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Essential Roles of Receptor-Interacting Protein and TRAF2 in Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death

Shen, Han-Ming; Lin, Yong; Choksi, Swati; Tran, Jamie; Jin, Tian; Chang, Lufen; Karin, Michael; Zhang, Jianke; Liu, Zheng-gang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can elicit and modulate various physiological and pathological processes, including cell death. However, the mechanisms controlling ROS-induced cell death are largely unknown. Data from this study suggest that receptor-interacting protein (RIP) and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), two key effector molecules of TNF signaling, are essential for ROS-induced cell death. We found that RIP−/− or TRAF2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) are resistant to ROS-induced cell death when compared to wild-type cells, and reconstitution of RIP and TRAF2 gene expression in their respective deficient MEF cells restored their sensitivity to H2O2-induced cell death. We also found that RIP and TRAF2 form a complex upon H2O2 exposure, but without the participation of TNFR1. The colocalization of RIP with a membrane lipid raft marker revealed a possible role of lipid rafts in the transduction of cell death signal initiated by H2O2. Finally, our results demonstrate that activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 is a critical event downstream of RIP and TRAF2 in mediating ROS-induced cell death. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel signaling pathway regulating oxidative stress-induced cell death.

Resistance Phenotypes and Genotypes of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Beijing and Shenyang, China

Tiemei, Zhao; Xiangqun, Fang; Youning, Liu
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 Português
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Of a total of 192 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, 149 (77.6%) were not susceptible to erythromycin. Of these 149 isolates, 117 (79.1%) contained the erm(B) gene, 16 (10.8%) contained the mef(A) gene, and 15 (10.1%) harbored both the erm(B) and mef(A) genes.

Antipneumococcal Activities of Two Novel Macrolides, GW 773546 and GW 708408, Compared with Those of Erythromycin, Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Clindamycin, and Telithromycin

Matic, Vlatka; Kosowska, Klaudia; Bozdogan, Bulent; Kelly, Linda M.; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M.; Lin, Gengrong; Credito, Kim L.; Clark, Catherine L.; McGhee, Pamela; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 Português
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The MICs of GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for 164 macrolide-susceptible and 161 macrolide-resistant pneumococci were low. The MICs of GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin for macrolide-resistant strains were similar, irrespective of the resistance genotypes of the strains. Clindamycin was active against all macrolide-resistant strains except those with erm(B) and one strain with a 23S rRNA mutation. GW 773546, GW 708408, and telithromycin at two times their MICs were bactericidal after 24 h for 7 to 8 of 12 strains. Serial passages of 12 strains in the presence of sub-MICs yielded 54 mutants, 29 of which had changes in the L4 or L22 protein or the 23S rRNA sequence. Among the macrolide-susceptible strains, resistant mutants developed most rapidly after passage in the presence of clindamycin, GW 773546, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin and slowest after passage in the presence of GW 708408 and telithromycin. Selection of strains for which MICs were ≥0.5 μg/ml from susceptible parents occurred only with erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and clindamycin; 36 resistant clones from susceptible parent strains had changes in the sequences of the L4 or L22 protein or 23S rRNA. No mef(E) strains yielded resistant clones after passage in the presence of erythromycin and azithromycin. Selection with GW 773546...

Genotypic diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) using new microsatellite markers: example of two extensive non-Ashkenazi Jewish pedigrees.

Dupont, M; Dross, C; Smaoui, N; Nedelec, B; Grateau, G; Clépet, C; Gourdier, I; Koné-Paut, I; Delpech, M; Demaille, J; Touitou, I
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1997 Português
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Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease characterised by multiple attacks of serosal inflammation in the absence of treatment. In the absence of timely diagnosis, renal amyloidosis is a life threatening complication. The diagnosis is often missed because no specific test is available. Early colchicine treatment prevents attacks and renal complications. The FMF gene (MEF) has been mapped to chromosome 16p 13.3 but has not yet been identified. We compared the suitability of a series of microsatellite markers (four of them were new) and propose the routine use of seven of these markers, exhibiting alleles in strong linkage disequilibrium with the disease and informative in 100% of diagnosed patients. Moreover, the discovery of a homozygous status for the 3-3-9 (or 3-3-18) haplotype at the core loci (D16S3070, D16S3082, and D16S3275), which was found in 73% non-Ashkenazi Jewish patients, points to a diagnosis of FMF, even in sporadic cases, with a risk of error of only 2.10(-5). Two extensive pedigrees covering most indications for genetic counselling are presented, showing that it is now possible both prospectively and retrospectively to identify members likely to have MEF mutations. With the help of this accurate test...

Molecular Detection of the Macrolide Efflux Gene: To Discriminate or Not To Discriminate between mef(A) and mef(E)

Klaassen, Corné H. W.; Mouton, Johan W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2005 Português
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Clonal Dissemination of Macrolide-Resistant and Penicillin-Susceptible Serotype 3 and Penicillin-Resistant Taiwan 19F-14 and 23F-15 Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Japan: a Pilot Surveillance Study

Kasahara, Kei; Maeda, Koichi; Mikasa, Keiichi; Uno, Kenji; Takahashi, Ken; Konishi, Mitsuru; Yoshimoto, Eiichiro; Murakawa, Koichi; Kita, Eiji; Kimura, Hiroshi
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2005 Português
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Large-scale surveillance studies using molecular techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) have revealed that the spread of antibiotic-resistant pneumococci is due to clonal spread. However, in Japan, surveillance studies using such molecular techniques have never been done. Therefore, we conducted a pilot surveillance study to elucidate the present situation in Japan. Among the 145 isolates examined, the most prevalent serotype was type 19F (20%), for which most isolates were not susceptible to penicillin (86.2%) but were positive for the mef(A)/mef(E) gene (89.7%). The secondmost prevalent was serotype 3 (16.6%), for which most isolates were susceptible to penicillin (87.5%) and positive for the erm(B) gene (91.7%). PFGE analysis showed that both serotypes consisted mainly of clonally identical or related isolates and, in particular, 38% of the type 19F isolates were indistinguishable from or closely related to the Taiwan 19F-14 clone. In addition, some of the Japanese type 23F isolates with the erm(B) gene were indistinguishable from or related to the Taiwan 23F-15 clone as analyzed by PFGE. Based on the results of our pilot study performed in a single institution, it is likely that international antibiotic-resistant clones have already spread in Japan; therefore...

GCN2 phosphorylation of eIF2α activates NF-κB in response to UV irradiation

Jiang, Hao-Yuan; Wek, Ronald C.
Fonte: Portland Press Ltd. Publicador: Portland Press Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In response to UV irradiation, mammalian cells elicit a gene expression programme designed to repair damage and control cell proliferation and apoptosis. Important members of this stress response include the NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) family. However, the mechanisms by which UV irradiation activates NF-κB are not well understood. In eukaryotes, a variety of environmental stresses are recognized and remediated by a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate the α subunit of eIF2 (eukaryotic initiation factor-2). In the present study we show that NF-κB in MEF (murine embryo fibroblast) cells is activated by UV-C and UV-B irradiation through a mechanism requiring eIF2α phosphorylation. The primary eIF2α kinase in response to UV is GCN2 (general control non-derepressible-2), with PEK/PERK (pancreatic eIF2α kinase/RNA-dependent-protein-kinase-like endoplasmic-reticulum kinase) carrying out a secondary function. Our studies indicate that lowered protein synthesis accompanying eIF2α phosphorylation, combined with eIF2α kinase-independent turnover of IκBα (inhibitor of κBα), reduces the levels of IκBα in response to UV irradiation. Release of NF-κB from the inhibitory IκBα would facilitate NF-κB entry into the nucleus and targeted transcriptional control. We also find that loss of GCN2 in MEF cells significantly enhances apoptosis in response to UV exposure similar to that measured in cells deleted for the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-κB. These results demonstrate that GCN2 is central to recognition of UV stress...

Conditional Transgenic System for Mouse Aurora A Kinase: Degradation by the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Controls the Level of the Transgenic Protein

Fukuda, Tomokazu; Mishina, Yuji; Walker, Michael P.; DiAugustine, Richard P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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Aurora A is a mitotic kinase that localizes to centrosomes. Expression of this protein is normally limited to the mitotic stage (G2-M) of the cell cycle, whereas human cancer cells frequently exhibit overexpression of Aurora A protein regardless of the cell cycle stage. In the present study, Aurora A transgenic mouse lines were generated with a new conditional expression system (cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer-chicken beta-actin hybrid promoter-Z-enhanced green fluorescent protein) in order to analyze the function of this protein. Although transcripts for Aurora A were elevated in multiple organs of the transgenic mice, the corresponding protein was not detected in extracts analyzed by immunoblotting. The treatment of transgenic-derived embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) with proteasome inhibitors markedly increased the protein level of transgenic Aurora A, indicating that the transgenic Aurora A protein is readily degraded in normal mouse tissues. Under the exponential growth conditions of MEF cells, transgenic Aurora A was detected within the mitotic stage of the cell cycle and localized to centrosomes. In contrast, the marker of the transgenic promoter (enhanced green fluorescent protein) was continuously expressed throughout the cell cycle...

Molecular Epidemiology of Macrolide-Resistant Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae Collected from Blood and Respiratory Specimens in Norway

Littauer, P.; Sangvik, M.; Caugant, D. A.; Høiby, E. A.; Simonsen, G. S.; Sundsfjord, A.;
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 Português
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Norway has a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, including macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MRSP). In a nationwide surveillance program, a total of 2,200 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from blood cultures and respiratory tract specimens. Macrolide resistance was detected in 2.7%. M-type macrolide resistance was found in 60% of resistant isolates, and these were mainly mef(A)-positive, serotype-14 invasive isolates. The erm(B)-encoded macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) type dominated among the noninvasive isolates. One strain had an A2058G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Coresistance to other antibiotics was seen in 96% of the MLSB-type isolates, whereas 92% of the M-type isolates were susceptible to other commonly used antimicrobial agents. Serotypes 14, 6B, and 19F accounted for 84% of the macrolide-resistant isolates, with serotype 14 alone accounting for 67% of the invasive isolates. A total of 29 different sequence types (STs) were detected by multilocus sequence typing. Twelve STs were previously reported international resistant clones, and 75% of the macrolide-resistant isolates had STs identical or closely related to these clones. Eleven isolates displayed 10 novel STs, and 7/11 of these “Norwegian strains” coexpressed MLSB and tetracycline resistance...

Expression of creatine kinase isoenzyme genes during postnatal development of rat brain cerebellum: evidence for transcriptional regulation.

Shen, Wei; Willis, Dianna; Zhang, Yanping; Schlattner, Uwe; Wallimann, Theo; Molloy, George R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2002 Português
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Transcription and accumulation of brain-type creatine kinase (CKB) mRNA and its protein was examined during postnatal development of rat brain cerebellum, the brain region containing highest CKB mRNA in the adult. CKB protein was extremely low at day 1, increased about 10-fold until week 4 and remained constant until week 10. This time course was paralleled by cerebellar CKB mRNA, which was also extremely low at day 1 and increased 5-fold during the first 3 weeks and then remained constant. High levels of CKB protein were also detected in cultured primary cerebellar granular neurons. Nuclear run-on assays directly showed that CKB mRNA accumulation during postnatal cerebellar development was due to increased transcription. When compared with cerebrum and whole brain, cerebellar CKB mRNA accumulation during postnatal development was temporally delayed. Analysis of myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)-2 and Sp1, factors known to initiate or sustain CKB transcription in tissues other than brain, revealed that MEF-2 in cerebellum was low at week 1 but increased 3.5-fold by week 7, while Sp1 remained unchanged. The increase in CKB protein during cerebellar postnatal development was coincident with that of the ubiquitous mitochondrial CK protein and mRNA...

Resistance to Erythromycin and Telithromycin in Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates Obtained between 1999 and 2002 from Greek Children with Tonsillopharyngitis: Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis

Grivea, Ioanna N.; Al-Lahham, Adnan; Katopodis, George D.; Syrogiannopoulos, George A.; Reinert, Ralf René
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2006 Português
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Since the late 1990s, the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes has significantly increased in several European countries. Between January 1999 and December 2002, 1,577 isolates of S. pyogenes were recovered from children with tonsillopharyngitis living in various areas of Western Greece. Erythromycin resistance was observed in 379 (24%) of the 1,577 isolates. All erythromycin-resistant strains along with 153 randomly selected erythromycin-susceptible S. pyogenes isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance phenotypes, and genotypes. Representative isolates underwent emm gene sequence typing. Isolates with reduced susceptibility to telithromycin (MIC, ≥2 μg/ml) were studied for multilocus sequence type, L22, L4, and 23S rRNA mutations. Of the total 379 erythromycin-resistant isolates, 193 (50.9%) harbored the mef(A) gene, 163 (43%) erm(A), 1 (0.3%) mef(A) plus erm(A), and 22 (5.8%) the erm(B) gene. Among the erythromycin-susceptible isolates, emm 1 (25%), emm 2 (12.5%), and emm 77 (12.5%) predominated. Furthermore, among the erythromycin-resistant isolates, emm 4 (30.6%), emm 28 (22.2%), and emm 77 (12.5%) prevailed. Resistance to telithromycin was observed in 22 (5.8%) of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. Sixteen (72.7%) of the 22 isolates appeared to be clonally related...

A murine cytomegalovirus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody exhibits autoreactivity and induces tissue damage in vivo.

Chapman, A J; Farrell, H E; Thomas, J A; Papadimitriou, J M; Garlepp, M J; Scalzo, A A; Shellam, G R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1994 Português
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The autoreactivity of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) AC1 was examined in vitro and in vivo. Both mAb AC1 and a human antiserum reactive with U1-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (U1-snRNP) stained uninfected mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) in a speckled nuclear pattern and reacted with 70,000 molecular weight (MW) MEF nuclear antigens by immunoblotting, suggesting that mAb AC1 cross-reacted with the 70,000 MW component of U1-snRNP. However, only mAb AC1 cross-reacted with an additional epithelial cytoplasmic autoantigen present in cultured HEp2 cells. On tissue sections from uninfected mice, mAb AC1 predominantly reacted with a component of central and peripheral nervous systems, although cross-reactivity with the stratum spinosum of the skin and the outer sheath of hair follicles was also observed. Immunoblotting revealed that mAb AC1 reacted with phosphorylated epitopes present on a 98,000 MW MCMV structural protein and the 200,000 MW mouse neurofilament protein (NFP). Treatment of uninfected mice with mAb AC1 resulted in a severe interstitial pneumonia with greatly thickened and congested alveolar septa. Severe oedema of the hypodermis and a mild mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis were also observed. These results demonstrate that a mAb reacting with a MCMV structural phosphoprotein which can protect mice against the dissemination of MCMV...

Replication of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts: Protein Kinase R (PKR)-Dependent and PKR-Independent Mechanisms for Controlling HCV RNA Replication and Mediating Interferon Activities

Chang, Kyung-Soo; Cai, Zhaohui; Zhang, Chen; Sen, Ganes C.; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Luo, Guangxiang
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic hepatitis and is currently treated with alpha interferon (IFN-α)-based therapies. The underlying mechanisms of chronic HCV infection and IFN-based therapies, however, have not been defined. Protein kinase R (PKR) was implicated in the control of HCV replication and mediation of IFN-induced antiviral response. In this report, we demonstrate that a subgenomic RNA replicon of genotype 2a HCV replicated efficiently in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), as determined by cell colony formation efficiency and the detection of HCV proteins and both positive- and negative-strand RNAs. Additionally, the subgenomic HCV RNA was found to replicate more efficiently in the PKR knockout (PKR−/−) MEF than in the wild-type (PKR+/+) MEF. The knockdown expression of PKR by specific small interfering RNAs significantly enhanced the level of HCV RNA replication, suggesting that PKR is involved in the control of HCV RNA replication. The level of ISG56 (p56) was induced by HCV RNA replication, indicating the activation of PKR-independent antiviral pathways. Furthermore, IFN-α/β inhibited HCV RNA replication in PKR−/− MEFs as efficiently as in PKR+/+ MEFs. These findings demonstrate that PKR-independent antiviral pathways play important roles in controlling HCV replication and mediating IFN-induced antiviral effect. Our findings also provide a foundation for the development of transgenic mouse models of HCV replication and set a stage to further define the roles of cellular genes in the establishment of chronic HCV infection and the mediation of intracellular innate antiviral response by using MEFs derived from diverse gene knockout animals.

Therapeutic Failures of Antibiotics Used To Treat Macrolide-Susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes Infections May Be Due to Biofilm Formation

Baldassarri, Lucilla; Creti, Roberta; Recchia, Simona; Imperi, Monica; Facinelli, Bruna; Giovanetti, Eleonora; Pataracchia, Marco; Alfarone, Giovanna; Orefici, Graziella
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2006 Português
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Streptococcus pyogenes infections often fail to respond to antibiotic therapy, leading to persistent throat carriage and recurrent infections. Such failures cannot always be explained by the occurrence of antibiotic resistance determinants, and it has been suggested that S. pyogenes may enter epithelial cells to escape antibiotic treatment. We investigated 289 S. pyogenes strains isolated from different clinical sources to evaluate their ability to form biofilm as an alternative method to escape antibiotic treatment and host defenses. Up to 90% of S. pyogenes isolates, from both invasive and noninvasive infections, were able to form biofilm. Specific emm types, such as emm6, appeared to be more likely to produce biofilm, although variations within strains belonging to the same type might suggest biofilm formation to be a trait of individual strains rather than a general attribute of a serotype. Interestingly, erythromycin-susceptible isolates formed a significantly thicker biofilm than resistant isolates (P < 0.05). Among resistant strains, those carrying the erm class determinants formed a less organized biofilm than the mef(A)-positive strains. Also, prtF1 appeared to be negatively associated with the ability to form biofilm (P < 0.01). Preliminary data on a selection of strains indicated that biofilm-forming isolates entered epithelial cells with significantly lower efficiency than biofilm-negative strains. We suggest that prtF1-negative macrolide-susceptible or mef(A)-carrying isolates...

FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (FLIP) Protects Against Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-κB Activation Induced by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide

Bannerman, Douglas D.; Eiting, Kristine T.; Winn, Robert K.; Harlan, John M.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 Português
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Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via its activation of Toll-like receptor-4 contributes to much of the vascular injury/dysfunction associated with gram-negative sepsis. Inhibition of de novo gene expression has been shown to sensitize endothelial cells (EC) to LPS-induced apoptosis, the onset of which correlates with decreased expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP). We now have data that conclusively establish a role for FLIP in protecting EC against LPS-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of FLIP protected against LPS-induced apoptosis, whereas down-regulation of FLIP using antisense oligonucleotides sensitized EC to direct LPS killing. Interestingly, FLIP overexpression suppressed NF-κB activation induced by LPS, but not by phorbol ester, suggesting a specific role for FLIP in mediating LPS activation. Conversely, mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) obtained from FLIP −/− mice showed enhanced LPS-induced NF-κB activation relative to those obtained from wild-type mice. Reconstitution of FLIP−/− MEF with full-length FLIP reversed the enhanced NF-κB activity elicited by LPS in the FLIP −/− cells. Changes in the expression of FLIP had no demonstrable effect on other known LPS/Tlr-4-activated signaling pathways including the p38...

DNA Methylase Activity as a Marker for the Presence of a Family of Phage-Like Elements Conferring Efflux-Mediated Macrolide Resistance in Streptococci▿

Figueiredo, T. A.; Aguiar, S. I.; Melo-Cristino, J.; Ramirez, M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recently, two related chimeric genetic elements (Tn1207.3 and Φ10394.4) were shown to carry the macrolide efflux gene mef in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]). The dissemination of elements belonging to the Tn1207.3/Φ10394.4 family in recent isolates of GAS, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae recovered in Portugal was surveyed. In total, 149 GAS, 18 S. pneumoniae, 4 S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and 5 S. agalactiae isolates from infections, presenting the M phenotype of macrolide resistance and containing the mef gene, were screened for the presence of Tn1207.3/Φ10394.4 by PCR targeting open reading frames (ORFs) specific for these related elements. All the GAS isolates tested and one of the S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis isolates carried Tn1207.3. However, neither of these elements was found in the isolates of the other streptococcal species. It was also noted that the DNAs of the isolates carrying Tn1207.3 were resistant to cleavage by the endonuclease SmaI. Cloning and expression of ORF12 of Tn1207.3 in Escherichia coli showed that it encoded a methyltransferase that rendered DNA refractory to cleavage by SmaI (M.Spy10394I). Using this characteristic as a marker for the presence of the Tn1207.3/Φ10394.4 family...

Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extended haplotype analysis

Aksentijevich, Ivona; Pras, Elon; Gruberg, Luis; Shen, Yang; Holman, Katherine; Helling, Sharon; Prosen, Leandrea; Sutherland, Grant R.; Richards, Robert I.; Dean, Michael; Pras, Mordechai; Kastner, Daniel L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1993 Português
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Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated “MEF”) is on 16p, with the gene order 16cen–D16S80–MEF–D16S94–D16S283–D16S291–16pter. Here we report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families (14 Moroccan, 17 non-Moroccan). We observed highly significant associations at D16S283 and D16S291 among the Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94–D16S283–D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lower haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics.

Prevalence, Characteristics, and Molecular Epidemiology of Macrolide and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae at Five Tertiary-Care Hospitals in Korea▿

Shin, Jeong Hwan; Jung, Hee Jung; Kim, Hye Ran; Jeong, Joseph; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Kim, Sunjoo; Lee, Eun Yup; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The genes erm(B), mef(A), and both erm(B) and mef(A) were identified in 42.6, 10.1, and 47.3%, respectively, of the erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. Of the strains, 3.8% were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin and had 1 to 6 amino acid changes in the quinolone resistance-determining region, including a new mutation, Asn94Ser, in the product of parC. Levofloxacin with reserpine was highly specific for efflux screening.

Fer-Mediated Cortactin Phosphorylation Is Associated with Efficient Fibroblast Migration and Is Dependent on Reactive Oxygen Species Generation during Integrin-Mediated Cell Adhesion▿ †

Sangrar, Waheed; Gao, Yan; Scott, Michelle; Truesdell, Peter; Greer, Peter A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The molecular details linking integrin engagement to downstream cortactin (Ctn) tyrosine phosphorylation are largely unknown. In this report, we show for the first time that Fer and Ctn are potently tyrosine phosphorylated in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a variety of cell types. Working with catalytically inactive fer and src/yes/fyn-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts (ferDR/DR and syf MEF, respectively), we observed that H2O2-induced Ctn tyrosine phosphorylation is primarily dependent on Fer but not Src family kinase (SFK) activity. We also demonstrated for the first time that Fer is activated by fibronectin engagement and, in concert with SFKs, mediates Ctn tyrosine phosphorylation in integrin signaling pathways. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium, attenuated integrin-induced Fer and Ctn tyrosine phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings provide novel genetic evidence that a ROS-Fer signaling arm contributes to SFK-mediated Ctn tyrosine phosphorylation in integrin signaling. Lastly, a migration defect in ferDR/DR MEF suggests that integrin signaling through the ROS-Fer-Ctn signaling arm may be linked to mechanisms governing cell motility. These data demonstrate for the first time an oxidative link between integrin adhesion and an actin-binding protein involved in actin polymerization.

EHD1 regulates cholesterol homeostasis and lipid droplet storage

Naslavsky, Naava; Rahajeng, Juliati; Rapaport, Debora; Horowitz, Mia; Caplan, Steve
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Endocytic transport is critical for the subcellular distribution of free cholesterol and the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC) is an important organelle that stores cholesterol and regulates its trafficking. The C-terminal EHD protein, EHD1, controls receptor recycling through the ERC and affects free cholesterol distribution in the cell. We utilized embryonic fibroblasts from EHD1 knockout mice (Ehd1-/-MEF) and SiRNA in normal MEF cells to assess the role of EHD1 in intracellular transport of cholesterol. Surprisingly, Ehd1-/-MEFs displayed reduced levels of esterified and free cholesterol, which returned to normal level upon re-introduction of wild-type, but not dysfunctional EHD1. Moreover, triglyceride and cholesterol storage organelles known as ‘lipid droplets’ were smaller in size in cells lacking EHD1, indicating that less esterified cholesterol and triglycerides were being stored. Decreased cellular cholesterol and reduced lipid droplet size in Ehd1-/-MEFs correlated with ineffectual cholesterol uptake via LDL receptor, suggesting involvement of EHD1 in LDL receptor internalization.