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Voluntary HIV counseling and testing during prenatal care in Brazil

Goldani,Marcelo Zubaran; Giugliani,Elsa Regina Justo; Scanlon,Thomas; Rosa,Humberto; Castilhos,Kelli; Feldens,Letícia; Tomkins,Andrew
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.20058%
OBJECTIVE: Voluntary HIV counseling and testing are provided to all Brazilian pregnant women with the purpose of reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to assess characteristics of HIV testing and identify factors associated with HIV counseling and testing. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out comprising 1,658 mothers living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Biological, reproductive and social variables were obtained from mothers by means of a standardized questionnaire. Being counseling about HIV testing was the dependent variable. Confidence intervals, chi-square test and hierarchical logistic model were used to determine the association between counseling and maternal variables. RESULTS: Of 1,658 mothers interviewed, 1,603 or 96.7% (95% CI: 95.7-97.5) underwent HIV testing, and 51 or 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0) were not tested. Four (0.2%) refused to undergo testing after counseling. Of 51 women not tested in this study, 30 had undergone the testing previously. Of 1,603 women tested, 630 or 39.3% (95% CI: 36.9-41.7) received counseling, 947 or 59.2% (95% CI: 56.6-61.5) did not, and 26 (1.6%) did not inform. Low income, lack of prenatal care, late beginning of prenatal care, use of rapid testing, and receiving prenatal in the public sector were variables independently associated with a lower probability of getting counseling about HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirmed the high rate of prenatal HIV testing in Porto Alegre. However...

Quality control of individual components used in Middlebrook 7H10 medium for mycobacterial susceptibility testing.

Guthertz, L S; Griffith, M E; Ford, E G; Janda, J M; Midura, T F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1988 Português
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The acceptability of different lots of commercial components which constitute our basal medium for susceptibility testing of mycobacteria was evaluated. The basal medium consisted of Middlebrook 7H10 agar supplemented with 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase and 0.5% glycerol. Studies were performed by using three separate microbiologic assays, and results were compared with parallel tests on previously standardized and acceptable lots of media. Components were rejected if comparison with standardized medium showed a major change in growth support or susceptibility status of any reference strain to any antimicrobial agent tested. Of the components tested in such a manner, 7 of 23 (30%) lots of 10% oleic acid-albumin-dextrose-catalase, 2 of 13 (15%) lots of Middlebrook 7H10 agar, and 0 of 5 lots of glycerol were found to be unacceptable. This study demonstrates that individual lots of components of this basal medium may vary significantly in their suitability for susceptibility testing, and failure to detect such variation may dramatically affect susceptibility profiles.

Evaluation of Two Standardized Disk Methods for Testing Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and of the Enterobacteriaceae

Barry, Arthur L.; Effinger, Lee J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1974 Português
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Two standardized disk diffusion susceptibility testing methods were compared using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The standard Bauer-Kirby method and the agar overlay method of Barry et al. were compared using carbenicillin (50- and 100-μg disks), gentamicin, polymyxin B, and colistin sulfate. Both methods gave nearly comparable zone sizes with the enteric bacilli. However, with P. aeruginosa the agar overlay method gave zones 1 to 2 mm smaller than the Bauer-Kirby method with all drugs except gentamicin. In spite of these small differences, further examination of minimal inhibitory concentration-zone size correlations indicated that the same interpretive zone standards can be applied to either diffusion technique. For testing carbenicillin against Pseudomonas sp., 50-μg disks were unsatisfactory, especially with the agar overlay method; 100-μg disks were far superior with both methods.

In Vitro Preclinical Testing of Nonoxynol-9 as Potential Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Microbicide: a Retrospective Analysis of Results from Five Laboratories

Beer, Brigitte E.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Krebs, Fred C.; Shattock, Robin J.; Fletcher, Patricia S.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Watson, Karen; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Cummins, James E.; Bromley, Ena; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Pallansch, Luke A.; Lackman-Smith, Car
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 Português
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The first product to be clinically evaluated as a microbicide contained the nonionic surfactant nonoxynol-9 (nonylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol; N-9). Many laboratories have used N-9 as a control compound for microbicide assays. However, no published comparisons of the results among laboratories or attempts to establish standardized protocols for preclinical testing of microbicides have been performed. In this study, we compared results from 127 N-9 toxicity and 72 efficacy assays that were generated in five different laboratories over the last six years and were performed with 14 different cell lines or tissues. Intra-assay reproducibility was measured at two-, three-, and fivefold differences using standard deviations. Interassay reproducibility was assessed using general linear models, and interaction between variables was studied using step-wise regression. The intra-assay reproducibility within the same N-9 concentration, cell type, assay duration, and laboratory was consistent at the twofold level of standard deviations. For interassay reproducibility, cell line, duration of assay, and N-9 concentration were all significant sources of variability (P < 0.01). Half-maximal toxicity concentrations for N-9 were similar between laboratories for assays of similar exposure durations...

A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.256748%
In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors...

Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Patch Testing Beyond the TRUE Test

Nelson, Jenny L.; Mowad, Christen M.
Fonte: Matrix Medical Communications Publicador: Matrix Medical Communications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.18773%
Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield.

HIV testing in developing countries: What is required?

Alemnji, George; Nkengasong, John N.; Parekh, Bharat S.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement...

KRAS mutation testing in metastatic colorectal cancer

Tan, Cong; Du, Xiang
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The KRAS oncogene is mutated in approximately 35%-45% of colorectal cancers, and KRAS mutational status testing has been highlighted in recent years. The most frequent mutations in this gene, point substitutions in codons 12 and 13, were validated as negative predictors of response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. Therefore, determining the KRAS mutational status of tumor samples has become an essential tool for managing patients with colorectal cancers. Currently, a variety of detection methods have been established to analyze the mutation status in the key regions of the KRAS gene; however, several challenges remain related to standardized and uniform testing, including the selection of tumor samples, tumor sample processing and optimal testing methods. Moreover, new testing strategies, in combination with the mutation analysis of BRAF, PIK3CA and loss of PTEN proposed by many researchers and pathologists, should be promoted. In addition, we recommend that microsatellite instability, a prognostic factor, be added to the abovementioned concomitant analysis. This review provides an overview of KRAS biology and the recent advances in KRAS mutation testing. This review also addresses other aspects of status testing for determining the appropriate treatment and offers insight into the potential drawbacks of mutational testing.

Knowledge and attitudes towards genetic testing in those affected with Parkinson’s disease

Scuffham, Tracey M; McInerny-Leo, Aideen; Ng, Shu-Kay; Mellick, George
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.220857%
Advances in genetic tests provide valuable information for clinicians and patients around risks and inheritance of Parkinson’s Disease (PD); however, questions arise whether those affected or at risk of PD will want genetic testing, particularly given that there are no preventive or disease-modifying therapies currently available. This study sought to determine knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing for those affected with PD. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a standardized questionnaire with six multi-choice genetic knowledge and 17 multi-choice attitude items. Participants were selected from a registry of people affected with PD living in Queensland, Australia. Half of the selected index cases had a family history of PD. Ordinal regression was used to evaluate the association between support for genetic testing and demographic, knowledge, and other attitudinal factors. The level of genetic knowledge was relatively low (37 % correct responses). The vast majority supported diagnostic testing (97 %) and 90 % would undertake a genetic test themselves. Support for predictive was lower (78 %) and prenatal genetic testing had the least support (58 %). Benefits of testing were identified as the ability to know the child’s risk...

Temperature Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Silicon-Steel Sheets Using Standardized Toroidal Frame

Wu, Cheng-Ju; Lin, Shih-Yu; Chou, Shang-Chin; Tsai, Chia-Yun; Yen, Jia-Yush
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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27.156145%
This study designed a detachable and standardized toroidal test frame to measure the electromagnetic characteristic of toroidal laminated silicon steel specimens. The purpose of the design was to provide the measurements with standardized and controlled environment. The device also can withstand high temperatures (25–300°C) for short time period to allow high temperature tests. The accompanying driving circuit facilitates testing for high frequency (50–5,000 Hz) and high magnetic flux (0.2–1.8 T) conditions and produces both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal test waveforms. The thickness of the stacked laminated silicon-steel sheets must be 30~31 mm, with an internal diameter of 72 mm and an outer diameter of 90 mm. With the standardized setup, it is possible to carry out tests for toroidal specimen in high temperature and high flux operation. The test results show that there is a tendency of increased iron loss under high temperature operation. The test results with various driving waveforms also provide references to the required consideration in engineering designs.

Clinical Symptoms and Angiographic Findings of Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Angiography without Prior Stress Testing

Abdallah, Mouin S.; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Chan, Paul S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Many patients undergo elective coronary angiography without pre-procedural stress testing which may be suitable if performed in patients with more angina pectoris or more frequently identified obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients in the NCDR CathPCI Registry® undergoing elective coronary angiography between July 2009 and April 2013 were assessed for differences in angina (Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class) and severity of obstructive CAD in those with and without pre-procedural stress testing, stratified by prior CAD history. Given the large sample size, differences were considered clinically meaningful if the standardized difference (SD) was >10%. Of 790,601 patients without prior CAD history, 36.9% did not undergo prior stress testing. Compared to patients with prior stress testing, patients without prior stress testing were more frequently angina free (CCS class 0; 28.2% with stress test vs. 38.5% without, SD=14.8%) and had similar rates of obstructive CAD (40.1% with stress test vs. 35.7% without, SD=9.0). Among 449,579 patients with prior CAD history, 44.2% did not undergo prior stress testing. Patients without prior stress testing reported more angina (CCS Class III/IV angina: 17.8% vs. 13.4%; SD=11.3%) but were not more likely to have obstructive CAD (78.7% vs. 81.1%; SD=5.8%) than patients with prior stress testing. In conclusion...

Can Ontario Be the Next Finland? Assessing Whether the Finnish Model Can Meet the Educational Needs of Ontario, Canada

Waddell, Kasey
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.256748%
This study examines the adaptability of the Finland model to meet the educational disparities currently observed in the education system in Ontario, Canada. A literature review and a database highlight key characteristics of the Finland model. From this information, Finland and Ontario’s systems are found to be similar in the areas of systemic structure and educational philosophies, and international testing and performance standards. The systems are found to be different in the areas of geography and demographics, social perceptions and attitudes towards education, school system structure, teaching philosophies, teacher education and professional status, and standardized and high-stakes testing. Discussion regarding use of Finnish philosophies to meet Ontario’s needs in the following areas takes place: social perceptions and attitudes towards education, our teaching philosophies, our teacher education and professional status, and our use of high-stakes and standardized testing. Opportunities for future research are also discussed and the major research paper includes a workshop and survey.

Testing for constant spatial mean using the global D-statistic

Pardo-Iguzquiza, E.; Dowd, P.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The authors introduce the D-statistic for testing for a constant spatial mean in geostatistical applications, i.e. testing for the presence or absence of a global drift. The D-statistic can be calculated with sparse data and for different directions and a statistical test of hypothesis of constant spatial mean has been designed using the global standardized D-statistic. If, for a given data set, the null hypothesis of constant mean cannot be accepted, a model with a (non-constant) drift would be more appropriate. The estimated confidence level and estimated power of the D-statistic hypothesis test is studied using Monte Carlo simulation, with different assumptions about the random field, the drift, the scale of variability of the drift and the number of experimental data (i.e. sample size). Case studies are provided to illustrate the application and interpretation of the results. The Fortran computer program D2STAT2D is provided for calculating the standardized global D-statistic from sparse data in the plane.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00983004; Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza and Peter A. Dowd; Copyright © 2003 Elsevier Ltd

Concern-driven integrated approaches to nanomaterials testing and assessment - Report of the NanoSafety Cluster Working Group 10

OOMEN Agnes; BOS Peter M. J.; FERNANDES Teresa F.; HUND-RINKE K.; BORASCHI Diana; BYRNE Hugh J.; ASCHBERGER KARIN; GOTTARDO STEFANIA; VON DER KAMMER Frank; KÜHNEL Dana; HRISTOZOV Danail; MARCOMINI Antonio; MIGLIORE Lucia; SCOTT-FORDSMAND Janeck; WICK Pet
Fonte: INFORMA HEALTHCARE Publicador: INFORMA HEALTHCARE
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
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27.172356%
Bringing together topic-related European Union-(EU)-funded projects, the so-called “NanoSafety Cluster” aims at identifying key areas for further research on risk assessment procedures for nanomaterials (NM). The outcome of NanoSafety Cluster Working Group 10, this commentary presents a vision for concern-driven integrated approaches for the (eco-)toxicological testing and assessment (IATA) of NM. Such approaches should start out by determining concerns, i.e. specific information needs for a given NM based on realistic exposure scenarios. Recognized concerns can be addressed in a set of tiers using standardized protocols for NM preparation and testing. Tier 1 includes determining physico-chemical properties, non-testing (e.g. structure activity relationships) and evaluating existing data. In tier 2, a limited set of in vitro and in vivo tests are performed that can either indicate that the risk of the specific concern is sufficiently known or indicate the need for further testing, including details for such testing. Ecotoxicological testing begins with representative test organisms followed by complex test systems. After each tier, it is evaluated whether the information gained permits assessing the safety of the NM so that further testing can be waived. By effectively exploiting all available information...

The relationship between selected standardized test scores and performance in advanced placement math and science exams: Analyzing the differential effectiveness of scores for course identification and placement

Urbina, Josue N
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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There is a national need to increase the STEM-related workforce. Among factors leading towards STEM careers include the number of advanced high school mathematics and science courses students complete. Florida's enrollment patterns in STEM-related Advanced Placement (AP) courses, however, reveal that only a small percentage of students enroll into these classes. Therefore, screening tools are needed to find more students for these courses, who are academically ready, yet have not been identified. ^ The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which scores from a national standardized test, Preliminary Scholastic Assessment Test/ National Merit Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT), in conjunction with and compared to a state-mandated standardized test, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT), are related to selected AP exam performance in Seminole County Public Schools. An ex post facto correlational study was conducted using 6,189 student records from the 2010 - 2012 academic years. ^ Multiple regression analyses using simultaneous Full Model testing showed differential moderate to strong relationships between scores in eight of the nine AP courses (i.e., Biology, Environmental Science, Chemistry, Physics B, Physics C Electrical...

Short Communication Routine HIV Testing in the Emergency Department: Assessment of Patient Perceptions

Batey, D. Scott; Hogan, Victoria L.; Cantor, Ryan; Hamlin, Christopher M.; Ross-Davis, Kelly; Nevin, Christa; Zimmerman, Cindy; Thomas, Shakira; Mugavero, Michael J.; Willig, James H.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.220857%
The CDC released revised HIV testing guidelines in 2006 recommending routine, opt-out HIV testing in acute care settings including emergency departments (ED). Patient attitudes have been cited as a barrier to implementation of routine HIV testing in the ED. We assessed patients' perceptions of HIV testing in the ED through a contextual qualitative approach. The study was conducted during a 72-h period. All adults presenting to the ED without life-threatening trauma or psychiatric crisis completed a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire explored HIV testing history, knowledge of testing resources, and qualitative items addressing participant perceptions about advantages and disadvantages to ED testing. After completion of the interview, participants were offered a free, confidential, rapid HIV test. Among 329 eligible individuals approached, 288 (87.5%) completed the initial interview. Participants overwhelmingly (n=247, 85.8%) reported support for testing and identified increased knowledge (41%), prevention (12.5%), convenience (11.8%), and treatment (4.9%) among the advantages. Fear and denial about one's HIV status, reported by <5% of patients, were identified as the most significant barriers to ED testing. Bivariate analysis determined race and ethnicity differences between individuals completing the interview and those who refused (p<0.05). Among individuals consenting for testing (n=186...

Benchmark testing the Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications System proposal of the Department of Defense

Shelton, Philip D.; Lyche, David K.; Norton, Gary S.; Romlein, John; Lawrence, David P.; Cawthon, Mike A.; Thomas, Jerry A.; Richardson, Nancy
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 Português
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The Department of Defense issued a Request for Proposal (RFP) for its next generation Picture Archiving and Communications System in January of 1997. The RFP was titled Digital Imaging Network—Picture Archiving and Communications System (DIN-PACS). Benchmark testing of the proposed vendors' systems occurred during the summer of 1997. This article highlights the methods for test material and test system organization, the major areas tested, and conduct of actual testing. Department of Defense and contract personnel wrote test procedures for benchmark testing based on the important features of the DIN-PACS Request for Proposal. Identical testing was performed with each vendor's system. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard images used for the Benchmark Testing included all modalities. The images were verified as being DICOM standard compliant by the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Electronic Radiology Laboratory. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory prepared the Unix-based server for the DICOM images and operated it during testing. The server was loaded with the images and shipped to each vendor's facility for on-site testing. The Defense Supply Center, Philadelphia (DSCP), the Department of Defense agency managing the DIN-PACS contract...

Aconselhamento e testagem voluntária para o HIV durante a assistência pré-natal; Voluntary HIV counseling and testing during prenatal care in Brazil

Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Scanlon, Thomas; Rosa, Humberto; Castilhos, Kelli; Feldens, Letícia; Tomkins, Andrew
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.20058%
OBJETIVO: O aconselhamento e teste voluntário para o HIV foram instituídos no Brasil para todas as gestantes com o objetivo de reduzir a transmissão materno-infantil do vírus. O objetivo do estudo é verificar as características de testagem do HIV e identificar os fatores associados com a oportunidade da gestante ser aconselhada para esse teste. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1.658 mães residentes em Porto Alegre, RS. Variáveis biológicas, reprodutivas e sociais foram obtidas utilizando-se um questionário padronizado. Ser aconselhada para o teste de detecção do HIV foi a variável dependente. Para determinar os fatores associados à oportunidade de aconselhamento foram utilizados intervalos de confiança de 95%, o teste de qui-quadrado e uma análise multivariada utilizando o modelo hierarquizado. RESULTADOS: De um total de 1.658 mulheres entrevistadas, 1.603 ou 96,7% (IC 95%, 95,7%-97,5%) foram testadas para o HIV, 51 ou 3,1% (IC 95%, 2,3%-4,0%) não foram testadas e quatro (0,2%) se negaram a fazer o teste. Das 51 não-testadas, 30 haviam feito o teste previamente. Das 1.603 mulheres testadas durante a gestação, 630 ou 39,3% (IC 95%, 36,9%-41,7%) foram aconselhadas sobre o teste, 947 ou 59,1% não o foram (IC 95%...

Voluntary HIV counseling and testing during prenatal care in Brazil

Goldani,Marcelo Zubaran; Giugliani,Elsa Regina Justo; Scanlon,Thomas; Rosa,Humberto; Castilhos,Kelli; Feldens,Letícia; Tomkins,Andrew
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.20058%
OBJECTIVE: Voluntary HIV counseling and testing are provided to all Brazilian pregnant women with the purpose of reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission. The purpose of the study was to assess characteristics of HIV testing and identify factors associated with HIV counseling and testing. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out comprising 1,658 mothers living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Biological, reproductive and social variables were obtained from mothers by means of a standardized questionnaire. Being counseling about HIV testing was the dependent variable. Confidence intervals, chi-square test and hierarchical logistic model were used to determine the association between counseling and maternal variables. RESULTS: Of 1,658 mothers interviewed, 1,603 or 96.7% (95% CI: 95.7-97.5) underwent HIV testing, and 51 or 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3-4.0) were not tested. Four (0.2%) refused to undergo testing after counseling. Of 51 women not tested in this study, 30 had undergone the testing previously. Of 1,603 women tested, 630 or 39.3% (95% CI: 36.9-41.7) received counseling, 947 or 59.2% (95% CI: 56.6-61.5) did not, and 26 (1.6%) did not inform. Low income, lack of prenatal care, late beginning of prenatal care, use of rapid testing, and receiving prenatal in the public sector were variables independently associated with a lower probability of getting counseling about HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirmed the high rate of prenatal HIV testing in Porto Alegre. However...

A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

van Zimmeren,Esther; Verbeure,Birgit; Matthijs,Gert; Van Overwalle,Geertrui
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.256748%
In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors...