Página 7 dos resultados de 158 itens digitais encontrados em 0.004 segundos

Twenty years of vocational training in the west of Scotland.

Kelly, D R; Murray, T S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/01/1991 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
OBJECTIVE--To assess the career paths of doctors who completed vocational training in the west of Scotland between 1968 and 1987 and their views on the hospital component of their training. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of the experience and opinions of vocationally trained doctors obtained from a postal questionnaire. SETTING--West of Scotland. SUBJECTS--1255 Doctors identified from Glasgow University records who had been vocationally trained in the west of Scotland between 1968 and 1987. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Personal details; employment; jobs held currently; additional professional commitments; importance of hospital posts held in various specialties to respondents currently in general practice; and retrospective choice of hospital posts, based on subsequent experience. RESULTS--619 Responses were received, 543 initially and 76 after a letter of reminder, from a possible total of 974 (excluding 153 questionnaires returned by the post office and 128 returned because of misunderstanding between the name and address); the overall response rate was therefore 64%. 607/619 (98%) Respondents were employed at the time of the study, of whom 517/607 (85%) were in general practice. A third (202/609) had been unemployed at some point, significantly more of them women (122/243...

A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants

Talbert, Paul B; Ahmad, Kami; Almouzni, Geneviève; Ausió, Juan; Berger, Frederic; Bhalla, Prem L; Bonner, William M; Cande, W Zacheus; Chadwick, Brian P; Chan, Simon W L; Cross, George A M; Cui, Liwang; Dimitrov, Stefan I; Doenecke, Detlef; Eirin-López
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.

Human-like brain hemispheric dominance in birdsong learning

Moorman, Sanne; Gobes, Sharon M. H.; Kuijpers, Maaike; Kerkhofs, Amber; Zandbergen, Matthijs A.; Bolhuis, Johan J.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Unlike nonhuman primates, songbirds learn to vocalize very much like human infants acquire spoken language. In humans, Broca’s area in the frontal lobe and Wernicke’s area in the temporal lobe are crucially involved in speech production and perception, respectively. Songbirds have analogous brain regions that show a similar neural dissociation between vocal production and auditory perception and memory. In both humans and songbirds, there is evidence for lateralization of neural responsiveness in these brain regions. Human infants already show left-sided dominance in their brain activation when exposed to speech. Moreover, a memory-specific left-sided dominance in Wernicke’s area for speech perception has been demonstrated in 2.5-mo-old babies. It is possible that auditory-vocal learning is associated with hemispheric dominance and that this association arose in songbirds and humans through convergent evolution. Therefore, we investigated whether there is similar song memory-related lateralization in the songbird brain. We exposed male zebra finches to tutor or unfamiliar song. We found left-sided dominance of neuronal activation in a Broca-like brain region (HVC, a letter-based name) of juvenile and adult zebra finch males, independent of the song stimulus presented. In addition...

When does word frequency influence written production?

Baus, Cristina; Strijkers, Kristof; Costa, Albert
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
The aim of the present study was to explore the central (e.g., lexical processing) and peripheral processes (motor preparation and execution) underlying word production during typewriting. To do so, we tested non-professional typers in a picture typing task while continuously recording EEG. Participants were instructed to write (by means of a standard keyboard) the corresponding name for a given picture. The lexical frequency of the words was manipulated: half of the picture names were of high-frequency while the remaining were of low-frequency. Different measures were obtained: (1) first keystroke latency and (2) keystroke latency of the subsequent letters and duration of the word. Moreover, ERPs locked to the onset of the picture presentation were analyzed to explore the temporal course of word frequency in typewriting. The results showed an effect of word frequency for the first keystroke latency but not for the duration of the word or the speed to which letter were typed (interstroke intervals). The electrophysiological results showed the expected ERP frequency effect at posterior sites: amplitudes for low-frequency words were more positive than those for high-frequency words. However, relative to previous evidence in the spoken modality...

The interaction of synesthetic and print color and its relation to visual imagery

Alvarez, Bryan D.; Robertson, Lynn C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Synesthetic color induced by graphemes is well understood to be an automatic perceptual phenomenon paralleling print color in some ways but also differing in others. We address this juxtaposition by asking how synesthetes are affected by synesthetic and print colors that are the same. We tested two groups of grapheme-color synesthetes using a basic color priming method in which a grapheme prime was presented followed by a color patch (probe), the color of which was to be named as quickly and accurately as possible. Primes induced either no color, print color only, synesthetic color only, or both forms of color (e.g., a letter “A” printed in red that also triggers synesthetic red). As expected, responses to name the probe color were faster if it was congruent with the prime color than if it was incongruent. The new finding (Expt 1) was that a prime that induced the same print and synesthetic color led to substantially larger priming effects than either one individually, an effect that could not be attributed to semantic priming (Expt 2). In addition, the synesthesia effects correlated with a standard measure of visual imagery. These findings are discussed as consistent with the hypothesis that print and synesthestic color converge on similar color mechanisms.

Frequency Analyses of Prephonological Spellings as Predictors of Success in Conventional Spelling

Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury; Treiman, Rebecca; Cardoso-Martins, Cláudia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
The present study explored how children’s prephonological writing foretells differential learning outcomes in primary school. We asked Portuguese-speaking preschool children in Brazil (mean age 4 1/4 years) to spell 12 words. Monte Carlo tests were used to identify the 31 children whose writing was not based on spellings or sounds of the target words. 2 1/2 years later, the children took a standardized spelling test. The more closely the digram (2-letter sequence) frequencies in the preschool task correlated with those in children’s books, the better scores the children had in primary school; and the more preschoolers used letters from their own name, the lower their subsequent scores. Thus, preschoolers whose prephonological writing revealed attentiveness to the statistical properties of text subsequently performed better in conventional spelling. These analytic techniques may help in the early identification of children at risk for spelling difficulties.

Development and evaluation of a self-administered on-line test of memory and attention for middle-aged and older adults

Troyer, Angela K.; Rowe, Gillian; Murphy, Kelly J.; Levine, Brian; Leach, Larry; Hasher, Lynn
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
There is a need for rapid and reliable Internet-based screening tools for cognitive assessment in middle-aged and older adults. We report the psychometric properties of an on-line tool designed to screen for cognitive deficits that require further investigation. The tool is composed of measures of memory and executive attention processes known to be sensitive to brain changes associated with aging and with cognitive disorders that become more prevalent with age. Measures included a Spatial Working Memory task, Stroop Interference task, Face-Name Association task, and Number-Letter Alternation task. Normative data were collected from 361 healthy adults age 50–79 who scored in the normal range on a standardized measure of general cognitive ability. Participants took the 20-minute on-line test on their home computers, and a subset of 288 participants repeated the test 1 week later. Analyses of the individual tasks indicated adequate internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and alternate version reliability. As expected, scores were correlated with age. The four tasks loaded on the same principle component. Demographically-corrected z-scores from the individual tasks were combined to create an overall score...

A Unified Phylogeny-based Nomenclature for Histone Variants

Talbert, Paul B; Ahmad, Kami; Almouzni, Geneviève; Ausió, Juan; Berger, Frederic; Bhalla, Prem L; Bonner, William M; Cande, W Zacheus; Chadwick, Brian P; Chan, Simon W L; Cross, George A M; Cui, Liwang; Dimitrov, Stefan I; Doenecke, Detlef; Eirin-López
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.

Escrita, repetição e elaboração; Writing, repetition and elaboration

CARVALHO, Maria Alice de Sousa
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Educação; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Educação; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
This thesis is linked to the Post-Graduation Program in Education, in Faculty of Education, at Federal University of Goiás, in the search line Fundamentals of Educational Processes . Resorting to psychoanalysis, that, since the initial studies of Sigmund Freud, seeks to build references to establish, from the analytical practice, a theory of the subject, it proposes to consider the advent of this subject as effect of the significant, being that, to develop such preparation, it will be required an articulation between significant chaining and instinctual investment, it means, between body and language.Children s activities, such as games, jokes and learning as written language, are not only playful, imitative and / or knowledge to be acquired, but are related to the subject, always involved with the structural problem of its existence. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to discuss about this effect, just to recognize the effects of this plot in the acquisition of writing, especially at school. The study initially presents the theoretical assumptions about the structure of the subject. Then, it discusses the theme of repetition and elaboration, taking up the perspective of both Freud and Lacan, who served as the basis for the analysis of children writing. In methodological issues...

Ivory Victorian Day Planner

Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
The planner has an ivory cover and 6 celluloid pages which fan out. The days of the week were stamped on each page, except Sunday. In this case, the days of the week are faded away and someone has rewritten them and included Sunday on the back cover. The front cover has a metal escutcheon engraved with the letter C and it closes with a metal latch. The front ivory cover is cracked down the middle and the front page is also cracked. R. Band has written on the “Monday” page that this belonged to Dr. Cleveland, this note is dated June 6, 2004. The “Tuesday” page has the title “Julia’s house” and gives the numbers of doors, lights, windows and water closets etc. within the house. On the back of the “Friday” page is the number 4784 and on the back of the Saturday page is the name and address of Dr. Mafarlan [?] of Pennsylvania.

Voices of Haitian Women:Letters of Dislpaced Camp Dwellers in Port-au-Prince

Fraser, Nicki, Ms.
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Introduction: On January 12, 2010, an earthquake of unprecedented scale shook the small Caribbean nation of Haiti. The epicenter of the earthquake, which measured 7.0 on the Richter scale, was approximately 25 kilometers west of Port-au-Prince. The earthquake killed an estimated 222,570 people and left 3.7 million people affected one way or the other.1In the summer of 2010, 1.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) were in camps distributed across Port-au-Prince.2That summer, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), an intergovernmental organization dedicated to the humane and orderly migration, undertook a project in Haiti which involved placing suggestion boxes in IDP camps and inviting the displaced to voice their concerns, hopes and dreams. Given the opportunity, the traditionally under-served and under-represented displaced Haitians dropped letters in IOM’s suggestion boxes by the thousands (approximately 2,500). The name of this project was Voice of the Voiceless. The project was the first serious attempt in the country to provide a voice to those who were displaced by the earthquake. Voice of the Voiceless letters (both the hard copies and the digital copies) will soon be housed at the Special Collections of the Florida International University (FIU) Libraries (see Letter of Support from Mr. Leonard Doyle...

General practitioners and pharmaceutical sales representatives: Quality improvement research

Spurling, G.; Mansfield, P.
Fonte: British Med Journal Publ Group Publicador: British Med Journal Publ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Background and objective: Interaction between pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) and general practitioners (GPs) may have an adverse impact on GP prescribing and therefore may be ethically questionable. This study aimed to evaluate the interactions between PSRs and GPs in an Australian general practice, and develop and evaluate a policy to guide the interaction. Methods: Doctors’ prescribing, diaries, practice promotional material and samples were audited and a staff survey undertaken. After receiving feedback, the staff voted on practice policy options. The resulting policy was evaluated 3 and 9 months. Results: Prior to the intervention, GPs spent on average 40 min/doctor/month with PSRs. There were 239 items of promotional material in the practice and 4660 tablets in the sample cupboard. These were reduced by 32% and 59%, respectively, at 3 months after policy adoption and the reduction was sustained at 9 months. Vioxx was the most common drug name in promotional material. Staff adopted a policy of reduced access to PSRs including: reception staff not to make appointments for PSRs or accept promotional material; PSRs cannot access sample cupboards; GPs wishing to see PSRs may do so outside consulting hours. At 3 and 9 months...

Empaquetamiento genérico (plain-packaging) : ¿por qué es tan crucial?; Plain-packaging : why is it so crucial?

Somonte Segares, Silvia
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
RESUMEN: La supervivencia del negocio de los cigarrillos depende críticamente de conseguir que sus clientes fumen regularmente a los 18 años. Para ello deben polarizar sus estrategias promocionales en los menores de edad, algo que la evidencia científica corrobora que hacen sistemáticamente. Por este motivo, la mayoría de los gobiernos europeos han restringido al máximo la publicidad del tabaco. Estas restricciones han hecho que, actualmente, la mejor estrategia de captación comercial de menores resida en el diseño de la cajetilla: conseguir que sea atractiva, símbolo de estatus o de valores,… Para hacer frente a esto la OMS recomienda la introducción del empaquetamiento genérico (plain-packaging), medida que consiste en que las cajetillas de tabaco no lleven ningún tipo de logos o colores característicos, sino sólo el nombre de la marca en el mismo tamaño y forma para todos. Esta medida se implantó originalmente en Australia en 2012. Vistos sus resultados, en 2015 Reino Unido, Irlanda y Francia han aprobado su implementación. La presente revisión pretende ofrecer una visión global y actualizada de qué supone el empaquetamiento genérico, de las bases científicas que lo sustentan y de cuál es su papel en el marco de las medidas de control del tabaco.; ABSTRACT: The survival of cigarettes business crucially depends on those who regularly smoke before they are 18 years old. Tobacco companies are therefore obliged to promote their products mainly to those who are underage...

G??nero, profesiones sanitarias y salud p??blica

Ortiz G??mez, Teresa; Birriel-Salcedo, Johanna; Ortega del Olmo, Rosa
Fonte: Universidade de Granada Publicador: Universidade de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
En este trabajo llevamos a cabo una revisi??n de los principales resultados de la investigaci??n hist??rico-social sobre g??nero y pr??cticas de salud, proponemos un modelo de aplicaci??n de la categor??a de g??nero al estudio de las profesiones sanitarias y analizamos algunas formas actuales de desigualdades de g??nero en asociaciones y publicaciones espa??olas de salud p??blica. Las principales conclusiones resaltan distintos aspectos: la construcci??n hist??rica de identidades profesionales sexuadas; la existencia de una segregaci??n vertical en las sociedades cient??ficas y en los equipos editoriales de las revistas; la existencia de pr??cticas androc??ntricas en las revistas cient??ficas que se manifiestan en el estilo de firma mediante la inicial del nombre; la inexistencia en las sociedades cient??ficas de datos recogidos por sexo; las dificultades que todo ello supone para las investigaciones cuantitativas aplicando la variable sexo y una perspectiva de g??nero, y la necesidad de fomentar la investigaci??n cualitativa sobre el tema.; In this article we review the main results of historical-social research on gender and medical practice, propose a model for applying a gender perspective to the study of healthcare professions...

The resilient urban city: a new image of the city

Bourke, Stephen
Fonte: School of Architecture, University of Limerick Publicador: School of Architecture, University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
peer-reviewed; For most the heart of the city of Chicago is the loop district, the central business district where by all the different city transit lines meet in a loop fifteen foot above one’s head. For me it is a place much more detached from, yet completely surrounded by the city, the confluence, the point at which the three branches of the river meet. With my back against the ten to fifteen foot corrugated steel river wall, bobbing gently in my kayak, the essence of an extraordinarily vibrant city can be felt. From here, the three branches of the river meet like an upside down letter Y placed out in front of you and flattened. Behind me I can hear the great Metra on its final approach into the city’s ‘Union Station’ as it completes its journey from the far outer reaches of the greater Chicago area. On my right, the bare aluminium skin of the red-line, transit train is glistening in the sun as it crosses the ‘Lake Street Bridge’ over the southern branch of the river. From that bridge panning left toward the direction of the bow of my kayak is the main stem of this great river. Throughout the day a parade of endless water taxis, tour boats and recreational boats, head towards this confluence of river branches and either go south...

The religious ideas of Rammohun Roy : a survey of his writings on religion particularly in Persian, Sanskrit, and Bengali

Ray, Ajit Kumar
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (Masters); Master of Philosophy (MPhil)
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
The religious ideas of Rammohun Roy and his role as a reformer have not yet been properly evaluated. Two extreme and contradictory views about his achievements are often found. The one elevates him too high in the category of a superman, and the other denounces his efforts as a complete failure. The present thesis tries to analyse Rammohun's religious ideas and to determine how exactly these ideas contributed primarily to the new conception of Hinduism that would emerge. It therefore excludes the consideration of socio-religious problems like sat! and the question of his immediate impact on nineteenth century society. The sources used are mainly his own writings on religion, the writings of his contemporary opponents, and the results of recent researches on him. The Persian influence which was so important in the development of his ideas, but which is often neglected by his biographers, has been taken into account. The probable connection between a 17th century Persian tract and his first published work the Tuhfatul muwdhhidin has been explored, and the Jawab Tuhfatu'l muwahhidin which is often ascribed to him (though wrongly), has been translated with text, introduction and notes in Appendix A. The Jawab gives some interesting information about him...

Texts prepared for delivery at Paul Krugman's honorary doctorate by three Lisbon universities on 27 February, 2012

Macedo, Jorge Braga de; Krugman, Paul; Lopes, J. Silva
Fonte: Nova SBE Publicador: Nova SBE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Three texts were prepared for delivery at the first honorary doctorate awarded simultaneously by three Lisbon universities on 27 February, 2012: an introduction, a lecture and a comment. The event included the award of member of the Lisbon Academy of Science (ACL) by Manuel Jacinto Nunes, dean of the economics and finance section of ACL who proposed his name and Olivier Blanchard’s on the 30th anniversary of James Tobin receiving an honorary doctorate from Nova University. On 24 February , Paul Krugman visited ACL and participated in a session of the project dubbed “Letter to the lusofonia Queen”. Since this project is promoted by Nova SBE’s Center for Globalization and Governance and has been featured in some of the graduate courses, a short note on the meeting is included in annex. On 15 June, the three universities authorized an edition in Portuguese and donated the copyrights to a student award on “Krugman economics”, in a way still to be determined by the editor. The lecture and the comment will be translated as soon as a suitable publisher is found. Since a lot of the teaching at Nova SBE is in English, it seemed appropriate to reproduce the original texts in the order in which they were presented. A lively question and answer period was also recorded by Nova TV and should be made available in the book...

Pre-Readers' Concepts of the English Word

Lawler, Robert
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 31316083 bytes; 23204010 bytes; application/postscript; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Pre-Readers exhibit concepts of the English word different from those of literate adults. The inclusive word concept is primary: A word is what we call an utterance and any of its parts. Pre-Readers suffer confusion between homophones at the syllabic level, e.g., the sound of the suffix in "PUPPY" is confused with the name of the letter. Conflict between implicit judgments of wordhood (inferred from the child's counting of the number of words in an utterance) and explicit judgments (responses to questions about whether an item is a word) vary from high, for pre-readers, to low, for beginning readers. The justifications pre-readers offer to support their judgments of wordhood are notable for not including any argumetns based on immediate verbal context. A concept development theory is offered to interpret this data and their relaxation to learning to read.

The Socially Just Face of Public Health Leadership Linda Rae Murray

Currie, Donya Lynn
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
Linda Rae Murray, MD, MPH, a champion of social justice and outspoken advocate for the medically underserved for more than 40 years, is not easy to describe. Part E. F. Hutton (when she talks, people listen), part streetwise negotiator (she's not shy about dropping a four-letter word into conversation), she might come across as brash and intimidating to some. But those who know her well will attest to her softhearted interior, and her unwavering commitment to speaking out in the name of better health for all.

Reason for Cautious Optimism? Two Studies Suggesting Reduced Stigma Against Suicide

Witte, Tracy K.; Smith, April R.; Joiner, Thomas E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.567998%
We present data from two studies that aimed to investigate stigma against suicide. In Study 1, we employed Milgram et al.'s (1965) “lost letter” technique. We predicted that fewer letters addressed to a fictitious organization with the word “suicide” in its name would be returned than letters addressed to fictitious heart disease or diabetes organizations, presumably due to stigma. Contrary to expectation, there were no differences in the percentage of letters returned for each condition, despite power to detect small effects. In Study 2 we compared scores on the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ; Domino, Gibson, Poling, & Westlake, 1980) from a study published in 1988 (Domino, MacGregor, & Hannah, 1988) to scores from a study conducted 19 years later. Results demonstrated reduced stigma toward suicide, with the belief that suicide is morally bad exhibiting the largest change.