Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students.
Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions.
Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions.
The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains...
The requirements for a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system in terms of hardware, communications, software, and personnel are discussed, and unique characteristics of CAI are reviewed. Current CAI applications in the medical field include programs in undergraduate medical and dental education, training of nurses and physical therapists, units for interns and residents, and continuing education for physicians. Certain problems exist in the current state of the art, however, including unsatisfactory aspects of each of the system components. The potential role of the medical librarian as a member of a CAI personnel team is explored, and contributions he can make in program development, monitoring, and evaluation are suggested. Medical librarians may themselves have opportunities in the future to use CAI to develop library skills and special subject knowledge. It is proposed that introduction of CAI may have the additional benefit of encouraging increased use of on-line bibliographic retrieval systems.
Computer-based instruction is being widely used in the education programs of many allied health professions. However, there has been little, if any, documentation of computer-based instruction use in athletic training education. The primary purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of undergraduate and graduate NATA-approved athletic training education programs are using some form of computer-based instruction (ie, computer-assisted instruction or interactive video). We also addressed the following research questions: 1) What athletic training educational software is currently being used by athletic training students and educators? 2) What factors currently impede the use of computer-based instruction in athletic training education? 3) What instructional methods are commonly used to incorporate computer-based instruction into the athletic training curricula? and 4) What are the attitudes of athletic training program directors toward the use of computer-based instruction in athletic training education? Surveys were mailed to the program directors (n = 97) of all graduate and undergraduate NATA-approved athletic training education programs. Eighty-six (87.7%) usable surveys were returned. Forty-eight (55.8%) of the respondents reported using some form of computer-based instruction in their athletic training education program; 47 (54.7%) used computer-assisted instruction and 9 (10.6%) used interactive video. Respondents also identified the educational software they use and their method for implementing this software. Software was used most often to supplement traditional instructional methods. A lack of funds was reported to be the primary impeding factor for those programs not using computer-based instruction. Respondents reported an overall positive attitude toward computer-based instruction use in athletic training education and indicated the need for increased development of athletic training/sports medicine software.
For over 20 years advocates of computer assisted instruction (CAI) have been proclaiming impending revolutionary developments in the educational process, yet progress in acceptance has been slow. This paper will examine the advantages and weaknesses of CAI, and discuss the new concept of computer assisted video instruction (CAVI) in terms of its principles and application within our department of anesthesia.
A package of four computer-assisted instruction lessons has been developed. These lessons teach elementary principles of nutrition and motivate compliance with those principles for adolescents and pre-adolescents (ages 10 to 16 years) with cystic fibrosis. Nineteen patients at the University of Minnesota Regional Cystic Fibrosis Center used an average of two lessons each. Their self-assessed level of nutrition knowledge before using the lessons was low (slightly less than little knowledge). This self-assessment was not correlated with scores on a nutrition pre-test. On the average, patients reported learning between a medium amount and a good deal from the lessons. However such learning could not be documented through pre/post-test methodology.
Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is an effective tool for evaluating and training students and professionals. In this article we will present a learning-oriented CAI, which has been developed for students and health professionals to acquire and retain new knowledge through the practice. A two-phase pilot evaluation was conducted, involving 8 nutrition experts and 30 postgraduate students, respectively. In each training session, the software developed guides users in the integral evaluation of a patient’s nutritional status and helps them to implement actions. The program includes into the format clinical tools, which can be used to recognize possible patient’s needs, to improve the clinical reasoning and to develop professional skills. Among them are assessment questionnaires and evaluation criteria, cardiovascular risk charts, clinical guidelines and photographs of various diseases. This CAI is a complete software package easy to use and versatile, aimed at clinical specialists, medical staff, scientists, educators and clinical students, which can be used as a learning tool. This application constitutes an advanced method for students and health professionals to accomplish nutritional assessments combining theoretical and empirical issues...
An alternating treatment design was used to compare the effects of three student response conditions (Clicking, Repeating, and Listening) during computer-assisted instruction on social-studies facts learning and maintenance. Results showed that all students learned and maintained more social-studies facts taught in the Repeating condition followed by the Clicking condition.
PURPOSE: Recent changes in the medical school curriculum and in teaching styles have stimulated the development of novel learning resources. We investigated the impact of computer-aided learning in the field of ophthalmology at a large Australian undergraduate medical school. METHODS: Clinical case studies describing common ophthalmic conditions were incorporated into a computing program which uses a problem-solving format. The program was made available to 85 medical students for a 2 week period. A control group of 20 medical students did not have access to this material. Acquisition of new knowledge was assessed as the improvement in score on a knowledge-based multiple-choice examination which students took both before and following the learning interval. RESULTS: Students in the control group showed no improvement over the test period, whilst the students who had access to the computer significantly increased their knowledge base, both for material provided on the program (p = 0.0001) and in related areas (p = 0.0015). CONCLUSIONS: Suitably constructed material on the computer is a useful aid in teaching ophthalmology to medical undergraduates. The material and the medium may also act as a stimulus for further learning.; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11702976; P. Devitt...
Thesis (Ph.D.1972) from the Dept. of Computing Science, University of Adelaide; 1 v. (various pagings) : ill. ; 26 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.
Many students are entering colleges and universities in the United States underprepared in mathematics. National statistics indicate that only approximately one-third of students in developmental mathematics courses pass. When underprepared students repeatedly enroll in courses that do not count toward their degree, it costs them money and delays graduation. This study investigated a possible solution to this problem: Whether using a particular computer assisted learning strategy combined with using mastery learning techniques improved the overall performance of students in a developmental mathematics course. Participants received one of three teaching strategies: (a) group A was taught using traditional instruction with mastery learning supplemented with computer assisted instruction, (b) group B was taught using traditional instruction supplemented with computer assisted instruction in the absence of mastery learning and, (c) group C was taught using traditional instruction without mastery learning or computer assisted instruction. Participants were students in MAT1033, a developmental mathematics course at a large public 4-year college. An analysis of covariance using participants' pretest scores as the covariate tested the null hypothesis that there was no significant difference in the adjusted mean final examination scores among the three groups. Group A participants had significantly higher adjusted mean posttest score than did group C participants. A chi-square test tested the null hypothesis that there were no significant differences in the proportions of students who passed MAT1033 among the treatment groups. It was found that there was a significant difference in the proportion of students who passed among all three groups...
This study was undertaken in order to determine the
effects of playing computer based text adventure games on
the reading comprehension gains of students. Forty-five
grade five students from one elementary school were
randomly assigned to experimental and control groups, and
were tested with regard to ability, achievement and reading
skills. An experimental treatment, consisting of playing
computer based interactive fiction games of the student's
choice for fifteen minutes each day over an eight-week
period, was administered. A comparison treatment engaged
the control group in sustained silent reading of materials of
the student's choice for an equal period of time. Following
the experimental period all students were post-tested with an
alternate form of the pre-test in reading skills, and gain
scores were analysed. It was found that there were no
significant differences in the gain scores of the experimental
and control groups for overall reading comprehenSion, but the
experimental group showed greater gains than the control
group in the structural analysis reading sub-skill. Extreme
variance in the data made generalization very difficult, but
the findings indicated a potential for computer based
interactive fiction as a useful tool for developing reading
Despite the increasing potential of computers for educational use, experience shows that few Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs for patient education have been accepted into routine use by health care providers. A CAI program on hypoglycemia for insulin dependent diabetics, which was developed by the authors and has been widely used in Europe for over 6 years, is described and is used to illustrate some specific difficulties and possible solutions when using computers for patient education. We hope to show that patients suffering from a chronic disease, such as diabetes, require specific skills which are very different in nature from the theoretic knowledge they usually receive from different sources, including health care providers. In order to be really useful, a CAI program for patients must help them to cope with their disease and take into account patients' concerns, fears, and misconceptions as far as possible. Far beyond a detailed knowledge of the domain, a deep experience in patient education is mandatory to understand patients' needs.
CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynamic sequences representing impulse formation and conduction processes are produced along with the corresponding qualitative descriptions. The corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) and ladder diagram are also produced, and thus, both qualitative notions and quantitative facts can be taught via the model. We discuss how qualitative models in particular, and computational models in general can enhance the teaching capability of CAI programs.
This paper reports on five years of experience with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Winthrop-University Hospital, a major affiliate of the SUNY at Stony Brook School of Medicine. It compares CAI programs available from Ohio State University and Massachusetts General Hospital (accessed by telephone and modem), and software packages purchased from the Health Sciences Consortium (MED-CAPS) and Scientific American (DISCOTEST). The comparison documents one library's experience of the cost of these programs and the use made of them by medical students, house staff, and attending physicians. It describes the space allocated for necessary equipment, as well as the marketing of CAI. Finally, in view of the decision of the National Board of Medical Examiners to administer the Part III examination on computer (the so-called CBX) starting in 1988, the paper speculates on the future importance of CAI in the community teaching hospital.
The development of individualized educational environments,
to facilitate learning for the diverse population of students in
today's secondary school system, has become more prevalent with
the increased ease of access to computers that many schools are
now enjoying. The use of Computer Aided Instruction is becoming
more common as a means for individual tutoring.
This thesis explores the problem of individualizing this
instruction by analyzing the relationship between preferred
teaching methods and computer users"
personality types, as
defined by the Myers-Briggs type indicator and two other
user characteristics. The preferred teaching
method was analyzed using various criteria, including user
choices, both sequence and quantity, opinion survey, comments,
The results support many of the conclusions formulated in
earlier studies, especially those concerning the independence of
performance and the quantity of instruction, as well as the need
for multiple instructional methodologies due to type differences.
These two conclusions, alone, encourage the idea of more individualized instruction and foster the development of Intelligent
Tutoring Systems to provide the student with an environment that
is most conducive to his/her learning preference.
Industry in the United States is facing one of the greatest hurdles of all time, that of retraining
its work force. The printing industry, in particular, faces a continuing lack of experienced and
knowledgeable people. It has begun cooperative efforts to retrain workers in the basic skills
needed to run a printing operation. Subjects like basic math, accounting, writing, and sciences
round out the curriculum. Also on the scene are entrepreneurial training firms. Off-site
training typically goes for $250-350 per person per day; the on-site instruction goes for $400
and up. And then there are options like computer-based tutorials. A firm in San Francisco
ships an animated lesson on chokes and spreads to desktop publishers for $20. The demand
for this packaging of instructional material has been high. But is it effective?
Computer graphics devices offer a way to present images of three-dimensional objects with enough detail to aid human understanding of the structure of molecules. In this thesis, the Computer Aided Molecular Design system (CAMD system) will illustrate this idea. The CAMD system is an educational package designed for students in high school. The user of the CAMD system can create different molecules and store these molecules into a relational data base for future display. A Relational Data Base Management system was implicitly implemented for the CAMD system.
The thesis project consists of an interactive multimedia computer software
program, designed to help teach a course title, college-level semester course in soil and
water management (Soil and Water Management, offered at Cornell University,
Department of Soil, Crop, and Atmospheric Sciences course number 321, 4 credithours).
The software was authored in Macromedia Director 6.5. Original artwork
includes computer graphics some of which are sequenced to create animations that
illustrate key concepts of the subject material. Text and photographs and/or
illustrations also support the subject material.
When I first thought about my thesis topic at the end of last year, I had a very different concept from what eventually developed into this project. My original intention, that of using the computer as an educational tool in the ethical and social development of primary school children, has remained the same. The changes occurred in my methods of achieving this intention. My rationale for promoting the computer as an educational resource is manifold. For example, the world that these children will be entering as adults will be entirely computerized and automated. This next generation must have more than a passing familiarity with the computer, if they are to survive in an increasingly high-tech environment. Also, the computer has the potential to reach a greater audience, as people are becoming far more visually inclined than verbally inclined. Whether this trend is positive or negative, the fact remains that this is happening. Immediate visual impact is the goal of modern advertising. The advantage that this medium had in relation to my project was that an entire class of children could watch simultaneously, and then participate in a group discussion of what they had viewed.
This thesis report describes the design and implementation of a prototype Intelligent
Tutoring System (ITS), intended to assist students of the German language. Very early in the study of a foreign language, the student is faced with the difficulties of sentence construction. Not only are there numerous rules and combination to deal with,
but it is difficult to verify attempts when the teacher is unavailable. Individual words
can be looked up in a dictionary, but the student must often rely on stumbling across
a sentence of similar construction in order to verify a trial sentence.
A variety of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tools have been developed. Many have been criticized for not being user friendly, containing material
which does not match the course curriculum, being inflexible, or being just plain in
correct. The prototype system developed for this thesis experiments with several
characteristics - an object-oriented design approach, a masking technique using dynamically built patterns to bridge the gap between hard-coded and full artificial intelligence approaches, and a C++ implementation. It attempts to draw on past failures,
as well as past successes.
The system described here provides a means for practicing sentence construction...