Página 4 dos resultados de 380 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

Fanonian ambivalence: on psychoanalysis and postcolonial critique

Hook, Derek; Truscott, Ross
Fonte: American Psychological Association Division 24 (Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) Publicador: American Psychological Association Division 24 (Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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In this article the place of psychoanalysis in thinking about postcolonial subjectivities is considered, and reference is made to the contemporary South African situation. The article is divided into two sections. First, it is shown that, with its attention to the unconscious, to the past and its disguised repetition, psychoanalysis is especially attuned to the displaced routes of colonial desire after the end of official colonial (or apartheid) rule. The second section then considers Frantz Fanon’s strategic deployment of psychoanalysis, focusing on the way Fanon reworked key psychoanalytic concepts in Black Skin, White Masks, emphasizing what he referred to as “sociogeny,” the way colonial neuroses are produced out of an internalization—or “epidermalization” in Fanon’s terms—of racist social structure. The argument made is that psychoanalysis must, if it is to be a part of a critical frame for postcolonial subjectivities, be rendered not only instrument but also object of analysis, a part of the very social structure toward which Fanon shifted his attention. Psychoanalysis is adept at throwing into relief repetitions of the colonial past. Nonetheless, psychoanalytic thinking, pervasive in a postapartheid context—that is...

Nixon's “full-speech”: imaginary and symbolic registers of communication

Hook, Derek
Fonte: American Psychological Association Division 24 (Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) Publicador: American Psychological Association Division 24 (Society for Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology)
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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Communicative interchanges play a foundational role in establishing the social. This being said, communicative behavior can also lead to stalemates and conflict in which demands of recognition outweigh the prospect of hearing or saying anything beyond what is thought to be known. This article foregrounds a dimension of communication often neglected by approaches prioritizing mass communications and new media technologies, namely the psychical and intersubjective aspects of communicative exchange. More directly, this article introduces and develops a Lacanian psychoanalytic theory of two interlinked registers of communicative behavior. The first of these is the imaginary: the domain of one-to-one intersubjectivity and behavior that serves the ego and functions to consolidate the images subjects use to substantiate themselves. The second—far more disturbing and unpredictable—is the symbolic. It links the subject to a trans-subjective order of truth, it provides them with a set of sociosymbolic coordinates, and it ties them into a variety of roles and social contracts. In an elaboration of these two registers, illustrated by brief reference to Nixon's admission of guilt in his interviews with David Frost, I pay particular attention to both the potentially transformative symbolic aspect of communicative behaviors and the ever-present prospect that such relations will ossify into imaginary impasses of mis-knowing (méconnaissance) and aggressive rivalry.

The downside of looking like a leader: power, nonverbal confidence, and participative decision-making

Locke, Connson C.; Anderson, Cameron
Fonte: Elsevier on behalf of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology Publicador: Elsevier on behalf of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2015 Português
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An abundance of evidence suggests that exhibiting a confident nonverbal demeanor helps individuals ascend social hierarchies. The current research examines some of the implications of having individuals in positions of power who exhibit such nonverbal confidence. Three studies examined dyads that worked together on decision-making tasks. It was found that people participated less in a discussion when they interacted with a powerful individual who exhibited confidence than when a powerful individual did not exhibit confidence. Moreover, people who interacted with a confident powerful individual participated less because they viewed that individual to be more competent. People even deferred to the confident powerful individual's opinions when that individual was wrong, leading to suboptimal joint decisions. Moderation analyses suggest that the powerful individual was able to mitigate the effects of a confident demeanor somewhat by also showing an open nonverbal demeanor.

Threatened by violence: affective and cognitive reactions to violent victimization

Jackson, Jonathan; Gouseti, Ioanna
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Stranger violence can have a variety of different physical, psychological, social and economic effects on the victim. In this paper we address one possible impact: namely, a heightened sense of uncertainty, risk and fear of violent crime. Drawing on recent advances in the psychology of risk, we make three contributions. First, we differentiate in our analysis between primary experience of violence (where the individual in question has been attacked by a stranger in the local streets) and secondary experience of violence (where the individual knows somebody who has been attacked in the local streets by a stranger). Second, we assess whether risk perception (beliefs about the likelihood, impact and controllability of future victimization) mediates the empirical links between primary and secondary experience of violence and worry about violent crime. Finally, we examine whether victimization experience seems to have a greater impact on risk perception and worry among people with a high need for cognitive closure (who are averse to uncertainty and desire order and structure in their lives). Our findings indicate a number of potentially important mediating and moderating effects regarding the impact of stranger violence on fear of violent crime. We conclude with some implications for research and policy.

Book review: Regimes of narcissism, regimes of despair

Ranawana, Anupama
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2013 Português
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"Regimes of Narcissism, Regimes of Despair." Ashis Nandy. Oxford University Press. March 2013. --- In this book Ashis Nandy considers a new India, where the fate of the country is largely decided by its political culture that has become the domain of two predominant psychological states: narcissism and despair. Looking at the nationalism of Gandhi and Tagore, Savarkar, and Madanlal Pahwa, and cultural psychology, terror and counter-terror, humiliation and human degradation, happiness, and modernity and the sense of loss, the essays aim to open up the future for the next generation of intellectuals and political activists in India and in other societies. Reviewed by Anupama Ranawana.

Book Review: Political emotions: why love matters for justice

Evans, Jules
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2013 Português
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"Political Emotions: Why Love Matters for Justice." Martha C. Nussbaum. Harvard University Press. October 2013. --- Martha C. Nussbaum makes the case that amid the fears, resentments, and competitive concerns that are endemic even to good societies, public emotions rooted in love – in intense attachments to things outside our control – can foster commitment to shared goals and keep at bay the forces of disgust and envy. Jules Evans finds this book an interesting read that attempts to re-connect modern philosophy to emotions, psychology, the arts, and to public policy.

Book review: thinking, fast and slow

Suss, Joel
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2012 Português
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Daniel Kahneman, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology challenging the rational model of judgment and decision making, is seen by many as one of the world’s most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound impact on many fields – including business, medicine, and politics – and in Thinking, Fast and Slow he takes readers on a tour of the mind, explaining the two systems that drive the way we think and make choices. Joel Suss feels that the book should be made required reading for anyone who still holds fast to the notion that people make decisions rationally.

Habitual creativity: revising habit, reconceptualizing creativity.

Glăveanu, Vlad Petre
Fonte: American Psychological Association Publicador: American Psychological Association
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2012 Português
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Current psychological scholarship is based on a dichotomy between habit, associated with automatic reflex behavior, and creativity, which involves deliberation, purpose and heuristic procedures. However, this account is problematic and contradicts everyday experience where mastery, for instance, is one of the highest levels of creative performance achieved within a habitual practice. This article argues that such a separation misrepresents both habit and creativity with important theoretical and practical consequences. A first step toward reconciling the two terms is made by revisiting a series of foundational strands of theory from psychology and related disciplines. In light of these sources, habit is reformulated as a social, situated, and open system, and habitual creativity defined as the intrinsically creative nature of customary action, reflected in the way habits adjust to dynamic contexts, the way they are used, combined, and ultimately perfected. Further distinctions are then made between habit, improvisation, and innovation. Both improvisational and innovative creativity are embedded in habitual forms and this is well illustrated by craftwork: a practiced type of activity on the basis of which artisans improvise, whenever obstacles or difficulties are encountered...

How can we capture the subject's perspective? An evidence-based approach for the social scientist

Lahlou, Saadi
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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This paper addresses the methodological gap that impedes the collection of empirical data on subjective experience. It describes a new family of methods for social science research (Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography: SEBE). The methods are based on: first-person audio-visual recording with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level (‘subcam’); confronting subjects with these first-person recordings to collect their subjective experience; formulating the findings and discussing the final interpretation with the subjects. These procedures enable subjects to reconstruct and describe their psychological state at the moment of action, especially their goals, by reviewing films of their own activity recorded from their own perspective with subcams. These films provide situated records of actual activity in natural environments, without the need of an external observer. This approach, by providing both detailed records of actual activity and evidence-based accounts of the subject’s own mental processes, supports grounded progress in ethnography, psychology, ergonomics, sociology and the social sciences in general. There are also applications for training and cross-cultural contacts. The techniques are described in sufficient detail for the reader to make use of them. Examples of applications are provided and limitations are discussed.

‘I hope we won’t have to understand racism one day’: Researching or reproducing ‘race’ in social psychological research?

Howarth, Caroline
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2009 Português
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This paper examines the reification and problemization of ‘race’ in Psychological research in both influential studies in the field and inmy empirical work. The main argument is that we need to examine how representations of ‘race’ are assumed, produced and contested in research practice. This argument is made by (a) showing how research in the area adopts everyday representations of ‘race’ as essentialized and (b) with an illustration of the construction of ‘race’ within my study. This study explores how children in a predominantly white setting accept and contest representations that race. twenty two children from a range of cultural backgrounds volunteered to discuss their views and experiences of ‘race’ and racism in a naturalistic research activity. The analysis reveals that racialized difference is something that is constructed as both ‘real’—in that it can be seen, touched and even caught from ‘the other’ and simultaneously something that is constructed, imposed and damaging. This highlights the possibilities for racialized others to take up positions as agents and not (only) as objects of the racializing and racist gaze, and so presents the case for thinking, debating and researching beyond reifying representations of ‘race’. This has important lessons for social psychology: namely...

A review of controversies about social representations theory: a British debate

Voelklein, Corina; Howarth, Caroline
Fonte: Sage Publications Publicador: Sage Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2005 Português
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Since its inception more than forty years ago, social representations theory has been subjected to several criticisms, particularly within British discursive psychology. This paper reviews four major controversies that lie in the areas of (a) theoretical ambiguities, (b) social determinism, (c) cognitive reductionism and (d) lack of a critical agenda. A detailed discussion and evaluation of these criticisms reveals that while some can be regarded as misinterpretations, others need to be treated as serious and constructive suggestions for extending and refining the current theoretical framework. The main argument underlying this review is that many of the criticisms are based on the difficulty in understanding and integrating the complex, dynamic and dialectical relationship between individual agency and social structure that forms the core of social representations theory. Engaging with the critics is thus thought to provide clarification and to initiate critical dialogue, which is seen as crucial for theoretical development.

Towards a social psychology of community: a social representations perspective

Howarth, Caroline
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2001 Português
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Health, community and development : towards a social psychology of participation

Campbell, Catherine; Jovchelovitch, Sandra
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 Português
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Espaços the mediação e gênese das representações sociais

Jovchelovitch, Sandra
Fonte: Faculty of Psychology of PUCRS Publicador: Faculty of Psychology of PUCRS
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1996 Português
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Gibson's affordances and Turing's theory of computation

Wells, Andrew J.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The concept of affordance is a central component of the ecological psychology of J. J. Gibson (1966, 1977, 1979/1986). Affordances are properties of the environment taken relative to an observer. Ecological theorists have developed formal models for the analysis of affordances. Models proposed by Shaw and Turvey (1981), Turvey (1992), and Greeno (1994) are described and evaluated, and another approach, using Turing's (1936-1937/1965) theory of computation, is outlined. Affordances are characterized as the configurations of Turing machines. It is shown that Turing's work provides a natural vehicle for exploring Gibson's ideas.

Social representations : the versatility of a concept

Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Allansdottir, A.; Stathopoulou, A.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1993 Português
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This paper attempts to discuss the 'versatility' of the concept of social representations, in the context of the Anglo-saxon tradition of social psychological research. This is done by analysing some of the concept's internal features - what we call the 'openness' of the concept - along with the various ways in which it has been incorporated by other approaches within social psychology - bringing about what we call the 'closure' of the concept. It is suggested that the theory has provided a 'convenient social package' to social psychological perspectives historically criticized as being asocial. The use of pre-established methods and techniques combined with social representations theory provides a "safe" territory to do research, where one introduces something allegedly "novel", i.e. the social, and at the same time does not assume the full consequences of that novelty. We argue that while the very openness and flexibility of the concept might invite convenient combinations, these are usually achieved at a cost. The theoretical integrity of the concept is compromised, mainly by treating social representations as a technological answer to theoretical lacuna of other perspectives. The outcome is a premature epistemological closure of the concept...

Theory and method of social representations

Wagner, Wolfgang; Farr, Robert; Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Lorenzi-Cioldi, Fabio; Marková, Ivana; Duveen, Gerard; Rose, Diana
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell in conjunction with the Asian Association of Social Psychology and the Japanese Group Dynamics Association Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell in conjunction with the Asian Association of Social Psychology and the Japanese Group Dynamics Association
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/1999 Português
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This paper gives an overview of social representation theory, definitions of the key terms and of the social processes leading to a representation and to social identity. Six empirical studies are presented and details of their methods and findings are given to illustrate this social psychological approach. These studies are about the ontogenesis of gender, the public sphere in Brazil, madness on British television, images of androgyny in Switzerland, individualism and democracy in post-communist Europe and metaphorical thinking about conception. The methods are ethnography, interviews, focus-groups, content analysis of media, statistical analysis of word associations, questionnaires and experiments. Finally, social representation theory is compared to theories of attitudes, schemata and social cognition.

Living in a material world: reflecting on some assumptions of health psychology

Murray, Michael; Campbell, Catherine
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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Book review: visual pollution: advertising, signage and environmental quality by Adriana Portella

Anciaes, Paulo Rui
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/05/2014 Português
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In architecture and psychology literature there is now growing interest in the negative consequences that commercial signs can have on the visual quality of urban areas and on people’s quality of life. Visual Pollution by Adriana Portella asks what is needed to enhance visual quality in historic and commercial city centres, and includes chapters on consumer culture, marketing the city, and urban tourism. This book is a welcome addition to an emergent field and hopefully it will inform urban policies that focus on the quality of people’s experience of historic city centres, writes Paulo Rui Anciaes.

The Behavioral Economics Guide 2014 (with a foreword by George Loewenstein and Rory Sutherland)

Samson, Alain
Fonte: BehavioralEconomics.com Publicador: BehavioralEconomics.com
Tipo: Book; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2014 Português
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CONTENTS Foreword by George Loewenstein and Rory Sutherland Part 1 - The Basics - An Introduction to Behavioral Economics - Selected Behavioral Economics Concepts - References Part 2 - Resources - Books Read by 'Behavioral Economics Group' Members - Scholarly Journals with Behavioral Economics Content - Postgraduate Programs in Behavioral Economics and Behavioral/Decision Science Part 3 - Applied Perspectives Psychology and Behavioral Economics in Practice Appendix - Author and Contributing Organization Profiles