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Algumas contribuições experimentais ao estudo do efeito de priming negativo em tarefas de atenção seletiva.; Some experimental contributions to the study of the negative priming effect in selective attention tasks.

Rosin, Fabiana Monica
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/03/2001 Português
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Foi estudado o efeito de priming negativo associado à supressão do distrator palavra-cor de Stroop (Estudo 1), à supressão do local (Estudo 2) e à identidade do distrator (Estudos 3 e 4). No Estudo 1 constatou-se que a prática prévia em palavras-cor eliminou o efeito da ordem das condições experimentais sobre o índice de priming negativo. No Estudo 2, o efeito de priming negativo foi observado somente no hemicampo direito. A execução concorrente de uma tarefa verbal eliminou os efeitos de lateralidade, mas o efeito de priming negativo permaneceu significante. Estes achados são discutidos em termos de processamento interhemisférico sob condições que exigiriam maior controle da atenção. Os estudos 3 e 4 apresentam tarefas de comparação de pares de dígitos. A versão de papel e lápis da tarefa de comparação de dígitos permitiu avaliar de maneira simples e rápida o efeito de priming negativo. A versão computadorizada, revelou uma interação entre os componentes espacial e de identidade. Ambos os grupos de adultos jovens e idosos revelaram priming negativo nas tarefas de Stroop e de localização espacial. Nas tarefas de identificação do alvo somente os adultos jovens mostraram efeito de priming negativo. Os presentes achados são consistentes com a proposta de mecanismos inibitórios diferenciados na supressão da identidade e de localização espacial.; The development of sensitive and simple tests for the assessment of the negative priming effect has theoretical relevance to the elucidation of selective attention models...

Aprendizagem de leitura de palavras : efeito do treino de diferentes unidades textuais

Mesquita, Alex Andrade
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Psicologia, 2007.; O presente estudo verificou o efeito do ensino de relações entre estímulos ditados e estímulos escritos constituídos por unidades textuais de tamanhos diferentes (palavras, sílabas e letras) sobre a aquisição de leitura recombinativa e sobre a aquisição de leitura com compreensão. Nove crianças de Jardim de Infância, com idades entre seis e sete anos foram divididas em três grupos experimentais, elas aprenderam a relacionar oito letras ditadas às respectivas letras escritas (Grupo Letra), oito sílabas ditadas às respectivas sílabas escritas (Grupo Sílaba) ou oito palavras ditadas às respectivas palavras escritas (Grupo Palavra), utilizando procedimento de pareamento ao modelo com tentativas de nomeação adicionadas. O procedimento de ensino utilizou esvanecimento, com aumento gradual do número de comparações. Três crianças realizaram apenas o pré-treino e os testes (Grupo Controle). Dois participantes após concluírem o treino de letras passaram ao de sílabas ou palavras. Testes de nomeação de letras, sílabas e palavras e pareamento entre figura e palavra escrita e palavra escrita e figura foram conduzidos antes e depois dos treinos com todos os participantes. Os testes de leitura recombinativa utilizaram novas palavras com elementos dos estímulos treinados. No pré-teste todas as crianças foram capazes de nomear quase todas as letras...

Early and late introduction of probes and stimulus control acquisition in fading

Fields, Lanny
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1981 Português
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College students learned to name Braille patterns presented visually using a fading procedure in which Braille patterns were superimposed on letter names after which letter names were attenuated. Measurement of acquisition was accomplished by presenting probes—consisting of the Braille stimuli only—throughout fading. Effects of probes upon acquisition were assessed by introducing probes early or late in fading. Fewer fading levels were needed for Braille elements to acquire control when probes were introduced early rather than late. When probes were introduced late, all subjects learned to name the Braille elements as the letters were being faded out. When probes were introduced early, however, most subjects learned to name the Braille elements as they were being faded in. Since virtually no errors occurred during compound-stimulus presentations, the probe procedure did not induce errors during acquisition. Quantitative analysis of probe data suggested that inclusion of probes enhanced the control acquired by the Braille elements during compound-stimulus presentations. The reported effects may have been due to differences in the relative frequency of reinforcement presented during compounds and probes.

Nomenclature and classification of herpesviruses: a proposal

Roizman, Bernard; de-The, Guy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1972 Português
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The system for naming and classifying herpesviruses proposed in this memorandum is intended for consideration by other workers before a final proposal is made to the International Commission for Nomenclature of Viruses. The proposal is to classify the herpesviruses in species and subspecies. The virus species should carry the name of the family, super-family, suborder, or order naturally infected by this virus. The second part of the name of the virus should be a numerical designation for each type of virus infecting that unit. The subspecies (representing closely related but clearly biologically different herpesviruses isolated from a given unit of animal classification) should be designated with a consecutive letter in addition to the numerical species designation.

Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins

Holmes, Roger S.; Wright, Matthew W.; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Cox, Laura A.; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Imai, Teruko; Ishibashi, Shun; Lehner, Richard; Miyazaki, Masao; Perkins, Everett J.; Potter, Phillip M.; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Robert, Jacques; Satoh, Te
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for human, mouse, and rat carboxylesterase genes that identifies homolog gene families and allocates a unique name for each gene. The guidelines of human, mouse, and rat gene nomenclature committees were followed and “CES” (human) and “Ces” (mouse and rat) root symbols were used followed by the family number (e.g., human CES1). Where multiple genes were identified for a family or where a clash occurred with an existing gene name, a letter was added (e.g., human CES4A; mouse and rat Ces1a) that reflected gene relatedness among rodent species (e.g., mouse and rat Ces1a). Pseudogenes were named by adding “P” and a number to the human gene name (e.g., human CES1P1) or by using a new letter followed by ps for mouse and rat Ces pseudogenes (e.g., Ces2d-ps). Gene transcript isoforms were named by adding the GenBank accession ID to the gene symbol (e.g....

Linking the shapes of alphabet letters to their sounds: the case of Hebrew

Treiman, Rebecca; Levin, Iris; Kessler, Brett
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2012 Português
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Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning a writing system. Most previous studies of this process have examined English, focusing on variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names as a reason why some letter sounds (such as that of b, where the sound is at the beginning of the letter’s name) are easier to learn than others (such as that of w, where the sound is not in the name). The present study examined Hebrew, where variations in the phonetic iconicity of letter names are minimal. In a study of 391 Israeli children with a mean age of 5 years, 10 months, we used multilevel models to examine the factors that are associated with knowledge of letter sounds. One set of factors involved letter names: Children sometimes attributed to a letter a consonant–vowel sound consisting of the first phonemes of the letter’s name. A second set of factors involved contrast: Children had difficulty when there was relatively little contrast in shape between one letter and others. Frequency was also important, encompassing both child-specific effects, such as a benefit for the first letter of a child’s forename, and effects that held true across children, such as a benefit for the first letters of the alphabet. These factors reflect general properties of human learning.

Memory availability and referential access

Johns, Clinton L.; Gordon, Peter C.; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent’s status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system.

Nomenclature, categorization and usage of formulae to adjust QT interval for heart rate

Rabkin, Simon W; Cheng, Xin Bo
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Assessment of the QT interval on a standard 12 lead electrocardiogram is of value in the recognition of a number of conditions. A critical part of its use is the adjustment for the effect of heart rate on QT interval. A systematic search was conducted to identify studies that proposed formulae to standardize the QT interval by heart rate. A nomenclature was developed for current and subsequent equations based on whether they are corrective (QTc) or predictive (QTp). QTc formulae attempt to separate the dependence of the length of the QT interval from the length of the RR interval. QTp formulae utilize heart rate and the output QTp is compared to the uncorrected QT interval. The nomenclature consists of the first letter of the first author’s name followed by the next two consonance (whenever possible) in capital letters; with subscripts in lower case alphabetical letter if the first author develops more than one equation. The single exception was the Framingham equation, because this cohort has developed its own “name” amongst cardiovascular studies. Equations were further categorized according to whether they were linear, rational, exponential, logarithmic, or power based. Data show that a person’s QT interval adjusted for heart rate can vary dramatically with the different QTc and QTp formulae depending on the person’s heart rate and QT interval. The differences in the QT interval adjustment equations encompasses values that are considered normal or significant prolonged. To further compare the equations...

Why Batman was Bad: A Scandinavian debate about children’s consumption of comics and literature in the 1950s

JENSEN, Helle Strandgaard
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This article contains an analysis of public debates about children’s consumption of comics in Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) in the mid 1950s. With this analysis I aim to contribute to the understanding of how adult public 'consumption politics' regarding children’s consumption of cultural products has been articulated at a specific time and place. By historicising adult debates about children’s consumption of cultural products (e.g. films, comics, books) from a cultural history perspective, I attempt to make the arguments of the 1950s debates appear coherent and logical, rather than old-fashioned and disproportionate, as they seem to us in a modern context. "We do not want our children to be raised in the name of violence, race-hatred, gangsters and pin-ups as it is the case in the inappropriate comics of mostly American origin. We want our children to be reared as good, harmonic and optimistic human beings with respect for their fellow humans, tolerant and able to live their lives in peace. Inappropriate comics encourage the first and hinder the last." This quotation is from an open letter to the Swedish government, written at a public meeting in Malmö May 13th 1954, organised by the Malmö Peace Committee and Swedish Women’s Left Union (the letter was published in the Swedish newspaper Ny Dag...

Precision of Position Signals for Letters

Chung, Susana T.L.; Legge, Gordon E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Accurate reading of words and text relies on reliable identification of letters in left to right order. Previous studies have shown that people often make letter-reversal errors when identifying strings of letters away from fixation. These errors contribute to a decline in letter identification performance away from fixation. This study tests the hypothesis that these errors are due to decreased precision (increased position noise) in the coding of letter position in the periphery. To test our hypothesis, we measured observers' performance for identifying pairs of adjacent letters presented within 8 letter positions left and right of fixation. The task was to name the two letters of each pair, from left to right. Responses were scored in two ways for each letter position: (1) letters were identified correctly and in the correct position, and (2) letters were identified correctly but in the wrong position. The ratio of these two scores, when subtracted from 1, gives the empirical rate of mislocation errors. Our primary finding shows that the coding of letter position becomes increasingly imprecise with distance from fixation. A model in which the encoded position of each letter is independent and Gaussian distributed, and in which the spread of the distribution governs the precision of localizing the letter accounts for the empirical rate of mislocation errors. We also found that precision of letter position coding scales with letter size but the precision does not improve with the use of a pre-cue.

PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS : WHAT'S IN A NAME ?

Andrade, Chittaranjan
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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Redefining authorship. Relative contribution should be given after each author's name.

Foulkes, W.; Neylon, N.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/06/1996 Português
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Chronic fatigue syndrome: what's in a name?

Trevor, A.
Fonte: College of Family Physicians of Canada Publicador: College of Family Physicians of Canada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1994 Português
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What's in a name?

Forest, W
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1995 Português
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THE NAME OF THE ASSOCIATION

Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1854 Português
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Evaluating Floyd's effect on health in eastern North Carolina.

Booker, S M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2000 Português
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Since the now-famous storm of September 1999, the name "Floyd" has taken on new associations for many people in eastern North Carolina: devastation and environmental catastrophe. On 12 November 1999, representatives from state and federal agencies and local universities met on the NIEHS campus in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss the environmental health implications of the floods following Hurricane Floyd. In addition to determining the potential long-term human health and ecological problems, participants hoped to develop strategies, collaborations, and partnerships to be used in the restoration of eastern North Carolina.

A Word from a Black Female Relativistic Astrophysicist: Setting the Record Straight on Black Holes

Williams, Reva Kay
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/04/2004 Português
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This Letter is written to clear up a situation, and hopefully we will learn something from it: scientifically and morally. Herein is presented a true ``historical'' scenario of events, that led to my being the first person (Williams 1991) to successfully work out the Penrose mechanism in four-dimensions (three-space momenta and energy). Before working out a solution to the Penrose mechanism: to extract energy from a rotating black hole, the Penrose mechanism (since first proposed by Roger Penrose in 1969) had been attempted by scientists over the world for nearly two decades, with little success, although making some progress. In the Penrose analysis of Williams (1991, 1995) details of the behavior of efficient Penrose relativistic scattering processes in the ergosphere are described. The reason a solution eluded other scientists before me is that there was very little known about orbits inside the ergosphere, where space and time are no longer separable, as measured by an observer at infinity (i.e., far away from the Kerr black hole). In this Letter, I describe how analytic derivations of the conserved energy and azimuthal angular momentum of particle orbits not confined to the equatorial plane allowed me to succeed where others, whose ``shoulders'' I stood on...

Letter from Adrien Auzout to Henry Oldenburg.

Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Formato: ff.2; paper
Português
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The name of the addressee is missing, but on f.22v there is a note in Oldenburg's hand of the date of receipt and date and contents of reply.

Clippings - Road Allowances, Lock 2 Bridge, Toronto Railway Company, St. Davids' History

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Português
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Clipping regarding the original road allowance which was part of Mr. Woodruff’s property, n.d. Clipping regarding the Lock 2 Bridge. This is a letter to the editor of the Journal from Calvin Phelps of Lockport, Nov. 13, 1889. Clipping entitled “Settled beyond a Dispute”: a letter to the Editor of the Star from J. G. Currie regarding the road allowance in the 5th Concession of Grantham, Nov. 16, 1889. Clipping entitled “That Old Road Allowance” which is a rebuttal to Mr. Currie’s letter, [1889] 2 newspaper clippings regarding: “Reg. vs. Toronto Railway Company”. These 2 articles are glued to a piece of paper. Beneath the newspaper articles is the name M. Chambers, Nov. 18, 1898. Notes regarding the clippings are enclosed with the articles. These notes and written on the back of “Pattison, Collier and Shaw Barristers, Solicitors, Etc.” stationary (notes are 2 pages, handwritten), Nov. 18, 1898. Clipping entitled “History on the Site: St. Davids’ Students Learn Lessons where Events Occurred” (2 copies), n.d.

Natalia Ginzburg: confinement as war and writing experience.; Natalia Ginzburg: o confinamento como experiência de guerra e de escrita

Debenedetti, Sara; FFLCH-USP
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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In the post-war panorama, a name stands out in the Italian literature scenario: Natalia Ginzburg. Born in Turin, among antifascists, she experienced its opposition from the beginning. When the war broke out in 1939, she had just started her writing career. During three years of confinement in Abruzzo, Natalia wrote and published, under a pseudonym, her first novel.  She wrote several essays about this war and writing experience – Inverno in Abruzzo (1944), Il figlio dell’uomo (1946), Il mio mestiere (1949) – and letters, some of which were directed to a childhood friend (at that time a refugee in Switzerland). In these letters the author expresses her loneliness, yearning, and strange feeling of confinement, besides sharing with her friend doubts and reflections upon her work. The similarities and differences between the essays and these letters are the subject of our analysis.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2010v15n2p285No panorama da literatura italiana do pós-guerra, sobressai a figura da escritora Natalia Ginzburg. Criada em Turim, no meio antifascista, viveu a resistência ao fascismo desde seu inicio. À eclosão da guerra, tinha acabado de começar seu “oficio” de escritora. É ao longo dos três anos vividos no confinamento em Abruzzo que Natalia escreve e publica (sob pseudônimo) seu primeiro romance. Desta experiência...