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## The Portable Document Format - PDF

Grech, V
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This article demonstrates how documents prepared in hypertext or word processor format can be saved in portable document format (PDF). These files are self-contained documents that that have the same appearance on screen and in print, regardless of what kind of computer or printer are used, and regardless of what software package was originally used to for their creation. PDF files are compressed documents, invariably smaller than the original files, hence allowing rapid dissemination and download.

## Three-Dimensional Reconstructions Come to Life – Interactive 3D PDF Animations in Functional Morphology

van de Kamp, Thomas; dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Vagovič, Patrik; Baumbach, Tilo; Riedel, Alexander
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Digital surface mesh models based on segmented datasets have become an integral part of studies on animal anatomy and functional morphology; usually, they are published as static images, movies or as interactive PDF files. We demonstrate the use of animated 3D models embedded in PDF documents, which combine the advantages of both movie and interactivity, based on the example of preserved Trigonopterus weevils. The method is particularly suitable to simulate joints with largely deterministic movements due to precise form closure. We illustrate the function of an individual screw-and-nut type hip joint and proceed to the complex movements of the entire insect attaining a defence position. This posture is achieved by a specific cascade of movements: Head and legs interlock mutually and with specific features of thorax and the first abdominal ventrite, presumably to increase the mechanical stability of the beetle and to maintain the defence position with minimal muscle activity. The deterministic interaction of accurately fitting body parts follows a defined sequence, which resembles a piece of engineering.

## Towards an easier creation of three-dimensional data for embedding into scholarly 3D PDF (Portable Document Format) files

Newe, Axel
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Portable Document Format (PDF) allows for embedding three-dimensional (3D) models and is therefore particularly suitable to communicate respective data, especially as regards scholarly articles. The generation of the necessary model data, however, is still challenging, especially for inexperienced users. This prevents an unrestrained proliferation of 3D PDF usage in scholarly communication. This article introduces a new solution for the creation of three of types of 3D geometry (point clouds, polylines and triangle meshes), that is based on MeVisLab, a framework for biomedical image processing. This solution enables even novice users to generate the model data files without requiring programming skills and without the need for an intensive training by simply using it as a conversion tool. Advanced users can benefit from the full capability of MeVisLab to generate and export the model data as part of an overall processing chain. Although MeVisLab is primarily designed for handling biomedical image data, the new module is not restricted to this domain. It can be used for all scientific disciplines.

## Measurement of the W boson production charge asymmetry in proton-antiproton collisions

Han, Bo-Young (1972 - ); McFarland, Kevin
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xv, 168 leaves
Português
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, 2008.; We present a measurement of the W boson production charge asymmetry using the W → eν decay channel. We use data collected the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) from p ¯ p collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. The data were collected up to February 2006 (Run II) and represent an integrated luminosity of 1 fb−1 . The experimental measurement of W production charge asymmetry is compared to higher order QCD predictions generated using MRST2006 and CTEQ6 parton distribution functions (PDF). The asymmetry provides new input on the momentum fraction dependence of the u and d quark parton distribution functions (PDF) within the proton over the fraction of proton’s momentum range from 0.002 < x < 0.8 corresponding to −3.0 < yW < 3.0 at Q 2M 2 W .

## Source fingerprinting in adobe PDF files

Donaldson, John P.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) documents are increasingly used as a vector for targeted attacks. Although there exist a number of tools and methodologies for performing content-level analysis to identify unwanted or malicious behavior or characteristics in these documents, these forms of analysis are hampered by increasingly complex obfuscation techniques and usually require execution of potentially malicious code. This thesis proposes a static analysis method that uses structural elements of PDF documents to identify the tools used to generate them. This method may be used to attribute malicious PDFs to particular toolkits.

## aMCfast: automation of fast NLO computations for PDF fits

Bertone, Valerio; Frederix, Rikkert; Frixione, Stefano; Rojo, Juan; Sutton, Mark
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We present the interface between MadGraph5_aMC@NLO, a self-contained program that calculates cross sections up to next-to-leading order accuracy in an automated manner, and APPLgrid, a code that parametrises such cross sections in the form of look-up tables which can be used for the fast computations needed in the context of PDF fits. The main characteristic of this interface, which we dub aMCfast, is its being fully automated as well, which removes the need to extract manually the process-specific information for additional physics processes, as is the case with other matrix element calculators, and renders it straightforward to include any new process in the PDF fits. We demonstrate this by studying several cases which are easily measured at the LHC, have a good constraining power on PDFs, and some of which were previously unavailable in the form of a fast interface.; Comment: 36 pages, 10 figures

## Theoretical model to deduce a PDF with a power law tail using Extreme Physical Information

Bonilla, Ricardo; Zarama, Roberto; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The theory of Extreme Physical Information (EPI) is used to deduce a probability density function (PDF) of a system that exhibits a power law tail. The computed PDF is useful to study and fit several observed distributions in complex systems. With this new approach it is possible to describe extreme and rare events in the tail, and also the frequent events in the distribution head. Using EPI, an information functional is constructed, and minimized using Euler-Lagrange equations. As a solution, a second order differential equation is derived. By solving this equation a family of functions is calculated. Using these functions it is possible to describe the system in terms of eigenstates. A dissipative term is introduced into the model, as a relevant term for the study of open systems. One of the main results is a mathematical relation between the scaling parameter of the power law observed in the tail and the shape of the head.; Comment: 11 pages, 12 figures, 1 table, 2 appendices

## Nuclear PDF constraints from p+Pb collisions at the LHC

Helenius, Ilkka; Paukkunen, Hannu; Eskola, Kari J.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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As the current nuclear PDF analyses are mainly constrained by fixed-target Drell-Yan and deeply inelastic scattering data only the quark nuclear modifications at fairly large $x$ values are in a good control. Inclusive pion production in d+Au collisions at RHIC provides some constraints for gluons but due to the limited kinematic reach of the data the gluon modifications remain uncertain especially at small values of $x$. In this talk, we discuss how the existing data from p+Pb collisions at the LHC can improve the nuclear PDF fits and which measurements would be sensitive to the small-$x$ gluons. In particular, we consider inclusive hadron production, compare this to direct photons, and show estimates of the effect of CMS dijet measurements to the uncertainty of nuclear gluon distributions.; Comment: Talk presented at DIS2015 conference, April 27 - May 1, 2015, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. v2: updated reference list

## PDF uncertainties in the determination of the W boson mass and of the effective lepton mixing angle at the LHC

Rojo, Juan
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The precision measurement of the W boson mass allows to perform stringent consistency tests of the Standard Model by means of global electroweak fits. The accurate determination of the W boson mass is one of the legacy results of the Tevatron, where the experimental accuracy is such that $M_W$ is now limited by theoretical uncertainties related to the parton distributions of the proton. In this contribution, we show how to quantify the impact of PDF uncertainties in the measurement of $M_W$ at the Tevatron and the LHC by means of a template method, and study both the use of the W transverse mass and the lepton pT kinematical distributions to generate these templates. We also present preliminary results on the quantification of the PDF uncertainties in the determination of the effective lepton mixing angle at the LHC, based on the same template method as for the W mass determination; Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, to appear in the proceedings of the XXI International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects (DIS2013), Marseille, 22-26 April 2013

## Charm and beauty quark masses in the MMHT2014 global PDF analysis

Harland-Lang, L. A.; Martin, A. D.; Motylinski, P.; Thorne, R. S.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We investigate the variation in the MMHT2014 PDFs when we allow the heavy quark masses $m_c$ and $m_b$ to vary away from their default values. We make PDF sets available in steps of $\Delta m_c =0.05~{\rm GeV}$ and $\Delta m_b =0.25~{\rm GeV}$, and present the variation in the PDFs and in the predictions. We examine the comparison to the HERA data on charm and beauty structure functions and note that in each case the heavy quark data, and the inclusive data, have a slight preference for lower masses than our default values. We provide PDF sets with 3 and 4 active quark flavours, as well as the standard value of 5 flavours. We use the pole mass definition of the quark masses, as in the default MMHT2014 analysis, but briefly comment on the $\overline{\rm MS}$ definition.; Comment: 20 pages, 12 figures

## PDF uncertainties in the extraction of the W mass at LHC: a Snowmass Whitepaper

Rojo, Juan; Vicini, Alessandro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The precision measurement of the W boson mass is an important milestone for the LHC physics program in the coming years. An accurate measurement of $M_W$ allows to perform stringent consistency tests of the Standard Model by means of global electroweak fits, which in turn are sensitive to New Physics at scales potentially higher than the ones explored in direct searches. From the theoretical point of view, our limited knowledge of PDFs will be one of the dominant sources of uncertainty in ongoing and future LHC determinations of $M_W$. In this whitepaper, we have quantified the impact of PDF uncertainties in the W mass extractions from the transverse mass distribution at the LHC. The calculation has been performed using the NNPDF2.3 set, which includes direct constrains on the W boson production kinematics with data for electroweak gauge boson production from the LHC. Our results confirm previous estimates that PDF uncertainties in the determination of $M_W$ from the $m_W^T$ distribution are moderate, around 10 MeV at most. We briefly discuss also the case of the lepton $p_T$ distribution.; Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, contribution to Snowmass 2013

## PDF/A standard for long term archiving

Vasilescu, Ramona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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PDF/A is defined by ISO 19005-1 as a file format based on PDF format. The standard provides a mechanism for representing electronic documents in a way that preserves their visual appearance over time, independent of the tools and systems used for creating or storing the files.; Comment: 8 pages, exposed on 5th International Conference "Actualities and Perspectives on Hardware and Software" - APHS2009, Timisoara, Romania

## Reengineering PDF-Based Documents Targeting Complex Software Specifications

Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This article aims at reengineering of PDF-based complex documents, where specifications of the Object Management Group (OMG) are our initial targets. Our motivation is that such specifications are dense and intricate to use, and tend to have complicated structures. Our objective is therefore to create an approach that allows us to reengineer PDF-based documents, and to illustrate how to make more usable versions of electronic documents (such as specifications, technical books, etc) so that end users to have a better experience with them. The first step was to extract the logical structure of the document in a meaningful XML format for subsequent processing. Our initial assumption was that, many key concepts of a document are expressed in this structure. In the next phase, we created a multilayer hypertext version of the document to facilitate browsing and navigating. Although we initially focused on OMG software specifications, we chose a general approach for different phases of our work including format conversions, logical structure extraction, text extraction, multilayer hypertext generation, and concept exploration. As a consequence, we can process other complex documents to achieve our goals.; Comment: 27 pages, 15 figures; International Journal of Knowledge and Web Intelligence (IJKWI)...

## The Difference PDF of 21-cm Fluctuations: A Powerful Statistical Tool for Probing Cosmic Reionization

Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A new generation of radio telescopes are currently being built with the goal of tracing the cosmic distribution of atomic hydrogen at redshifts 6-15 through its 21-cm line. The observations will probe the large-scale brightness fluctuations sourced by ionization fluctuations during cosmic reionization. Since detailed maps will be difficult to extract due to noise and foreground emission, efforts have focused on a statistical detection of the 21-cm fluctuations. During cosmic reionization, these fluctuations are highly non-Gaussian and thus more information can be extracted than just the one-dimensional function that is usually considered, i.e., the correlation function. We calculate a two-dimensional function that if measured observationally would allow a more thorough investigation of the properties of the underlying ionizing sources. This function is the probability distribution function (PDF) of the difference in the 21-cm brightness temperature between two points, as a function of the separation between the points. While the standard correlation function is determined by a complicated mixture of contributions from density and ionization fluctuations, we show that the difference PDF holds the key to separately measuring the statistical properties of the ionized regions.; Comment: 11 pages...

## Predictions for high energy neutrino cross-sections from the ZEUS global PDF fits

Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Sarkar, Subir
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We have updated predictions for high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current cross-sections within the conventional DGLAP formalism of NLO QCD using a modern PDF fit to HERA data, which also accounts in a systematic way for PDF uncertainties deriving from both model uncertainties and from the experimental uncertainties of the input data sets. Furthermore the PDFs are determined using an improved treatment of heavy quark thresholds. A measurement of the neutrino cross-section much below these predictions would signal the need for extension of the conventional formalism as in BFKL resummation, or even gluon recombination effects as in the colour glass condensate model.; Comment: 10 pages (RevTeX4), 6 figures; expanded discussion of additional theoretical uncertainties at low x; accepted for publication in JHEP

## The photon PDF of the proton

Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We show how the photon input parton distribution function (PDF) may be calculated with good accuracy, and used in an extended DGLAP global parton analysis in which the photon is treated as an additional point-like parton. The uncertainty of the input photon PDF is relatively small, since the major part of the distribution (which is produced by the coherent emission of the photon from a proton that remains intact) is well known. We present the expected photon PDFs, and compare the predictions with ZEUS data for isolated photon electroproduction at negative rapidities.; Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, 3 tables

Abdillah, Leon Andretti
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Scientific journals are very important in recording the finding from researchers around the world. The recent media to disseminate scientific journals is PDF. On scheme to find the scientific journals over the internet is via metadata. Metadata stores information about article summary. Embedding metadata into PDF of scientific article will grant the consistency of metadata readness. Harvesting the metadata from scientific journal is very interesting field at the moment. This paper will discuss about scientific journal metadata harvesters involving XMP.; Comment: 6 Pages, 9 images, 1 table

## On the initial conditions of the 1-point PDF for incompressible Navier-Stokes fluids

Tessarotto, M.; Asci, C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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An aspect of fluid dynamics lies in the search of possible statistical models for Navier-Stokes (NS) fluids described by classical solutions of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (INSE). This refers in particular to statistical models based on the so-called inverse kinetic theory (IKT) . This approach allows the description of fluid systems by means a suitable 1-point velocity probability density function (PDF) which determines, in terms of suitable "moments", the complete set of fluid fields which define the fluid state. A fundamental related issue lies in the problem of the unique construction of the initial PDF. The goal of this paper is to propose a solution holding for NS fluids. Our claim is that the initial PDF can be uniquely determined by imposing a suitable set of physical realizability constraints.

## Hiding Malicious Content in PDF Documents

Popescu, Dan-Sabin
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica