Página 8 dos resultados de 2140 itens digitais encontrados em 0.012 segundos

Werner syndrome protein limits MYC-induced cellular senescence

Grandori, Carla; Wu, Kou-Juey; Fernandez, Paula; Ngouenet, Celine; Grim, Jonathan; Clurman, Bruce E.; Moser, Michael J.; Oshima, Junko; Russell, David W.; Swisshelm, Karen; Frank, Scott; Amati, Bruno; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Monnat, Raymond J.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
The MYC oncoprotein is a transcription factor that coordinates cell growth and division. MYC overexpression exacerbates genomic instability and sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli. Here we demonstrate that MYC directly stimulates transcription of the human Werner syndrome gene, WRN, which encodes a conserved RecQ helicase. Loss-of-function mutations in WRN lead to genomic instability, an elevated cancer risk, and premature cellular senescence. The overexpression of MYC in WRN syndrome fibroblasts or after WRN depletion from control fibroblasts led to rapid cellular senescence that could not be suppressed by hTERT expression. We propose that WRN up-regulation by MYC may promote MYC-driven tumorigenesis by preventing cellular senescence.

Cellular senescence, ageing and disease

Burton, D. G. A.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
Cellular senescence is the irreversible growth arrest of individual mitotic cells, which as a consequence display a radically altered phenotype that is thought to impair tissue function and predispose tissues to disease development and/or progression as they gradually accumulate. However, in the past, research into mechanisms of ageing has commonly been researched and treated separately from disease development. This may partly be due to the lack of understanding concerning mechanisms of ageing and the difficulty in implementing what was known into models of disease development. Only in the last 10 years, with increasing knowledge of the senescent phenotype and the ability to detect senescent cells in human tissues, have biologists been able to investigate the relationship between cellular senescence and disease. This review therefore brings together and discusses recent findings which suggest that cellular senescence does contribute to ageing and the development/progression of disease.

CENP-A Reduction Induces a p53-Dependent Cellular Senescence Response To Protect Cells from Executing Defective Mitoses▿

Maehara, Kayoko; Takahashi, Kohta; Saitoh, Shigeaki
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68828%
Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest and is presumed to be a natural barrier to tumor development. Like telomere shortening, certain defects in chromosome integrity can trigger senescence; however, the roles of centromere proteins in regulating commitment to the senescent state remains to be established. We examined chromatin structure in senescent human primary fibroblasts and found that CENP-A protein levels are diminished in senescent cells. Senescence-associated reduction of CENP-A is caused by transcriptional and posttranslational control. Surprisingly, forced reduction of CENP-A by short-hairpin RNA was found to cause premature senescence in human primary fibroblasts. This premature senescence is dependent on a tumor suppressor, p53, but not on p16INK4a-Rb; the depletion of CENP-A in p53-deficient cells results in aberrant mitosis with chromosome missegregation. We propose that p53-dependent senescence that arises from CENP-A reduction acts as a “self-defense mechanism” to prevent centromere-defective cells from undergoing mitotic proliferation that potentially leads to massive generation of aneuploid cells.

Inflammatory Signaling and Cellular Senescence

Ren, Jian-Lin; Pan, Jin-Shui; Lu, Ya-Pi; Sun, Peiqing; Han, Jiahuai
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
Inflammation is a double-edged sword in the pathogenesis of cancer. Inflammatory responses play a key role in eliminating the potentially cancerous cells. However, inflammatory microenvironment also promotes the development of cancer. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, the key mediators of inflammation, also play a dual role in oncogenesis. While they can promote neoplastic progression, recent studies have revealed an unexpected function of the inflammatory pathways in inhibiting cancer development. These studies demonstrate that cells undergoing senescence, a cellular program serving as a barrier to cancer development, produce increased amount of inflammatory cytokines. These inflammatory cytokines play an essential role in the initiation and maintenance of cellular senescence, and is responsible for triggering an innate immune response that clears the senescent tumor cells in vivo. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the dual roles of the inflammatory cytokines produced by senescent cells in the pathogenesis of cancer, and the signaling pathway mediating their role in cellular senescence.

Role of progerin-induced telomere dysfunction in HGPS premature cellular senescence

Benson, Erica K.; Lee, Sam W.; Aaronson, Stuart A.
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature-aging syndrome caused by a dominant mutation in the gene encoding lamin A, which leads to an aberrantly spliced and processed protein termed progerin. Previous studies have shown that progerin induces early senescence associated with increased DNA-damage signaling and that telomerase extends HGPS cellular lifespan. We demonstrate that telomerase extends HGPS cellular lifespan by decreasing progerin-induced DNA-damage signaling and activation of p53 and Rb pathways that otherwise mediate the onset of premature senescence. We show further that progerin-induced DNA-damage signaling is localized to telomeres and is associated with telomere aggregates and chromosomal aberrations. Telomerase amelioration of DNA-damage signaling is relatively rapid, requires both its catalytic and DNA-binding functions, and correlates in time with the acquisition by HGPS cells of the ability to proliferate. All of these findings establish that HGPS premature cellular senescence results from progerin-induced telomere dysfunction.

p38 MAP kinase-dependent regulation of the expression level and subcellular distribution of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and its involvement in cellular senescence in normal human fibroblasts

Shimada, Naoko; Rios, Ileana; Moran, Heriberto; Sayers, Brendan; Hubbard, Karen
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.64298%
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a RNA binding protein that plays important role in the biogenesis of mRNA, such as alternative splicing and mRNA stability. We have previously demonstrated that hnRNP A1 has diminished protein levels and shows cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts. Recent reports showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK), a member of the MAP kinase family is necessary and sufficient for the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 by stress stimuli such as osmotic shock. p38 MAP kinase has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation and the induction of senescence in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the relationship between hnRNP A1 and p38 MAPK and the roles of hnRNP A1 in cellular senescence have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that hnRNP A1 forms a complex with phospho-p38 MAPK in vivo. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580 elevated hnRNP A1 protein levels and prohibited the cytoplasmic accumulation of the protein, but not hnRNP A2, in senescent cells. The phosphorylation level of hnRNP A1 was elevated in senescent cells. Reduction of hnRNP A1 and A2 levels by siRNA transfection induced a senescence-like morphology and elevated the level of F-actin...

Fat tissue, aging, and cellular senescence

Tchkonia, Tamara; Morbeck, Dean E; von Zglinicki, Thomas; van Deursen, Jan; Lustgarten, Joseph; Scrable, Heidi; Khosla, Sundeep; Jensen, Michael D; Kirkland, James L
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
Fat tissue, frequently the largest organ in humans, is at the nexus of mechanisms involved in longevity and age-related metabolic dysfunction. Fat distribution and function change dramatically throughout life. Obesity is associated with accelerated onset of diseases common in old age, while fat ablation and certain mutations affecting fat increase life span. Fat cells turn over throughout the life span. Fat cell progenitors, preadipocytes, are abundant, closely related to macrophages, and dysdifferentiate in old age, switching into a pro-inflammatory, tissue-remodeling, senescent-like state. Other mesenchymal progenitors also can acquire a pro-inflammatory, adipocyte-like phenotype with aging. We propose a hypothetical model in which cellular stress and preadipocyte overutilization with aging induce cellular senescence, leading to impaired adipogenesis, failure to sequester lipotoxic fatty acids, inflammatory cytokine and chemokine generation, and innate and adaptive immune response activation. These pro-inflammatory processes may amplify each other and have systemic consequences. This model is consistent with recent concepts about cellular senescence as a stress-responsive, adaptive phenotype that develops through multiple stages...

Cellular senescence: a link between cancer and age-related degenerative disease?

Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie; Kapahi, Pankaj; Melov, Simon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
Cellular senescence is an established cellular stress response that acts primarily to prevent the proliferation of cells that experience potentially oncogenic stress. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the senescence response is a complex phenotype, which has a variety of cell non-autonomous effects. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP, entails the secretion of numerous cytokines, growth factors and proteases. The SASP can have beneficial or detrimental effects, depending on the physiological context. One recently described beneficial effect is to aid tissue repair. Among the detrimental effects, the SASP can disrupt normal tissue structures and function, and, ironically, can promote malignant phenotypes in nearby cells. These detrimental effects in many ways recapitulate the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies that develop during aging. Because the SASP is largely a response to genomic or epigenomic damage, we suggest it may be a model for a cellular damage response that can propagate damage signals both within and among tissues. We propose that both the degenerative and hyperplastic diseases of aging may be fueled by such damage signals.

Caveolin-1, cellular senescence and age-related diseases

Zou, Huafei; Stoppani, Elena; Volonte, Daniela; Galbiati, Ferruccio
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
According to the “free radical theory” of aging, normal aging occurs as the result of tissue damages inflicted by reactive oxygen species (ROS) when ROS production exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell. ROS induce cellular dysfunctions such as stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), which is believed to contribute to normal organismal aging and play a role in age-related diseases. Consistent with this hypothesis, increased oxidative damage of DNA, proteins, and lipids have been reported in aged animals and senescent cells accumulate in vivo with advancing age. Caveolin-1 acts as a scaffolding protein that concentrates and functionally regulates signaling molecules. Recently, great progress has been made toward understanding of the role of caveolin-1 in stress-induced premature senescence. Data show that caveolin-mediated signaling may contribute to explain, at the molecular level, how oxidative stress promotes the deleterious effects of cellular senescence such as aging and age-related diseases. In this review, we discuss the cellular mechanisms and functions of caveolin-1 in the context of SIPS and their relevance to the biology of aging.

Quantitative Model of Cell Cycle Arrest and Cellular Senescence in Primary Human Fibroblasts

Schäuble, Sascha; Klement, Karolin; Marthandan, Shiva; Münch, Sandra; Heiland, Ines; Schuster, Stefan; Hemmerich, Peter; Diekmann, Stephan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68508%
Primary human fibroblasts in tissue culture undergo a limited number of cell divisions before entering a non-replicative “senescent” state. At early population doublings (PD), fibroblasts are proliferation-competent displaying exponential growth. During further cell passaging, an increasing number of cells become cell cycle arrested and finally senescent. This transition from proliferating to senescent cells is driven by a number of endogenous and exogenous stress factors. Here, we have developed a new quantitative model for the stepwise transition from proliferating human fibroblasts (P) via reversibly cell cycle arrested (C) to irreversibly arrested senescent cells (S). In this model, the transition from P to C and to S is driven by a stress function γ and a cellular stress response function F which describes the time-delayed cellular response to experimentally induced irradiation stress. The application of this model based on senescence marker quantification at the single-cell level allowed to discriminate between the cellular states P, C, and S and delivers the transition rates between the P, C and S states for different human fibroblast cell types. Model-derived quantification unexpectedly revealed significant differences in the stress response of different fibroblast cell lines. Evaluating marker specificity...

Hypoxia suppresses conversion from proliferative arrest to cellular senescence

Leontieva, Olga V.; Natarajan, Venkatesh; Demidenko, Zoya N.; Burdelya, Lyudmila G.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68828%
Unlike reversible quiescence, cellular senescence is characterized by a large flat cell morphology, β-gal staining and irreversible loss of regenerative (i.e., replicative) potential. Conversion from proliferative arrest to irreversible senescence, a process named geroconversion, is driven in part by growth-promoting pathways such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). During cell cycle arrest, mTOR converts reversible arrest into senescence. Inhibitors of mTOR can suppress geroconversion, maintaining quiescence instead. It was shown that hypoxia inhibits mTOR. Therefore, we suggest that hypoxia may suppress geroconversion. Here we tested this hypothesis. In HT-p21-9 cells, expression of inducible p21 caused cell cycle arrest without inhibiting mTOR, leading to senescence. Hypoxia did not prevent p21 induction and proliferative arrest, but instead inhibited the mTOR pathway and geroconversion. Exposure to hypoxia during p21 induction prevented senescent morphology and loss of regenerative potential, thus maintaining reversible quiescence so cells could restart proliferation after switching p21 off. Suppression of geroconversion was p53- and HIF-1–independent, as hypoxia also suppressed geroconversion in cells lacking functional p53 and HIF-1α. Also...

Age-related telomere uncapping is associated with cellular senescence and inflammation independent of telomere shortening in human arteries

Morgan, Richard G.; Ives, Stephen J.; Lesniewski, Lisa A.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Andtbacka, Robert H. I.; Noyes, R. Dirk; Richardson, Russell S.; Donato, Anthony J.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68828%
Arterial telomere dysfunction may contribute to chronic arterial inflammation by inducing cellular senescence and subsequent senescence-associated inflammation. Although telomere shortening has been associated with arterial aging in humans, age-related telomere uncapping has not been described in non-cultured human tissues and may have substantial prognostic value. In skeletal muscle feed arteries from 104 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, we assessed the potential role of age-related telomere uncapping in arterial inflammation. Telomere uncapping, measured by p-histone γ-H2A.X (ser139) localized to telomeres (chromatin immunoprecipitation; ChIP), and telomeric repeat binding factor 2 bound to telomeres (ChIP) was greater in arteries from older adults compared with those from younger adults. There was greater tumor suppressor protein p53 (P53)/cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21)-induced senescence, measured by P53 bound to P21 gene promoter (ChIP), and greater expression of P21, interleukin 8, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 mRNA (RT-PCR) in arteries from older adults compared with younger adults. Telomere uncapping was a highly influential covariate for the age-group difference in P53/P21-induced senescence. Despite progressive age-related telomere shortening in human arteries...

DPY30 regulates pathways in cellular senescence through ID protein expression

Simboeck, Elisabeth; Gutierrez, Arantxa; Cozzuto, Luca; Beringer, Malte; Caizzi, Livia; M Keyes, William; Di Croce, Luciano
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.695303%
Cellular senescence is an intrinsic defense mechanism to various cellular stresses: while still metabolically active, senescent cells stop dividing and enter a proliferation arrest. Here, we identify DPY30, a member of all mammalian histone H3K4 histone methyltransferases (HMTases), as a key regulator of the proliferation potential of human primary cells. Following depletion of DPY30, cells show a severe proliferation defect and display a senescent phenotype, including a flattened and enlarged morphology, elevated level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased SA-β-galactosidase activity, and formation of senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHFs). While DPY30 depletion leads to a reduced level of H3K4me3-marked active chromatin, we observed a concomitant activation of CDK inhibitors, including p16INK4a, independent of H3K4me3. ChIP experiments show that key regulators of cell-cycle progression, including ID proteins, are under direct control of DPY30. Because ID proteins are negative regulators of the transcription factors ETS1/2, depletion of DPY30 leads to the transcriptional activation of p16INK4a by ETS1/2 and thus to a senescent-like phenotype. Ectoptic re-introduction of ID protein expression can partially rescue the senescence-like phenotype induced by DPY30 depletion. Thus...

Oncogene- and Oxidative Stress-Induced Cellular Senescence Shows Distinct Expression Patterns of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Vascular Endothelial Cells

Suzuki, Etsu; Takahashi, Masao; Oba, Shigeyoshi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68828%
Senescent cells are metabolically active and produce a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. It was previously reported that atherosclerotic plaques contain senescent cells, suggesting that senescence may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis. In this study, we induced cellular senescence in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or an adenovirus that expresses a constitutively active mutant of Ras (AdRas12V) and studied the expression of cytokines. Both H2O2 treatment and AdRas12V infection induced senescence in VECs, as assessed by senescence-associated β-Gal activity and the expression of proteins such as p53 and p21CIP1. In addition, both treatments induced the expression of a variety of cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nerve growth factor (NGF). AdRas12V infection induced IL-1β expression more significantly than H2O2 treatment, whereas both treatments induced comparable mRNA and protein expression levels of NGF. These results suggest that senescent cells express different patterns of proinflammatory cytokines, depending on the trigger that induced senescence. It is therefore possible that senescent cells can differentially induce inflammation in the surrounding tissues...

The benefits of aging: cellular senescence in normal development

Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Steller, Herman
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.695303%
Senescence is a form of cellular aging that limits the proliferative capacity of cells. Senescence can be triggered by different stress stimuli, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation. Two recent articles published in Cell have uncovered an unexpected role for cellular senescence during development, as a process that contributes to remodeling and patterning of the embryo. These findings are exciting and have important implications for the understanding of normal developmental and the evolutionary origin of senescence.

Cellular senescence and protein degradation: Breaking down cancer

Deschênes-Simard, Xavier; Lessard, Frédéric; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Ferbeyre, Gerardo
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.695303%
Autophagy and the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway (UPP) are the major protein degradation systems in eukaryotic cells. Whereas the former mediate a bulk nonspecific degradation, the UPP allows a rapid degradation of specific proteins. Both systems have been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis, and the interest in developing therapeutic agents inhibiting protein degradation is steadily growing. However, emerging data point to a critical role for autophagy in cellular senescence, an established tumor suppressor mechanism. Recently, a selective protein degradation process mediated by the UPP was also shown to contribute to the senescence phenotype. This process is tightly regulated by E3 ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinases, and several post-translational modifications of target proteins. Illustrating the complexity of UPP, more than 600 human genes have been shown to encode E3 ubiquitin ligases, a number which exceeds that of the protein kinases. Nevertheless, our knowledge of proteasome-dependent protein degradation as a regulated process in cellular contexts such as cancer and senescence remains very limited. Here we discuss the implications of protein degradation in senescence and attempt to relate this function to the protein degradation pattern observed in cancer cells.

Aging, Cellular Senescence, and Cancer

Campisi, Judith
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
For most species, aging promotes a host of degenerative pathologies that are characterized by debilitating losses of tissue or cellular function. However, especially among vertebrates, aging also promotes hyperplastic pathologies, the most deadly of which is cancer. In contrast to the loss of function that characterizes degenerating cells and tissues, malignant (cancerous) cells must acquire new (albeit aberrant) functions that allow them to develop into a lethal tumor. This review discusses the idea that, despite seemingly opposite characteristics, the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies of aging are at least partly linked by a common biological phenomenon: a cellular stress response known as cellular senescence. The senescence response is widely recognized as a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. However, recent evidence strengthens the idea that it also drives both degenerative and hyper-plastic pathologies, most likely by promoting chronic inflammation. Thus, the senescence response may be the result of antagonistically pleiotropic gene action.

Cellular senescence and aging: the role of B-MYB

Mowla, Sophia N; Lam, Eric W-F; Jat, Parmjit S
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68828%
Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest, caused by insults, such as: telomere erosion, oncogene activation, irradiation, DNA damage, oxidative stress, and viral infection. Extrinsic stimuli such as cell culture stress can also trigger this growth arrest. Senescence is thought to have evolved as an example of antagonistic pleiotropy, as it acts as a tumor suppressor mechanism during the reproductive age, but can promote organismal aging by disrupting tissue renewal, repair, and regeneration later in life. The mechanisms underlying the senescence growth arrest are broadly considered to involve p16INK4A-pRB and p53-p21CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 tumor suppressor pathways; but it is not known what makes the senescence arrest stable and what the critical downstream targets are, as they are likely to be key to the establishment and maintenance of the senescent state. MYB-related protein B (B-MYB/MYBL2), a member of the myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, has recently emerged as a potential candidate for regulating entry into senescence. Here, we review the evidence which indicates that loss of B-MYB expression has an important role in causing senescence growth arrest. We discuss how B-MYB acts, as the gatekeeper, to coordinate transit through the cell cycle...

p19ARF is a critical mediator of both cellular senescence and an innate immune response associated with MYC inactivation in mouse model of acute leukemia

Yetil, Alper; Anchang, Benedict; Gouw, Arvin M.; Adam, Stacey J.; Zabuawala, Tahera; Parameswaran, Ramya; van Riggelen, Jan; Plevritis, Sylvia; Felsher, Dean W.
Fonte: Impact Journals LLC Publicador: Impact Journals LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/01/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
MYC-induced T-ALL exhibit oncogene addiction. Addiction to MYC is a consequence of both cell-autonomous mechanisms, such as proliferative arrest, cellular senescence, and apoptosis, as well as non-cell autonomous mechanisms, such as shutdown of angiogenesis, and recruitment of immune effectors. Here, we show, using transgenic mouse models of MYC-induced T-ALL, that the loss of either p19ARF or p53 abrogates the ability of MYC inactivation to induce sustained tumor regression. Loss of p53 or p19ARF, influenced the ability of MYC inactivation to elicit the shutdown of angiogenesis; however the loss of p19ARF, but not p53, impeded cellular senescence, as measured by SA-beta-galactosidase staining, increased expression of p16INK4A, and specific histone modifications. Moreover, comparative gene expression analysis suggested that a multitude of genes involved in the innate immune response were expressed in p19ARF wild-type, but not null, tumors upon MYC inactivation. Indeed, the loss of p19ARF, but not p53, impeded the in situ recruitment of macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Finally, p19ARF null-associated gene signature prognosticated relapse-free survival in human patients with ALL. Therefore, p19ARF appears to be important to regulating cellular senescence and innate immune response that may contribute to the therapeutic response of ALL.

Oxidative stress activates a specific p53 transcriptional response that regulates cellular senescence and aging

Gambino, Valentina; De Michele, Giulia; Venezia, Oriella; Migliaccio, Pierluigi; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Bernard, Loris; Minardi, Simone Paolo; Fazia, Maria Agnese Della; Bartoli, Daniela; Servillo, Giuseppe; Alcalay, Myriam; Luzi, Lucilla; Giorgio, Marco;
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.68141%
Oxidative stress is a determining factor of cellular senescence and aging and a potent inducer of the tumour-suppressor p53. Resistance to oxidative stress correlates with delayed aging in mammals, in the absence of accelerated tumorigenesis, suggesting inactivation of selected p53-downstream pathways. We investigated p53 regulation in mice carrying deletion of p66, a mutation that retards aging and confers cellular resistance and systemic resistance to oxidative stress. We identified a transcriptional network of ∼200 genes that are repressed by p53 and encode for determinants of progression through mitosis or suppression of senescence. They are selectively down-regulated in cultured fibroblasts after oxidative stress, and, in vivo, in proliferating tissues and during physiological aging. Selectivity is imposed by p66 expression and activation of p44/p53 (also named Delta40p53), a p53 isoform that accelerates aging and prevents mitosis after protein damage. p66 deletion retards aging and increases longevity of p44/p53 transgenic mice. Thus, oxidative stress activates a specific p53 transcriptional response, mediated by p44/p53 and p66, which regulates cellular senescence and aging.