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Essays in behavioral decision making

Shampanier, Kristina S
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 159 p.
Português
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Essay 1: Zero as a Special Price: the True Value of Free Products. When faced with a choice of selecting one of several available products (or possibly buying nothing), according to standard theoretical perspectives, people will choose the option with the highest cost-benefit difference. However, we propose that decisions about free (zero price) products differ, in that people do not simply subtract costs from benefits and perceive the benefits associated with free products as higher. We test this proposal by contrasting demand for two products across conditions that maintain the price difference between the goods, but vary the prices such that the cheaper good in the set is priced at either a low positive or zero price. In contrast with a standard cost-benefit perspective, in the zero price condition, dramatically more participants choose the cheaper option, whereas dramatically fewer participants choose the more expensive option. Thus, people appear to act as if zero pricing of a good not only decreases its cost but also adds to its benefits. After documenting this basic effect, we propose and test several psychological antecedents of the effect, including social norms, mapping difficulty, and affect. Affect emerges as the most likely account for the effect.; Essay 2: Movies as a Mood Regulation Tool: Movie Watching Patterns Right After September 11. Is a sad person more...

Mining the Online Social Network Data: Influence, Summarization, and Organization

Li, Jingxuan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Online Social Network (OSN) services provided by Internet companies bring people together to chat, share the information, and enjoy the information. Meanwhile, huge amounts of data are generated by those services (they can be regarded as the social media ) every day, every hour, even every minute, and every second. Currently, researchers are interested in analyzing the OSN data, extracting interesting patterns from it, and applying those patterns to real-world applications. However, due to the large-scale property of the OSN data, it is difficult to effectively analyze it. This dissertation focuses on applying data mining and information retrieval techniques to mine two key components in the social media data — users and user-generated contents. Specifically, it aims at addressing three problems related to the social media users and contents: (1) how does one organize the users and the contents? (2) how does one summarize the textual contents so that users do not have to go over every post to capture the general idea? (3) how does one identify the influential users in the social media to benefit other applications, e.g., Marketing Campaign? The contribution of this dissertation is briefly summarized as follows. (1) It provides a comprehensive and versatile data mining framework to analyze the users and user-generated contents from the social media. (2) It designs a hierarchical co-clustering algorithm to organize the users and contents. (3) It proposes multi-document summarization methods to extract core information from the social network contents. (4) It introduces three important dimensions of social influence...

Mining the online social network data: Influence, summarization, and organization

Li, Jingxuan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.025806%
Online Social Network (OSN) services provided by Internet companies bring people together to chat, share the information, and enjoy the information. Meanwhile, huge amounts of data are generated by those services (they can be regarded as the social media ) every day, every hour, even every minute, and every second. Currently, researchers are interested in analyzing the OSN data, extracting interesting patterns from it, and applying those patterns to real-world applications. However, due to the large-scale property of the OSN data, it is difficult to effectively analyze it. ^ This dissertation focuses on applying data mining and information retrieval techniques to mine two key components in the social media data — users and user-generated contents. Specifically, it aims at addressing three problems related to the social media users and contents: (1) how does one organize the users and the contents? (2) how does one summarize the textual contents so that users do not have to go over every post to capture the general idea? (3) how does one identify the influential users in the social media to benefit other applications, e.g., Marketing Campaign? ^ The contribution of this dissertation is briefly summarized as follows. (1) It provides a comprehensive and versatile data mining framework to analyze the users and user-generated contents from the social media. (2) It designs a hierarchical co-clustering algorithm to organize the users and contents. (3) It proposes multi-document summarization methods to extract core information from the social network contents. (4) It introduces three important dimensions of social influence...

Using sonic enhancement to augment non-visual tabular navigation

Cofino, Jonathan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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More information is now readily available to computer users than at any time in human history; however, much of this information is often inaccessible to people with blindness or low-vision, for whom information must be presented non-visually. Currently, screen readers are able to verbalize on-screen text using text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis; however, much of this vocalization is inadequate for browsing the Internet. An auditory interface that incorporates auditory-spatial orientation was created and tested. For information that can be structured as a two-dimensional table, links can be semantically grouped as cells in a row within an auditory table, which provides a consistent structure for auditory navigation. An auditory display prototype was tested.^ Sixteen legally blind subjects participated in this research study. Results demonstrated that stereo panning was an effective technique for audio-spatially orienting non-visual navigation in a five-row, six-column HTML table as compared to a centered, stationary synthesized voice. These results were based on measuring the time- to-target (TTT), or the amount of time elapsed from the first prompting to the selection of each tabular link. Preliminary analysis of the TTT values recorded during the experiment showed that the populations did not conform to the ANOVA requirements of normality and equality of variances. Therefore...

Image enhancement software for underwater recovery operations - user's manual

Partridge, William J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: iv, 18 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Português
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This report describes software for performing image enhancement on live or recorded video images. The software was developed for operational use during underwater recovery operations at the Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station. The image processing is performed on an IBM-PC/AT compatible computer equipped with hardware to digitize and display video images. The software provides the capability to provide contrast enhancement and other similar functions in real time through hardware lookup tables, to automatically perform histogram equalization, to capture one or more frames and average them or apply one of several different processing algorithms to a captured frame. The report is in the form of a user manual for the software and includes guided tutorial and reference sections. A Digital Image Processing Primer in the appendix serves to explain the principle concepts that are used in the image processing. (rrh); http://archive.org/details/imageenhancement00part

Design and synthesis of a real-time controller for an unmanned air vehicle.

Hoffman, Peter M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 111 p.;28 cm.
Português
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The Naval Postgraduate School is developing an vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned air vehicle (UAV) that can transition to horizontal flight, once airborne, in order to take advantage of the improvements in speed, range, and loiter time that horizontal, fixed-wing flight provides. This research investigates the design requirements of the central controlling device for that UAV, including the specific problems of defining the necessary hardware components and developing software for executive control. First, hardware requirements needed to be determined. By exploring the general operational requirements of the UAV and taking into account space and weight limitations, a hardware suite was selected which could provide adequate functionality to replace the human traits of a pilot. Its order to provide awareness' of the operational environment, motion sensors, navigation equipment, and communication equipment was required. Controllable servo motors were necessary to move control surfaces appropriately. Computer hardware, necessary to provide system intelligence, was selected in order to interoperate with the other hardware. Next, a Real-Time Executive (RTE) software program was designed to provide the functionality and coordination of all hardware components. Device drivers for each component were developed...

Guidance and navigation software architecture design for the Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft (AMPHIS) test bed

Eikenberry, Blake D.
Fonte: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 129 p. : ill. (some col.) ;
Português
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The Autonomous Multi-Agent Physically Interacting Spacecraft (AMPHIS) test bed examines the problem of multiple spacecraft interacting at close proximity. This thesis contributes to this on-going research by addressing the development of the software architecture for the AMPHIS spacecraft simulator robots and the implementation of a Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) unit to be used for state estimation and navigation of the prototype robot. The software modules developed include: user input for simple user tasking; user output for data analysis and animation; external data links for sensors and actuators; and guidance, navigation and control (GNC). The software was developed in the SIMULINK/MATLAB environment as a consistent library to serve as stand alone simulator, actual hardware control on the robot prototype, and any combination of the two. In particular, the software enables hardware-in-the-loop testing to be conducted for any portion of the system with reliable simulation of all other portions of the system. The modularity of this solution facilitates fast proof-of-concept validation for the GNC algorithms. Two sample guidance and control algorithms were developed and are demonstrated here: a Direct Calculus of Variation method...

Combined Intra- and Inter-domain Traffic Engineering using Hot-Potato Aware Link Weights Optimization

Balon, Simon; Leduc, Guy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A well-known approach to intradomain traffic engineering consists in finding the set of link weights that minimizes a network-wide objective function for a given intradomain traffic matrix. This approach is inadequate because it ignores a potential impact on interdomain routing. Indeed, the resulting set of link weights may trigger BGP to change the BGP next hop for some destination prefixes, to enforce hot-potato routing policies. In turn, this results in changes in the intradomain traffic matrix that have not been anticipated by the link weights optimizer, possibly leading to degraded network performance. We propose a BGP-aware link weights optimization method that takes these effects into account, and even turns them into an advantage. This method uses the interdomain traffic matrix and other available BGP data, to extend the intradomain topology with external virtual nodes and links, on which all the well-tuned heuristics of a classical link weights optimizer can be applied. A key innovative asset of our method is its ability to also optimize the traffic on the interdomain peering links. We show, using an operational network as a case study, that our approach does so efficiently at almost no extra computational cost.; Comment: 12 pages...

Development of Hybrid Intelligent Systems and their Applications from Engineering Systems to Complex Systems

Owladeghaffari, Hamed
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2008 Português
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In this study, we introduce general frame of MAny Connected Intelligent Particles Systems (MACIPS). Connections and interconnections between particles get a complex behavior of such merely simple system (system in system).Contribution of natural computing, under information granulation theory, are the main topic of this spacious skeleton. Upon this clue, we organize different algorithms involved a few prominent intelligent computing and approximate reasoning methods such as self organizing feature map (SOM)[9], Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System[10], Rough Set Theory (RST)[11], collaborative clustering, Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony System. Upon this, we have employed our algorithms on the several engineering systems, especially emerged systems in Civil and Mineral processing. In other process, we investigated how our algorithms can be taken as a linkage of government-society interaction, where government catches various fashions of behavior: solid (absolute) or flexible. So, transition of such society, by changing of connectivity parameters (noise) from order to disorder is inferred. Add to this, one may find an indirect mapping among finical systems and eventual market fluctuations with MACIPS. In the following sections, we will mention the main topics of the suggested proposal...

On Implementation of a Safer C Library, ISO/IEC TR 24731

Laverdière, Marc-André; Mokhov, Serguei A.; Benredjem, Djamel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The functions standardized as part of ISO C 1999 and their addendums improved very little the security options from the previously available library. The largest flaw remained that no function asked for the buffer size of destination buffers for any function copying data into a user-supplied buffer. According to earlier research we performed, we know that error condition handling was the first solution to security vulnerabilities, followed by precondition validation. The standard C functions typically perform little precondition validation and error handling, allowing for a wide range of security issues to be introduced in their use. ISO/IEC TR 24731, titled as "TR 24731: Safer C library functions", defines 41 new library functions for memory copying, string handling (both for normal and wide character strings), time printing, sorting, searching etc. Another innovation it brings is a constraint handling architecture, forcing error handling when certain security-related preconditions are violated when the functions are called. It also specifies the null-termination of all strings manipulated through its function and introduces a new unsigned integer type that helps preventing integer overflows and underflows. It is currently implemented by Microsoft as part of their Visual Studio 2005 and above. We examine the architecture of our implementation of ISO/IEC TR 24731. We first introduce our architectural philosophy before informing the reader about the Siemens Four View Model...

Honeypot-powered Malware Reverse Engineering

Bombardieri, Michele; Castanò, Salvatore; Curcio, Fabrizio; Furfaro, Angelo
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Honeypots, i.e. networked computer systems specially designed and crafted to mimic the normal operations of other systems while capturing and storing information about the interactions with the world outside, are a crucial technology into the study of cyber threats and attacks that propagate and occur through networks. Among them, high interaction honeypots are considered the most efficient because the attacker (whether automated or not) perceives realistic interactions with the target machine. In the case of automated attacks, propagated by malwares, currently available honeypots alone are not specialized enough to allow the analysis of their behaviors and effects on the target system. The research presented in this paper shows how high interaction honeypots can be enhanced by powering them with specific features that improve the reverse engineering activities needed to effectively analyze captured malicious entities.

SCRAM: Software configuration and management for the LHC Computing Grid project

Wellisch, J. P.; Williams, C.; Ashby, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/06/2003 Português
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Recently SCRAM (Software Configuration And Management) has been adopted by the applications area of the LHC computing grid project as baseline configuration management and build support infrastructure tool. SCRAM is a software engineering tool, that supports the configuration management and management processes for software development. It resolves the issues of configuration definition, assembly break-down, build, project organization, run-time environment, installation, distribution, deployment, and source code distribution. It was designed with a focus on supporting a distributed, multi-project development work-model. We will describe the underlying technology, and the solutions SCRAM offers to the above software engineering processes, while taking a users view of the system under configuration management.; Comment: Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, La Jolla, California, March 24-28, 2003 1 tar file

Simulation Model Of Functional Stability Of Business Processes

Monakhov, Yuri; Fayman, Olga
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/11/2013 Português
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Functioning of business processes of high-tech enterprise is in a constant interaction with the environment. Herewith a wide range of such interaction represents a variety of conflicts affecting the achievement of the goals of business processes. All these things lead to the disruption of functioning of business processes. That's why modern enterprises should have mechanisms to provide a new property of business processes - ability to maintain and/or restore functions in various adverse effects. This property is called functional stability of business processes (FSBP). In this article we offer, showcase and test the new approach to assessing the results of business process re-engineering by simulating their functional stability before and after re-engineering.; Comment: 10 pages, 12 figures

Engineering Cooperative JADE Agents with the AMCIS Methodology: The Transportation Management Case Study

Benmerzoug, Djamel; Djaaboub, Salim; Mahmoudi, Hani
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/12/2013 Português
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This paper discusses in detail important analysis and design issues emerged during the development of an agent-based transportation e-market. This discussion is based on concepts coming from the AMCIS methodology and the JADE framework. The AMCIS methodology is specifically tailored to the analysis and design of cooperative information agent-based systems, while it supports both the levels of the individual agent structure and the agent society in the Multi-Agents Systems (MAS) development process. According to AMCIS, MAS are viewed as being composed of a number of autonomous cooperative agents that live in an organized society, in which each agent plays one or more specific roles, while their plans and interaction protocols are well defined. On the other hand JADE is a FIPA specifications compliant agent development environment that gives several facilities for an easy and fast implementation. Our aim is to reveal the mapping that may exists between the basic concepts proposed by AMCIS for agents specification and agents interactions and those provided by JADE for agents implementation, and therefore to propose a kind of roadmap for agents developers.; Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, CIIA'06 Conference

Engineering Relative Compression of Genomes

Grabowski, Szymon; Deorowicz, Sebastian
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/03/2011 Português
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Technology progress in DNA sequencing boosts the genomic database growth at faster and faster rate. Compression, accompanied with random access capabilities, is the key to maintain those huge amounts of data. In this paper we present an LZ77-style compression scheme for relative compression of multiple genomes of the same species. While the solution bears similarity to known algorithms, it offers significantly higher compression ratios at compression speed over a order of magnitude greater. One of the new successful ideas is augmenting the reference sequence with phrases from the other sequences, making more LZ-matches available.; Comment: 12 pages

Mobile Services and ICT4D, To the Network Economy - Bridging the Digital Divide, Ethiopia's Case

Jebessa, Naod Duga; Alemayehu, Henok Getachew
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/2014 Português
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This paper presents a development paradigm for Ethiopia, based on appropriate services and innovative use of mobile communications technologies via applications tailored for sectors like business, finance, healthcare, governance, education and infotainment. The experience of other developing countries like India and Kenya is cited so as to adapt those to the Ethiopian context. Notable application areas in the aforementioned sectors have been outlined. The ETC 'next generation network' is taken into consideration, with an emphasis on mobile service offering by the Telco itself and/or third party service providers. In addition, enabling technologies like mobile internet, location-based systems, open interfaces to large telecom networks, specifically service-oriented architecture (SOA), Parlay/JAIN and the like are discussed. The paper points out possible endeavors by such stakeholders like: telecom agencies and network operators; businesses, government and NGOs; entrepreneurs and innovators; technology companies and professionals; as well as researchers and academic institutions. ICT4D through mobile services and their role in bridging the digital divide by building a virtual 'network economy' is presented.; Comment: 3rd Scientific Conference on Electrical Engineering...

Security Risks in Mechanical Engineering Industries

Benson, Karen; Rahman, Shawon
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2015 Português
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Inherent in any organization are security risks and barriers that must be understood, analyzed, and minimized in order to prepare for and perpetuate future growth and return on investment within the business. Likewise, company leaders must determine the security health of the organization and routinely review the potential threats that are ever changing in this new global economy. Once these risks are outlined, the cost and potential damage must be weighed before action is implemented. This paper will address the modern problems of securing information technology (IT) of a mechanical engineering enterprise, which can be applied to other modern industries.

Preprint WebVRGIS Based Traffic Analysis and Visualization System

Li, Xiaoming; Lv, Zhihan; Wang, Weixi; Zhang, Baoyun; Hu, Jinxing; Yin, Ling; Feng, Shengzhong
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/11/2015 Português
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This is the preprint version of our paper on Advances in Engineering Software. With several characteristics, such as large scale, diverse predictability and timeliness, the city traffic data falls in the range of definition of Big Data. A Virtual Reality GIS based traffic analysis and visualization system is proposed as a promising and inspiring approach to manage and develop traffic big data. In addition to the basic GIS interaction functions, the proposed system also includes some intelligent visual analysis and forecasting functions. The passenger flow forecasting algorithm is introduced in detail.; Comment: This is the preprint version of our paper on Advances in Engineering Software. arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1504.01057, arXiv:1504.01375

Big Data: How Geo-information Helped Shape the Future of Data Engineering

Jeansoulin, Robert
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/01/2015 Português
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Very large data sets are the common rule in automated mapping, GIS, remote sensing, and what we can name geo-information. Indeed, in 1983 Landsat was already delivering gigabytes of data, and other sensors were in orbit or ready for launch, and a tantamount of cartographic data was being digitized. The retrospective paper revisits several issues that geo-information sciences had to face from the early stages on, including: structure ( to bring some structure to the data registered from a sampled signal, metadata); processing (huge amounts of data for big computers and fast algorithms); uncertainty (the kinds of errors, their quantification); consistency (when merging different sources of data is logically allowed, and meaningful); ontologies (clear and agreed shared definitions, if any kind of decision should be based upon them). All these issues are the background of Internet queries, and the underlying technology has been shaped during those years when geo-information engineering emerged.; Comment: Conference "AutoCarto 6", revisited 30 years later in a "Retrospective book", edited by Barry Wellar, the same chair as the original conference. 12 pages, 6 figures. see: AutoCarto Six Retrospective, 2013. ISBN: 978-0-9921435-0-3...

Semantic Oriented Intelligent Electronic Learning

Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2010 Português
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In this research paper we describe semantic oriented information engineering and knowledge management based solution towards E-Learning systems. We also try to justify the importance of proposed solution with respect to the E-Learning Approaches .i.e., Behavior, Objectivism, Cognitive and Construction. Moreover we briefly describe E-Learning, information engineering, knowledge management and some old and newly available technologies supporting development of E-Learning Systems in this research paper.; Comment: In the proceedings of International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies (IC-ICT 08), Pakistan, 27 August 2008