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High Throughput Characterization of Combinatorial Histone Codes*

Young, Nicolas L.; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Plazas-Mayorca, Mariana D.; Baliban, Richard C.; Floudas, Christodoulos A.; Garcia, Benjamin A.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We present a novel method utilizing “saltless” pH gradient weak cation exchange-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography directly coupled to electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry for the automated on-line high throughput characterization of hypermodified combinatorial histone codes. This technique, performed on a low resolution mass spectrometer, displays an improvement over existing methods with an ∼100-fold reduction in sample requirements and analysis time. The scheme presented is capable of identifying all of the major combinatorial histone codes present in a sample in a 2-h analysis. The large N-terminal histone peptides are eluted by the pH and organic solvent weak cation exchange-hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography gradient and directly introduced via nanoelectrospray ionization into a benchtop linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with ETD. Each polypeptide is sequenced, and the modification sites are identified by ETD fragmentation. The isobaric trimethyl and acetyl modifications are resolved chromatographically and confidently distinguished by the synthesis of mass spectrometric and chromatographic information. We demonstrate the utility of the method by complete characterization of human histone H3.2 and histone H4 from butyrate-treated cells...

Quantitative Mass Spectrometry of Histones H3.2 and H3.3 in Suz12-deficient Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Reveals Distinct, Dynamic Post-translational Modifications at Lys-27 and Lys-36*

Jung, Hye Ryung; Pasini, Diego; Helin, Kristian; Jensen, Ole N.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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163.68203%
SUZ12 is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and is required for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). PRC2 is associated with transcriptional repression via methylation of H3 Lys-27. We applied quantitative mass spectrometry to investigate the effects of Suz12 deficiency on H3.2 and H3.3 from mouse ESCs. Using high mass accuracy MS combined with CID or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem mass spectrometry, we identified a total of 81 unique modified peptides from H3.2 and H3.3 and assigned 46 modifications at 22 different positions, including distinct coexisting modifications. In certain cases, high mass accuracy LTQ-Orbitrap MS/MS allowed precise localization of near isobaric coexisting PTMs such as trimethylation and acetylation within individual peptides. ETD MS/MS facilitated sequencing and annotation of phosphorylated histone peptides. The combined use of ETD and CID MS/MS increased the total number of identified modified peptides. Comparative quantitative analysis of histones from wild type and Suz12-deficient ESCs using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture and LC-MS/MS revealed a dramatic reduction of H3K27me2 and H3K27me3 and an increase of H3K27ac, thereby uncovering an antagonistic methyl/acetyl switch at H3K27. The reduction in H3K27 methylation and increase in H3K27 acetylation was accompanied by H3K36 acetylation and methylation. Estimation of the global isoform percentage of unmodified and modified histone peptides (amino acids 27–40) showed the relative distribution of distinct coexisting histone marks. Our study revealed limitations of antibody-based Western blotting methods for detection of coexisting protein modifications and demonstrated the utility of quantitative tandem mass spectrometry for detailed analysis of the dynamics of coexisting post-translational modifications in proteins.

Improving Software Performance for Peptide Electron Transfer Dissociation Data Analysis by Implementation of Charge State- and Sequence-Dependent Scoring*

Baker, Peter R.; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Chalkley, Robert J.
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
163.68203%
The use of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation for analysis of peptides eluting in liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry experiments is increasingly common and can allow identification of many peptides and proteins in complex mixtures. Peptide identification is performed through the use of search engines that attempt to match spectra to peptides from proteins in a database. However, software for the analysis of ETD fragmentation data is currently less developed than equivalent algorithms for the analysis of the more ubiquitous collision-induced dissociation fragmentation spectra. In this study, a new scoring system was developed for analysis of peptide ETD fragmentation data that varies the ion type weighting depending on the precursor ion charge state and peptide sequence. This new scoring regime was applied to the analysis of data from previously published results where four search engines (Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), Spectrum Mill, and X!Tandem) were compared (Kandasamy, K., Pandey, A., and Molina, H. (2009) Evaluation of several MS/MS search algorithms for analysis of spectra derived from electron transfer dissociation experiments. Anal. Chem. 81, 7170–7180). Protein Prospector identified 80% more spectra at a 1% false discovery rate than the most successful alternative searching engine in this previous publication. These results suggest that other search engines would benefit from the application of similar rules.

Phosphoproteome Analysis Reveals Regulatory Sites in Major Pathways of Cardiac Mitochondria*

Deng, Ning; Zhang, Jun; Zong, Chenggong; Wang, Yueju; Lu, Haojie; Yang, Pengyuan; Wang, Wenhai; Young, Glen W.; Wang, Yibin; Korge, Paavo; Lotz, Christopher; Doran, Philip; Liem, David A.; Apweiler, Rolf; Weiss, James N.; Duan, Huilong; Ping, Peipei
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
163.68203%
Mitochondrial functions are dynamically regulated in the heart. In particular, protein phosphorylation has been shown to be a key mechanism modulating mitochondrial function in diverse cardiovascular phenotypes. However, site-specific phosphorylation information remains scarce for this organ. Accordingly, we performed a comprehensive characterization of murine cardiac mitochondrial phosphoproteome in the context of mitochondrial functional pathways. A platform using the complementary fragmentation technologies of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) demonstrated successful identification of a total of 236 phosphorylation sites in the murine heart; 210 of these sites were novel. These 236 sites were mapped to 181 phosphoproteins and 203 phosphopeptides. Among those identified, 45 phosphorylation sites were captured only by CID, whereas 185 phosphorylation sites, including a novel modification on ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase protein 1 (Ser-212), were identified only by ETD, underscoring the advantage of a combined CID and ETD approach. The biological significance of the cardiac mitochondrial phosphoproteome was evaluated. Our investigations illustrated key regulatory sites in murine cardiac mitochondrial pathways as targets of phosphorylation regulation...