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Id1 regulation of cellular senescence through transcriptional repression of p16/Ink4a

Alani, Rhoda M.; Young, Alison Z.; Shifflett, Clinton B.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Id family of helix–loop–helix (HLH) transcriptional regulatory proteins does not possess a basic DNA-binding domain and functions as a negative regulator of basic HLH transcription factors. Id proteins coordinate cell growth and differentiation pathways within mammalian cells and have been shown to regulate G1-S cell-cycle transitions. Although much recent data has implicated Id1 in playing a critical role in modulating cellular senescence, no direct genetic evidence has been reported to substantiate such work. Here we show that Id1-null primary mouse embryo fibroblasts undergo premature senescence despite normal growth profiles at early passage. These cells possess increased expression of the tumor-suppressor protein p16/Ink4a but not p19/ARF, and have decreased cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) 2 and cdk4 kinase activity. We also show that Id1 is able to directly inhibit p16/Ink4a but not p19/ARF promoter activity via its HLH domain, and that Id1inhibits transcriptional activation at E-boxes within the p16/Ink4a promoter. Our data provide, to our knowledge, the first genetic evidence for a role for Id1 as an inhibitor of cellular senescence and suggest that Id1 functions to delay cellular senescence through repression of p16/Ink4a. Because epigenetic and genetic abrogation of p16/Ink4a function has been implicated in the evolution of several human malignancies...

Prohibitin Facilitates Cellular Senescence by Recruiting Specific Corepressors To Inhibit E2F Target Genes

Rastogi, Shipra; Joshi, Bharat; Dasgupta, Piyali; Morris, Mark; Wright, Kenneth; Chellappan, Srikumar
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 Português
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Prohibitin is a growth regulatory gene that has pleiotropic functions in the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasmic compartments. Earlier studies had proposed a role for prohibitin in modulating cellular senescence, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show that senescence induced by DNA-damaging agents causes the localization of prohibitin to specific heterochromatic foci. Prohibitin could bind to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family proteins and colocalized with HP1γ in senescence-associated heterochromatic foci. Further, HP1γ could synergize with prohibitin to repress E2F1-mediated transcriptional activity. The depletion of prohibitin by small interfering RNA or antisense techniques led to a reduction in the senescent phenotype, correlating with a reduced expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and fewer numbers of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that prohibitin is needed for the recruitment of HP1γ to E2F1-regulated proliferative promoters, leading to their repression. The ablation of prohibitin prevented the recruitment of HPIγ, but not Suv39H, to the promoters upon senescence. Prohibitin-mediated recruitment of HP1γ occurred in only senescent cells...

Cellular senescence is an important mechanism of tumor regression upon c-Myc inactivation

Wu, Chi-Hwa; van Riggelen, Jan; Yetil, Alper; Fan, Alice C.; Bachireddy, Pavan; Felsher, Dean W.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Oncogene-induced senescence is an important mechanism by which normal cells are restrained from malignant transformation. Here we report that the suppression of the c-Myc (MYC) oncogene induces cellular senescence in diverse tumor types including lymphoma, osteosarcoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. MYC inactivation was associated with prototypical markers of senescence, including acidic β-gal staining, induction of p16INK4a, and p15INK4b expression. Moreover, MYC inactivation induced global changes in chromatin structure associated with the marked reduction of histone H4 acetylation and increased histone H3 K9 methylation. Osteosarcomas engineered to be deficient in p16INK4a or Rb exhibited impaired senescence and failed to exhibit sustained tumor regression upon MYC inactivation. Similarly, only after lymphomas were repaired for p53 expression did MYC inactivation induce robust senescence and sustained tumor regression. The pharmacologic inhibition of signaling pathways implicated in oncogene-induced senescence including ATM/ATR and MAPK did not prevent senescence associated with MYC inactivation. Our results suggest that cellular senescence programs remain latently functional, even in established tumors, and can become reactivated...

BS69 is involved in cellular senescence through the p53–p21Cip1 pathway

Zhang, Wei; Chan, Ho Man; Gao, Yan; Poon, Randy; Wu, Zhenguo
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The multidomain-containing cellular protein BS69 interacts with adenovirus E1A and several other viral and cellular factors, and acts as a transcription repressor. Here, we show that BS69 is involved in the p53–p21Cip1-mediated senescence pathway. Knockdown of BS69 by RNA interference in human primary fibroblasts results in elevated levels of p21Cip1 and the appearance of several senescent markers, including enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. Importantly, knockdown of either p53 or p21Cip1, but not p16INK4a or Rb, allows cells to bypass premature senescence that is induced by BS69 knockdown. Furthermore, we show that BS69 forms complexes with both p53 and p400, and that BS69 associates with the p21Cip1 promoter through p53. Together, our data indicate that BS69 is involved in cellular senescence mainly through the p53–p21Cip1 pathway.

DNA damage, cellular senescence and organismal ageing: causal or correlative?

Chen, Jian-Hua; Hales, C. Nicholes; Ozanne, Susan E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence has long been used as a cellular model for understanding mechanisms underlying the ageing process. Compelling evidence obtained in recent years demonstrate that DNA damage is a common mediator for both replicative senescence, which is triggered by telomere shortening, and premature cellular senescence induced by various stressors such as oncogenic stress and oxidative stress. Extensive observations suggest that DNA damage accumulates with age and that this may be due to an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decline in DNA repair capacity with age. Mutation or disrupted expression of genes that increase DNA damage often result in premature ageing. In contrast, interventions that enhance resistance to oxidative stress and attenuate DNA damage contribute towards longevity. This evidence suggests that genomic instability plays a causative role in the ageing process. However, conflicting findings exist which indicate that ROS production and oxidative damage levels of macromolecules including DNA do not always correlate with lifespan in model animals. Here we review the recent advances in addressing the role of DNA damage in cellular senescence and organismal ageing.

miR-29 and miR-30 regulate B-Myb expression during cellular senescence

Martinez, Ivan; Cazalla, Demian; Almstead, Laura L.; Steitz, Joan A.; DiMaio, Daniel
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence is a form of irreversible growth arrest and a major tumor suppressor mechanism. We show here that the miR-29 and miR-30 microRNA families are up-regulated during induced and replicative senescence and that up-regulation requires activation of the Rb pathway. Expression of a reporter construct containing the 3′UTR of the B-Myb oncogene is repressed during senescence, and repression is blocked by mutations in conserved miR-29 and miR-30 binding sites in the B-Myb 3′UTR. In proliferating cells, transfection of miR-29 and miR-30 represses a reporter construct containing the wild-type but not the mutant B-Myb 3′UTR, and repression of the mutant 3′UTR is reinstituted by compensatory mutations in miR-29 and miR-30 that restore binding to the mutant sites. miR-29 and miR-30 introduction also represses expression of endogenous B-Myb and inhibits cellular DNA synthesis. Finally, interference with miR-29 and miR-30 expression inhibits senescence. These findings demonstrate that miR-29 and miR-30 regulate B-Myb expression by binding to its 3′UTR and suggest that these microRNAs play an important role in Rb-driven cellular senescence.

EZH2-dependent suppression of a cellular senescence phenotype in melanoma cells by inhibition of p21/CDKN1A expression

Fan, Tao; Jiang, Shunlin; Chung, Nancy; Alikhan, Ali; Ni, Christina; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Hornyak, Thomas J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Polycomb group proteins (PcG) such as Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) are epigenetic transcriptional repressors that function through recognition and modification of histone methylation and chromatin structure. Targets of PcG include cell cycle regulatory proteins which govern cell cycle progression and cellular senescence. Senescence is a characteristic of melanocytic nevi, benign melanocytic proliferations that can be precursors of malignant melanoma. In this study, we report that EZH2, which we find absent in melanocytic nevi but expressed in many or most metastatic melanoma cells, functionally suppresses the senescent state in human melanoma cells. EZH2 depletion in melanoma cells inhibits cell proliferation, restores features of a cellular senescence phenotype, and inhibits growth of melanoma xenografts in vivo. p21/CDKN1A is activated upon EZH2 knockdown in a p53-independent manner and contributes substantially to cell cycle arrest and induction of a senescence phenotype. EZH2 depletion removes histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) from the CDKN1A transcriptional start site and downstream region, enhancing histone 3 acetylation globally and at CDKN1A. This results in recruitment of RNA polymerase II, leading to p21/CDKN1A activation. Depletion of EZH2 synergistically activates p21/CDKN1A expression in combination with the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. Since melanomas often retain wild-type p53 function activating p21...

Pirin Inhibits Cellular Senescence in Melanocytic Cells

Licciulli, Silvia; Luise, Chiara; Scafetta, Gaia; Capra, Maria; Giardina, Giuseppina; Nuciforo, Paolo; Bosari, Silvano; Viale, Giuseppe; Mazzarol, Giovanni; Tonelli, Chiara; Lanfrancone, Luisa; Alcalay, Myriam
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 Português
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Cellular senescence has been widely recognized as a tumor suppressing mechanism that acts as a barrier to cancer development after oncogenic stimuli. A prominent in vivo model of the senescence barrier is represented by nevi, which are composed of melanocytes that, after an initial phase of proliferation induced by activated oncogenes (most commonly BRAF), are blocked in a state of cellular senescence. Transformation to melanoma occurs when genes involved in controlling senescence are mutated or silenced and cells reacquire the capacity to proliferate. Pirin (PIR) is a highly conserved nuclear protein that likely functions as a transcriptional regulator whose expression levels are altered in different types of tumors. We analyzed the expression pattern of PIR in adult human tissues and found that it is expressed in melanocytes and has a complex pattern of regulation in nevi and melanoma: it is rarely detected in mature nevi, but is expressed at high levels in a subset of melanomas. Loss of function and overexpression experiments in normal and transformed melanocytic cells revealed that PIR is involved in the negative control of cellular senescence and that its expression is necessary to overcome the senescence barrier. Our results suggest that PIR may have a relevant role in melanoma progression.

Cellular senescence increases expression of bacterial ligands in the lungs and is positively correlated with increased susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia

Shivshankar, Pooja; Boyd, Angela Rodriguez; Le Saux, Claude Jourdan; Yeh, I-Tien; Orihuela, Carlos J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence is an age-associated phenomenon that promotes tumor invasiveness due to the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and growth factors. Herein we demonstrate that cellular senescence also potentially increases susceptibility to bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), the leading cause of infectious death in the elderly. Aged mice had increased lung inflammation as determined by cytokine analysis and histopathology of lung sections. Immunoblotting for p16, pRb, and mH2A showed that elderly humans and aged mice had increased levels of these senescence markers in their lungs versus young controls. Keratin 10 (K10), Laminin Receptor (LR), and Platelet activating factor receptor (PAFr), host proteins known to be co-opted for bacterial adhesion, were also increased. Aged mice were found to be highly susceptible to pneumococcal challenge in a PsrP, the pneumococcal adhesin that binds K10, dependent manner. In vitro senescent A549 lung epithelial cells had elevated K10 and LR protein levels and were up to 5-fold more permissive for bacterial adhesion. Additionally, exposure of normal cells to conditioned media from senescent cells doubled PAFr levels and pneumococcal adherence. Genotoxic stress induced by bleomycin and oxidative stress enhanced susceptibility of young mice to pneumonia and was positively correlated with enhanced p16...

Wnt5a Suppresses Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Promoting Cellular Senescence

Bitler, Benjamin G.; Nicodemus, Jasmine P.; Li, Hua; Cai, Qi; Wu, Hong; Hua, Xiang; Li, Tianyu; Birrer, Michael J.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Cairns, Paul; Zhang, Rugang
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the US. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics for this disease. Cellular senescence is an important tumor suppression mechanism that has recently been suggested as a novel mechanism to target for developing cancer therapeutics. Wnt5a is a non-canonical Wnt ligand that plays a context-dependent role in human cancers. Here, we investigate the role of Wnt5a in regulating senescence of EOC cells. We demonstrate that Wnt5a is expressed at significantly lower levels in human EOC cell lines and in primary human EOCs (n = 130) compared with either normal ovarian surface epithelium (n = 31; p = 0.039) or fallopian tube epithelium (n = 28; p < 0.001). Notably, a lower level of Wnt5a expression correlates with tumor stage (p = 0.003) and predicts shorter overall survival in EOC patients (p = 0.003). Significantly, restoration of Wnt5a expression inhibits the proliferation of human EOC cells both in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic EOC mouse model. Mechanistically, Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induces cellular senescence by activating the histone repressor A (HIRA)/promyelocytic leukemia (PML) senescence pathway. In summary...

WW Domain-containing E3 Ubiquitin Protein Ligase 1 (WWP1) Delays Cellular Senescence by Promoting p27Kip1 Degradation in Human Diploid Fibroblasts*

Cao, Xiaoxiao; Xue, Lixiang; Han, Limin; Ma, Liwei; Chen, Tianda; Tong, Tanjun
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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WW domain-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (WWP1) plays an important role in the proliferation of tumor cells and the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. However, the role of WWP1 in cellular senescence is still unknown. Here, we show that the expression patterns of p27Kip1 and WWP1 are inversely correlated during cellular senescence. Moreover, the overexpression of WWP1 delayed senescence, whereas the knockdown of WWP1 led to premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that WWP1 repressed endogenous p27Kip1 expression through ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Additionally, WWP1 had a strong preference for catalyzing the Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination of p27Kip1 in vitro. Finally, we demonstrate that WWP1 markedly inhibited the replicative senescence induced by p27Kip1 by promoting p27Kip1 degradation. Therefore, our study provides a new molecular mechanism for the regulation of cellular senescence.

Regulation of cellular senescence by the essential caveolar component PTRF/Cavin-1

Bai, Lin; Deng, Xiaoli; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Miao; Li, Qian; An, Wei; A, Deli; Cong, Yu-Sheng
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF, also known as Cavin-1) is an essential component in the biogenesis and function of caveolae. Here, we show that PTRF expression is increased in senescent human fibroblasts. Importantly, overexpression of PTRF induced features characteristic of cellular senescence, whereas reduced PTRF expression extended the cellular replicative lifespan. Interestingly, we found that PTRF localized primarily to the nuclei of young and quiescent WI-38 human fibroblasts, but translocated to the cytosol and plasma membrane during cellular senescence. Furthermore, electron microscopic analysis demonstrated an increased number of caveolar structures in senescent and PTRF-transfected WI-38 cells. Our data suggest that the role of PTRF in cellular senescence is dependent on its targeting to caveolae and its interaction with caveolin-1, which appeared to be regulated by the phosphorylation of PTRF. Taken together, our findings identify PTRF as a novel regulator of cellular senescence that acts through the p53/p21 and caveolar pathways.

Inactivation of Heat Shock Factor Hsf4 Induces Cellular Senescence and Suppresses Tumorigenesis In Vivo

Jin, Xiongjie; Eroglu, Binnur; Cho, Wonkyoung; Yamaguchi, Yukihiro; Moskophidis, Demetrius; Mivechi, Nahid F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Studies suggest that Hsf4 expression correlates with its role in cell growth and differentiation. However, the role of Hsf4 in tumorigenesis in vivo remains unexplored. In this article, we provide evidence that absence of the Hsf4 gene suppresses evolution of spontaneous tumors arising in p53- or Arf-deficient mice. Furthermore, deletion of hsf4 alters the tumor spectrum by significantly inhibiting development of lymphomas that are normally observed in the majority of mice lacking p53 or Arf tumor suppressor genes. Using mouse embryo fibroblasts deficient in the hsf4 gene, we have found that these cells exhibit reduced proliferation that is associated with induction of senescence and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal). Cellular senescence in hsf4-deficient cells is associated with the increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27 proteins. Consistent with the cellular senescence observed in vitro, specific normal tissues of hsf4−/− mice and tumors that arose in mice deficient in both hsf4 and p53 genes exhibit increased SA-β-gal activity and elevated levels of p27 compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that hsf4 deletion-induced senescence is also present in vivo. Our results therefore indicate that Hsf4 is involved in modulation of cellular senescence...

The Transcriptional Cofactor MCAF1/ATF7IP Is Involved in Histone Gene Expression and Cellular Senescence

Sasai, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Noriko; Saitoh, Hisato; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/2013 Português
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Cellular senescence is post-mitotic or oncogene-induced events combined with nuclear remodeling. MCAF1 (also known as hAM or ATF7IP), a transcriptional cofactor that is overexpressed in various cancers, functions in gene activation or repression, depending on interacting partners. In this study, we found that MCAF1 localizes to PML nuclear bodies in human fibroblasts and non-cancerous cells. Interestingly, depletion of MCAF1 in fibroblasts induced premature senescence that was characterized by cell cycle arrest, SA-β-gal activity, and senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF) formation. Under this condition, core histones and the linker histone H1 significantly decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, resulting in reduced nucleosome formation. Consistently, in activated Ras-induced senescent fibroblasts, the accumulation of MCAF1 in PML bodies was enhanced via the binding of this protein to SUMO molecules, suggesting that sequestration of MCAF1 to PML bodies promotes cellular senescence. Collectively, these results reveal that MCAF1 is an essential regulator of cellular senescence.

α-Fucosidase as a novel convenient biomarker for cellular senescence

Hildebrand, Dominic G.; Lehle, Simon; Borst, Andreas; Haferkamp, Sebastian; Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Due to its role in aging and antitumor defense, cellular senescence has recently attracted increasing interest. However, there is currently no single specific marker that can unequivocally detect senescent cells. Here, we identified α-L-fucosidase (α-Fuc) as a novel sensitive biomarker for cellular senescence. Regardless of the stress stimulus and cell type, α-Fuc activity was induced in all canonical types of cellular senescence, including replicative, DNA damage- and oncogene-induced senescence. Strikingly, in most models the degree of α-Fuc upregulation was higher than the induction of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal), the current gold standard for senescence detection. As α-Fuc is convenient and easy to measure, we suggest its utility as a valuable marker, in particular in cells with low SA-β-Gal activity.

Chromatin remodeling of human subtelomeres and TERRA promoters upon cellular senescence: Commonalities and differences between chromosomes

Thijssen, Peter E.; Tobi, Elmar W.; Balog, Judit; Schouten, Suzanne G.; Kremer, Dennis; El Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Henneman, Peter; Putter, Hein; Eline Slagboom, P.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Van der Maarel, Silvère M.
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Subtelomeres are patchworks of evolutionary conserved sequence blocks and harbor the transcriptional start sites for telomere repeat containing RNAs (TERRA). Recent studies suggest that the interplay between telomeres and subtelomeric chromatin is required for maintaining telomere function. To further characterize chromatin remodeling of subtelomeres in relation to telomere shortening and cellular senescence, we systematically quantified histone modifications and DNA methylation at the subtelomeres of chromosomes 7q and 11q in primary human WI-38 fibroblasts. Upon senescence, both subtelomeres were characterized by a decrease in markers of constitutive heterochromatin, suggesting relative chromatin relaxation. However, we did not find increased levels of markers of euchromatin or derepression of the 7q VIPR2 gene. The repressed state of the subtelomeres was maintained upon senescence, which could be attributed to a rise in levels of facultative heterochromatin markers at both subtelomeres. While senescence-induced subtelomeric chromatin remodeling was similar for both chromosomes, chromatin remodeling at TERRA promoters displayed chromosome-specific patterns. At the 7q TERRA promoter, chromatin structure was co-regulated with the more proximal subtelomere. In contrast...

Status of mTOR Activity May Phenotypically Differentiate Senescence and Quiescence

Cho, Sohee; Hwang, Eun Seong
Fonte: Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology Publicador: Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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SA β-Gal activity is a key marker of cellular senescence. The origin of this activity is the lysosomal β-galactosidase, whose activity has increased high enough to be detected at suboptimal pH. SA β-Gal is also expressed in the cells in quiescence driven by serum-starvation or a high confluency, and it has been hypothesized that SA β-Gal positivity is rather a surrogate marker of high lysosome content or activity. In this study, it was determined how SA β-Gal activity is expressed in quiescence and how lysosome content and activities are differently maintained in senescence and quiescence using DNA damage-induced senescence and serum starvation-induced quiescence as study models. Lysosome content increased to facilitate SA β-Gal expression in both the conditions but with a big difference in the levels of the change. Lipofuscins whose accumulation leads to an increase in residual bodies also increased but with a smaller difference between the two conditions. Meanwhile, lysosome biogenesis was actively ongoing only in senescence progression, indicating that the difference in the lysosome contents may largely be due to lysosome biogenesis. Further, the cells undergoing senescence progression but not the ones in quiescence maintained high mTOR and low autophagy activities. Overall...

Methylated TRF2 associates with the nuclear matrix and serves as a potential biomarker for cellular senescence

Mitchell, Taylor R. H; Zhu, Xu-Dong
Fonte: Impact Journals LLC Publicador: Impact Journals LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/04/2014 Português
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Methylation of N-terminal arginines of the shelterin component TRF2 is important for cellular proliferation. While TRF2 is found at telomeres, where it plays an essential role in maintaining telomere integrity, little is known about the cellular localization of methylated TRF2. Here we report that the majority of methylated TRF2 is resistant to extraction by high salt buffer and DNase I treatment, indicating that methylated TRF2 is tightly associated with the nuclear matrix. We show that methylated TRF2 drastically alters its nuclear staining as normal human primary fibroblast cells approach and enter replicative senescence. This altered nuclear staining, which is found to be overwhelmingly associated with misshapen nuclei and abnormal nuclear matrix folds, can be suppressed by hTERT and it is barely detectable in transformed and cancer cell lines. We find that dysfunctional telomeres and DNA damage, both of which are potent inducers of cellular senescence, promote the altered nuclear staining of methylated TRF2, which is dependent upon the ATM-mediated DNA damage response. Collectively, these results suggest that the altered nuclear staining of methylated TRF2 may represent ATM-mediated nuclear structural alteration associated with cellular senescence. Our data further imply that methylated TRF2 can serve as a potential biomarker for cellular senescence.

Tumor suppression by p53, making cells senescent

Qian, Yingjuan; Chen, X.
Fonte: Murcia : F. Hernández Publicador: Murcia : F. Hernández
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Cellular senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest and a potent tumor suppression mechanism. The p53 tumor suppressor is a sequence-specific transcription factor and acts as a central hub sensing various stress signals and activating an array of target genes to induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Recent reports showed that restoration of p53 induces premature senescence and tumor regression in mice with hepatocarcinomas or sarcomas. Thus, p53- mediated senescence is capable of eliminating cancer cells in vivo. p63 and p73, two homologues of p53, have similar function in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. However, the role of p63 and p73 in cellular senescence is elusive. In this review, we will discuss how p53 regulates senescence and future studies about p53 family members in senescence.

BIS targeting induces cellular senescence through the regulation of 14-3-3 zeta/STAT3/SKP2/p27 in glioblastoma cells

Lee, J-J; Lee, J-S; Cui, M N; Yun, H H; Kim, H Y; Lee, S H; Lee, J-H
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence is an important mechanism for preventing tumor progression. The elevated expression of Bcl-2-interacting cell death suppressor (BIS), an anti-apoptotic and anti-stress protein, often correlates with poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma; however, the role of BIS in the regulation of senescence has not been well defined. Here, we describe for the first time that the depletion of BIS induces G1 arrest and cellular senescence through the accumulation of p27 that is independent of p53, p21 or p16. The increase in p27 expression in BIS-depleted cells was attributable to an impairment of the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27, which was caused by a decrease in S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) at the transcriptional level. As an underlying molecular mechanism, we demonstrate that the loss of activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was specifically linked to the suppression of SKP2 expression. Despite a reduction in phospho-STAT3 levels, total STAT3 levels were unexpectedly increased by BIS depletion, specifically in the insoluble fraction. Our results show that 14-3-3ζ expression is decreased by BIS knockdown and that 14-3-3ζ depletion per se significantly induced senescence phenotypes. In addition...