvent this limitation, we used the split-green fluorescent protein (split-GFP) system (S. Cabantous, T. C. Terwilliger, and G. S. Waldo, Nat. Biotechnol. 23:102–107, 2005) to produce a quasi-wild-type recombinant A/WSN/33/influenza virus which allows expression of individually fluorescent PB2 polymerase subunits in infected cells. The viral PB2 proteins were fused to the 16 C-terminal amino acids of the GFP, whereas the large transcomplementing GFP fragment was supplied by transient or stable expression in cultured cells that were permissive to infection. This system was used to characterize the intranuclear dynamics of PB2 by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and to visualize the trafficking of viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) by dynamic light microscopy in live infected cells. Following nuclear export, vRNPs showed a transient pericentriolar accumulation and intermittent rapid (∼1 μm/s), directional movements in the cytoplasm, dependent on both microtubules and actin filaments. Our data establish the potential of split-GFP-based recombinant viruses for the tracking of viral proteins during a quasi-wild-type infection. This new virus...

Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV) Binding and Infection Are Mediated by Interactions between the HMPV Fusion Protein and Heparan Sulfate

Chang, Andres; Masante, Cyril; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a major worldwide respiratory pathogen that causes acute upper and lower respiratory tract disease. The mechanism by which this virus recognizes and gains access to its target cell is still largely unknown. In this study, we addressed the initial steps in virus binding and infection and found that the first binding partner for HMPV is heparan sulfate (HS). While wild-type CHO-K1 cells are permissive to HMPV infection, mutant cell lines lacking the ability to synthesize glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), specifically, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), were resistant to binding and infection by HMPV. The permissiveness to HMPV infection was also abolished when CHO-K1 cells were treated with heparinases. Importantly, using recombinant HMPV lacking both the G and small hydrophobic (SH) proteins, we report that this first virus-cell binding interaction is driven primarily by the fusion protein (HMPV F) and that this interaction is needed to establish a productive infection. Finally, HMPV binding to cells did not require β1 integrin expression, and RGD-mediated interactions were not essential in promoting HMPV F-mediated cell-to-cell membrane fusion. Cells lacking β1 integrin, however, were less permissive to HMPV infection...

Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Virus Glycoproteins Are Targeted by Neutralizing Antibodies and Can Use DC-SIGN as a Receptor for pH-Dependent Entry into Human and Animal Cell Lines

Hofmann, Heike; Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaoai; Liu, Wei; Kühl, Annika; Kaup, Franziska; Soldan, Samantha S.; González-Scarano, Francisco; Weber, Friedemann; He, Yuxian; Pöhlmann, Stefan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 Português
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680.8186%
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is a novel bunyavirus that recently emerged in China. Infection with SFTSV is associated with case-fatality rates of up to 30%, and neither antivirals nor vaccines are available at present. Development of antiviral strategies requires the elucidation of virus-host cell interactions. Here, we analyzed host cell entry of SFTSV. Employing lentiviral and rhabdoviral vectors, we found that the Gn/Gc glycoproteins (Gn/Gc) of SFTSV mediate entry into a broad range of human and animal cell lines, as well as human macrophages and dendritic cells. The Gn/Gc proteins of La Crosse virus (LACV) and Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), other members of the bunyavirus family, facilitated entry into an overlapping but not identical range of cell lines, suggesting that SFTSV, LACV, and RVFV might differ in their receptor requirements. Entry driven by SFTSV Gn/Gc was dependent on low pH but did not require the activity of the pH-dependent endosomal/lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins B and L. Instead, the activity of a cellular serine protease was required for infection driven by SFTSV and LACV Gn/Gc. Sera from convalescent SFTS patients inhibited SFTSV Gn/Gc-driven host cell entry in a dose-dependent fashion...

Hypervariable Domain of Nonstructural Protein nsP3 of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Determines Cell-Specific Mode of Virus Replication

Foy, Niall J.; Akhrymuk, Maryna; Shustov, Alexander V.; Frolova, Elena I.; Frolov, Ilya
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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679.77555%
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is one of the most pathogenic members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. This genus is divided into the Old World and New World alphaviruses, which demonstrate profound differences in pathogenesis, replication, and virus-host interactions. VEEV is a representative member of the New World alphaviruses. The biology of this virus is still insufficiently understood, particularly the function of its nonstructural proteins in RNA replication and modification of the intracellular environment. One of these nonstructural proteins, nsP3, contains a hypervariable domain (HVD), which demonstrates very low overall similarity between different alphaviruses, suggesting the possibility of its function in virus adaptation to different hosts and vectors. The results of our study demonstrate the following. (i) Phosphorylation of the VEEV nsP3-specific HVD does not play a critical role in virus replication in cells of vertebrate origin but is important for virus replication in mosquito cells. (ii) The VEEV HVD is not required for viral RNA replication in the highly permissive BHK-21 cell line. In fact, it can be either completely deleted or replaced by a heterologous protein sequence. These variants require only one or two additional adaptive mutations in nsP3 and/or nsP2 proteins to achieve an efficiently replicating phenotype. (iii) However...

Sodium Hydrogen Exchangers Contribute to Arenavirus Cell Entry

Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ngo, Nhi; de la Torre, Juan C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2014 Português
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680.8721%
Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose a great public health concern in the regions in which they are endemic. Moreover, evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. The limited existing armamentarium to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses underscores the importance of developing novel antiarenaviral drugs, a task that would be facilitated by the identification and characterization of virus-host cell factor interactions that contribute to the arenavirus life cycle. A genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen identified sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) as required for efficient multiplication of LCMV in HeLa cells, but the mechanisms by which NHE activity contributed to the life cycle of LCMV remain unknown. Here we show that treatment with the NHE inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) resulted in a robust inhibition of LCMV multiplication in both rodent (BHK-21) and human (A549) cells. EIPA-mediated inhibition was due not to interference with virus RNA replication, gene expression, or budding but rather to a blockade of virus cell entry. EIPA also inhibited cell entry mediated by the glycoproteins of the HF arenaviruses LASV and Junin virus (JUNV). Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cell entry of LCMV in A549 cells depended on actin remodeling and Pak1...

Cellular Gene Expression upon Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of CD4+-T-Cell Lines

van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Lehrman, Ginger K.; Mikheeva, Svetlana A.; O'Keeffe, Gemma C.; Katze, Michael G.; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Geiss, Gary K.; Mullins, James I.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 Português
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679.3938%
The expression levels of ∼4,600 cellular RNA transcripts were assessed in CD4+-T-cell lines at different times after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain BRU (HIV-1BRU) using DNA microarrays. We found that several classes of genes were inhibited by HIV-1BRU infection, consistent with the G2 arrest of HIV-1-infected cells induced by Vpr. These included genes involved in cell division and transcription, a family of DEAD-box proteins (RNA helicases), and all genes involved in translation and splicing. However, the overall level of cell activation and signaling was increased in infected cells, consistent with strong virus production. These included a subgroup of transcription factors, including EGR1 and JUN, suggesting they play a specific role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Some regulatory changes were cell line specific; however, the majority, including enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, of changes were regulated in most infected cell lines. Compendium analysis comparing gene expression profiles of our HIV-1 infection experiments to those of cells exposed to heat shock, interferon, or influenza A virus indicated that HIV-1 infection largely induced specific changes rather than simply activating stress response or cytokine response pathways. Thus...

Analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Internalization Events in Cultured Cells

O'Donnell, Vivian; LaRocco, Michael; Duque, Hernando; Baxt, Barry
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2005 Português
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680.97086%
It has been demonstrated that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize at least four members of the αV subgroup of the integrin family of receptors in vitro. The virus interacts with these receptors via a highly conserved arginine-glycine-aspartic acid amino acid sequence motif located within the βG-βH loop of VP1. While there have been extensive studies of virus-receptor interactions at the cell surface, our understanding of the events during viral entry into the infected cell is still not clear. We have utilized confocal microscopy to analyze the entry of two FMDV serotypes (types A and O) after interaction with integrin receptors at the cell surface. In cell cultures expressing both the αVβ3 and αVβ6 integrins, virus adsorbed to the cells at 4°C appears to colocalize almost exclusively with the αVβ6 integrin. Upon shifting the infected cells to 37°C, FMDV capsid proteins were detected within 15 min after the temperature shift, in association with the integrin in vesicular structures that were positive for a marker of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, virus did not colocalize with a marker for caveola-mediated endocytosis. Virus remained associated with the integrin until about 1 h after the temperature shift...

Global Impact of Influenza Virus on Cellular Pathways Is Mediated by both Replication-Dependent and -Independent Events

Geiss, Gary K.; An, Mahru C.; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Hammersmark, Erick; Cunningham, Dawn; Katze, Michael G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 Português
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Influenza virus, the causative agent of the common flu, is a worldwide health problem with significant economic consequences. Studies of influenza virus biology have revealed elaborate mechanisms by which the virus interacts with its host cell as it inhibits the synthesis of cellular proteins, evades the innate antiviral response, and facilitates production of viral RNAs and proteins. With the advent of DNA array technology it is now possible to obtain a large-scale view of how viruses alter the environment within the host cell. In this study, the cellular response to influenza virus infection was examined by monitoring the steady-state mRNA levels for over 4,600 cellular genes. Infections with active and inactivated influenza viruses identified changes in cellular gene expression that were dependent on or independent of viral replication, respectively. Viral replication resulted in the downregulation of many cellular mRNAs, and the effect was enhanced with time postinfection. Interestingly, several genes involved in protein synthesis, transcriptional regulation, and cytokine signaling were induced by influenza virus replication, suggesting that some may play essential or accessory roles in the viral life cycle or the host cell's stress response. The gene expression pattern induced by inactivated viruses revealed induction of the cellular metallothionein genes that may represent a protective response to virus-induced oxidative stress. Genome-scale analyses of virus infections will help us to understand the complexities of virus-host interactions and may lead to the discovery of novel drug targets or antiviral therapies.