A novel therapy for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumors involves the intentional induction of the lytic form of EBV infection combined with ganciclovir (GCV) treatment. Virally encoded kinases (thymidine kinase and BGLF4) which are expressed only during the lytic form of infection convert GCV (a nucleoside analogue) into its active, cytotoxic form. However, tightly latent EBV infection in B cells has made it difficult to identify drugs that can be used clinically to induce lytic viral infection in B-cell lymphomas. Here we demonstrate that gemcitabine and doxorubicin (but not 5-azacytidine, cis-platinum, or 5-fluorouracil) induce lytic EBV infection in EBV-transformed B cells in vitro and in vivo. Gemcitabine and doxorubicin both activated transcription from the promoters of the two viral immediate-early genes, BZLF1 and BRLF1, in EBV-negative B cells. This effect required the EGR-1 motif in the BRLF1 promoter and the CRE (ZII) and MEF-2D (ZI) binding sites in the BZLF1 promoter. GCV enhanced cell killing by gemcitabine or doxorubicin in lymphoblastoid cells transformed with wild-type EBV, but not in lymphoblastoid cells transformed by a mutant virus (with a deletion in the BZLF1 immediate-early gene) that is unable to enter the lytic form of infection. Most importantly...
In a nationwide study in Germany, a total of 381 Streptococcus pyogenes were collected. Erythromycin A-resistant strains were characterized for the underlying resistance genotype, showing 55.6% had the efflux type mef(A), 31.5% had erm(A), and 13.0% had erm(B). A total of 23 different multilocus sequence types were observed.
Macrolide resistance in 156 consecutive group B streptococcal isolates was investigated. Thirty-five isolates (22.4%) had inducible (80%) or constitutive (20%) erythromycin resistance. The genes responsible were erm(B), erm(A) subclass erm(TR), and erm(B) plus erm(TR) in 62.9, 2.9, and 8.6% of isolates, respectively. Nine isolates (25.7%) harbored neither mef nor detectable erm genes.
The dependence of the muscle-specific enhancer of the acetylcholine receptor alpha-subunit gene on other domains of the promoter has been analysed by performing point mutagenesis and modular reconstitution of the enhancer--promoter sequences. The enhancer is inactive in the absence of the proximal region containing an Sp1 binding site and an overlapping G-C homopolymer binding factor site (referred to as GBF). The proximal region can be replaced by an Sp1 binding site from SV40 or an MEF-2 binding site from the muscle creatine kinase gene. Specific mutation of the Sp1 site markedly affects transactivation by CMD1 or myogenin. Mutation of the GBF binding site leads to higher promoter activity in primary cultures of chick myotubes or in quail fibroblasts. In addition, binding of a purified Sp1 protein prevents the binding of GBF in vitro. It is proposed that in the case of the alpha-subunit promoter, the myogenic factors activate transcription in cooperation with Sp1, and that GBF contributes to muscle-specific expression of the promoter by interfering with Sp1 binding in nonmuscle muscle cells or myoblasts.
We determined the prevalence of erythromycin-resistant bacteria in the oral cavity and identified mef and erm(B) as the most common resistance determinants. In addition, we demonstrate the genetic linkage, on various Tn1545-like conjugative transposons, between erythromycin and tetracycline resistance in a number of isolates.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important regulators of gene expression as part of transcriptional corepressor complexes. Here, we demonstrate that caspases can repress the activity of the myocyte enhancer factor (MEF)2C transcription factor by regulating HDAC4 processing. Cleavage of HDAC4 occurs at Asp 289 and disjoins the carboxy-terminal fragment, localized into the cytoplasm, from the amino-terminal fragment, which accumulates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, the caspase-generated fragment of HDAC4 is able to trigger cytochrome c release from mitochondria and cell death in a caspase-9–dependent manner. The caspase-cleaved amino-terminal fragment of HDAC4 acts as a strong repressor of the transcription factor MEF2C, independently from the HDAC domain. Removal of amino acids 166–289 from the caspase-cleaved fragment of HDAC4 abrogates its ability to repress MEF2 transcription and to induce cell death. Caspase-2 and caspase-3 cleave HDAC4 in vitro and caspase-3 is critical for HDAC4 cleavage in vivo during UV-induced apoptosis. After UV irradiation, GFP-HDAC4 translocates into the nucleus coincidentally/immediately before the retraction response, but clearly before nuclear fragmentation. Together, our data indicate that caspases could specifically modulate gene repression and apoptosis through the proteolyic processing of HDAC4.
When pregnant mice were inoculated on day 1 of gestation with polyoma, some of them exhibited total resorption or reduced litter size, the extent depending on the dose of virus. Virus was detected in 4 out of 11 mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cultures made from infected mothers. After maternal infection on day 5 or 10 of gestation, virus titers of up to 10(7) 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50)/g of fetus were found in all pools of fetuses tested 5 days later, with the titers falling by day 6. Hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against polyoma appeared in maternal serum by day 6 and rose to a maximum by day 14. Immunoglobulin G class antibodies were detected by day 7, with titers rising rapidly to a maximum at day 14. After maternal infection later in gestation (day 15), one out of three litters of newborn mice was found to have 10(5) TCID50 polyoma virus per g in pooled kidney samples.
Antisera to myosin from mouse L929 cells, mouse uterus, and rabbit skeletal muscle have been prepared in goats. Each antiserum shows specific reaction by immunodiffusion only to the myosin against which it was prepared. Antiserum against L cell myosin agglutinates L929 cells and shows surface localization in unfixed cells by indirect immunofluorescence. This reaction is prevented by immunoabsorption with L cell myosin, but not by absorption with mouse uterine or rabbit skeletal muscle myosins. Elution of the antibody from L cell myosin antiserum that absorbs to fixed L cells yields antibody reactive to L cell myosin in immunodiffusion. At the ultrastructural level, surface localization is also evident with a peroxidase bridge immunocytologic method as a uniform distribution of surface label. Antiserum against L cell myosin also shows localization on the surface of other cells of rodent origin (3T3-4, NRK, MNRK, KNRK, and MEF) and HeLa cells, but not with some other cells of human origin (ALL and WI-38). The reactivity with antibody of the plasma membrane myosin is unaffected by trypsin treatment or fixation with 0.5-2.0% formalin. These results strongly suggest that myosin in cultured nonmuscle cells is a component of the plasma membrane...
Among nine patients with bacteremia caused by Granulicatella or Gemella in a 6-year period (July 1995 to June 2001), three had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant Granulicatella adiacens and one had bacteremia caused by erythromycin-resistant Gemella haemolysans. All four isolates possessed mef genes, whereas none possessed ermT, ermTR, or ermB genes.
Abiotrophia and Granulicatella species have been associated with various infections. Antimicrobial susceptibility data for these nutritionally variant streptococcus-like organisms, especially for pediatric isolates, are very limited. Little is known about the genetic bases of their resistance mechanisms. We report the results of identification to bacterial species level, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, macrolide resistance testing, and detection of genes encoding that resistance for a collection of 15 pediatric clinical isolates from normally sterile sites. Our results indicate that the prevalence of beta-lactam and macrolide resistance is high and that both erm and mef are found in these isolates.
Muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1β) is considered to be the gene that controls fatty acid mitochondrial β-oxidation. A functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive element (PPRE) and a myocite-specific (MEF2) site that binds MEF2A and MEF2C in the promoter of this gene had been previously identified. We investigated the roles of the PPRE and the MEF2 binding sites and the potential interaction between PPARα and MEF2C regulating the CPT1β gene promoter. Mutation analysis indicated that the MEF2 site contributed to the activation of the CPT1β promoter by PPAR in C2C12 cells. The reporter construct containing the PPRE and the MEF2C site was synergistically activated by co-expression of PPAR, retinoid X receptor (RXR) and MEF2C in non-muscle cells. Moreover, protein-binding assays demonstrated that MEF2C and PPAR specifically bound to one another in vitro. Also for the synergistic activation of the CPT1β gene promoter by MEF2C and PPARα-RXRα, a precise arrangement of its binding sites was essential.
Infection by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces a persistent nuclear translocation of NFκB. To identify upstream effectors of NFκB and their effect on virus replication, we employed mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF)-derived cell lines with deletions of either IKK1 or IKK2, the catalytic subunits of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Infected MEFs were assayed for virus yield, loss of IκBα, nuclear translocation of p65, and NFκB DNA-binding activity. Absence of either IKK1 or IKK2 resulted in an 86 to 94% loss of virus yield compared to that of normal MEFs, little or no loss of IκBα, and greatly reduced NFκB nuclear translocation. Consistent with reduced virus yield, accumulation of the late proteins VP16 and gC was severely depressed. Infection of normal MEFs, Hep2, or A549 cells with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative (DN) IκBα, followed by superinfection with HSV, resulted in a 98% drop in virus yield. These results indicate that the IKK-IκB-p65 pathway activates NFκB after virus infection. Analysis of NFκB activation and virus replication in control and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-null MEFs indicated that this kinase plays no role in the NFκB activation pathway. Finally, in cells where NFκB was blocked because of DNIκB expression...
The BRCT domain is a highly conserved module found in many proteins that participate in DNA damage checkpoint regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. Here we describe the cloning, characterization, and targeted mutagenesis of Brctx, a novel gene with a BRCT motif. Brctx was found to be expressed ubiquitously in adult tissues and during development, with the highest levels found in testis. Brctx-deficient mice develop normally, show no pathological abnormalities, and are fertile. BRCTx binds to the C terminus of hRAD18 in yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation assays and colocalizes with this protein in the nucleus. Despite this, Brctx-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) do not show overt sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. MEFs from Brctx-deficient embryos grow at a similar rate to wild-type MEF CD4/CD8 expressions, and the cell cycle parameters of thymocytes from wild-type and Brctx knockout animals are indistinguishable. Intriguingly, the BRCT domain of BRCTx is responsible for mediating its localization to the nucleus and centrosome in interphase cells. We conclude that, although highly conserved, Brctx is not essential for the above-mentioned processes and may be redundant.
In this paper, we propose a functional view on the in silico prediction of transcriptional regulation. We present a method to predict biological functions regulated by a combinatorial interaction of transcription factors. Using a rigorous statistic, this approach intersects the presence of transcription factor binding sites in gene upstream sequences with Gene Ontology terms associated with these genes. We demonstrate that for the well-studied set of skeletal muscle-related transcription factors Myf-2, Mef and TEF, the correct functions are predicted. Furthermore, starting from the well-characterized promoter of a gene expressed upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, we predict functional targets of this stimulus. These results are in excellent agreement with microarray data.
Hox genes encode transcription factors that control spatial patterning during embryogenesis. To date, downstream targets of Hox genes have proven difficult to identify. Here, we describe studies designed to identify target genes under the control of the murine transcription factor Hoxc8. We used a mouse 16,463 gene oligonucleotide microarray to identify mRNAs whose expression was altered by the overexpression of Hoxc8 in C57BL/6J mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF) in cell culture (in vitro). We identified a total of 34 genes whose expression was changed by 2-fold or greater: 16 genes were up-regulated, and 18 genes were down-regulated. The majority of genes encoded proteins involved in critical biological processes, such as cell adhesion, migration, metabolism, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Two genes showed high levels of regulation: (i) secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1), also known as osteopontin (OPN), was down-regulated 4.8-fold, and (ii) frizzled homolog 2 (Drosophila) (Fzd2) was up-regulated 4.4-fold. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed the direct interaction between the OPN promoter and Hoxc8 protein in vivo, supporting the view that OPN is a direct transcriptional target of Hoxc8.
The Myf-6 gene, a novel member of the human gene family of muscle determination factors has been detected by its highly conserved sequence coding for a putative helix-loop-helix domain. This sequence motif is a common feature of all Myf factors and other regulatory proteins. The new Myf gene is located on human chromosome 12, approximately 6.5 Kb upstream of the Myf-5 locus in a closely linked cluster of myogenic determination genes. Myf-6 cDNAs were isolated from human and mouse skeletal muscle, the only tissue in which expression of the corresponding mRNA was observed. In contrast to human primary muscle cell cultures which express moderate levels of Myf-6 mRNA, most established rodent muscle cell lines completely lack this mRNA. Myogenic 10T1/2 cells, however, induced by the expression of either pEMSV-Myf-4 or pEMSV-Myf-5 activate their endogenous mouse Myf-6 gene. Constitutive expression of Myf-6 cDNA in C3H 10T1/2 fibroblasts establishes the muscle phenotype at a similar frequency to the previously characterized myogenic factors. Moreover, muscle-specific CAT reporter constructs containing either the human myosin light chain (MLC) enhancer or the promoter of the embryonic myosin light chain gene are activated in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts or in CV1 kidney cells by cotransfection of Myf-6 expression vehicles. This transcriptional activation occurs in the absence of any apparent conversion of the cellular phenotype of the recipient cells. Glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins with Myf-3...
We have isolated two members of the RSRF protein family, SL-1 and SL-2, in Xenopus laevis. Both proteins contain SRF-type DNA binding domains and are related to the human protein, RSRFC4. SL-1 constitutes a novel member of the RSRF family whilst SL-2 is similar to human RSRFC4 throughout its length. SL-1 protein recognizes the consensus DNA sequence CTA(A/T)4TAR in vitro and can bind to the same regulatory sites as other A/T-rich sequence-specific binding activities, such as the muscle-specific regulatory factor, MEF-2. Transcription of both Xenopus genes is restricted to the somitic mesoderm of early embryos and subsequently to the body muscle (myotomes) of the tadpole. In contrast, both genes are expressed ubiquitously in the adult frog. A binding activity, antigenically related to both human RSRFC4 and the SL-2 gene product, is detected in Xenopus embryos and after gastrulation is localized to embryonic muscle. An indistinguishable binding activity is detected in many adult frog tissues. We conclude that the RSRF genes undergo a dramatic switch in their patterns of expression during development. We suggest that RSRF proteins may regulate muscle-specific transcription in embryos, but acquire other roles during the course of development.