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Both human immunodeficiency virus-infected and human immunodeficiency virus-exposed, uninfected children living in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico have similar rates of low concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, and vitamin E

MONTEIRO, Jacqueline P.; FREIMANIS-HANCE, Laura; FARIA, Lidiane B.; MUSSI-PINHATA, Marisa M.; KORELITZ, James; VANNUCCHI, Helio; QUEIROZ, Wladimir; SUCCI, Regina C. M.; HAZRA, Rohan
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Our objective was to describe the prevalence of low concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, and vitamin E in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Latin American children and a comparison group of HIV-exposed, uninfected children. Our hypothesis was that the rates of low concentrations of these micronutrients would be higher in the HIV-infected group than those in the HIV-exposed, uninfected group. This was a cross-sectional substudy of a larger cohort study at clinical pediatric HIV centers in Latin America. Serum levels of micronutrients were measured in the first stored sample obtained after each child`s first birthday by high-performance liquid chromatography. Low concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, and vitamin E were defined as serum levels below 0.70, 0.35, and 18.0 mu mol/L, respectively. The Population for this analysis was 336 children (124 HIV-infected, 212 HIV-exposed, uninfected) aged I year or older to younger than 4 years. Rates of low concentrations were 74% for retinol, 27% for beta-carotene, and 89% for vitamin E. These rates were not affected by HIV status. Among the HIV-infected children, those treated with anti retrovirals were less likely to have retinol deficiency, but no other HIV-related factors correlated with micronutrient low serum levels. Low concentrations of retinol...

Pathological and behavioral risk factors for higher serum c-reactive protein concentrations in free-living adults - A Brazilian community-based study

Moreto, Fernando; De Oliveira, Erick Prado; Manda, Rodrigo Minoru; Torezan, Gabriel Augusto; Teixeira, Okesley; Michelin, Edilaine; Burini, Roberto Carlos
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 15-25
Português
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37.094038%
Low-grade chronic systemic inflammation is often associated with chronic non-communicable diseases, and its most frequently used marker, the C-reactive protein (CRP), has become an identifier of such diseases as well as an independent predictor for cardiovascular disorders and mortality. CRP is produced in response to pro-inflammatory signaling and to individual and behavioral factors, leading to pathological states. The aim of this study was to rank the predicting factors of high CRP concentrations in free-living adults from a community-based sample. We evaluated 522 adults (40-84 years old; 381 women) for anthropometric characteristics, dietary intake, clinical and physical tests, and blood analysis. Subjects were assigned to groups, according to CRP concentrations, as normal CRP (G1;<3.0 mg/L; n = 269), high CRP (G2; 3.0-6.0 mg/L; n = 139), and very high CRP (G3; >6.0 mg/dL; n = 116). Statistical comparison between groups used one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests, and prediction of altered values in increasing CRP was evaluated by proportional hazard models (odds ratio). CRP distribution was influenced by gender, body mass index, body and abdominal fatness, blood leukocytes, and neutrophil counts. The higher CRP group was discriminated by the above variables in addition to lower VO2max...

A randomized clinical trial of high volume peritoneal dialysis versus extended daily hemodialysis for acute kidney injury patients

Ponce, D.; Berbel, M. N.; Abrão, Juliana Maria Gera; Goes, C. R.; Balbi, A. L.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 869-878
Português
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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis in critically ill patients is associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 50-80 %. Extended daily hemodialysis (EHD) and high volume peritoneal dialysis (HVPD) have emerged as alternative modalities. Methods: A double-center, randomized, controlled trial was conducted comparing EHD versus HVPD for the treatment for AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). Four hundred and seven patients were randomized and 143 patients were analyzed. Principal outcome measure was hospital mortality, and secondary end points were recovery of renal function and metabolic and fluid control. Results: There was no difference between the two groups in relation to median ICU stay [11 (5.7-20) vs. 9 (5.7-19)], recovery of kidney function (26.9 vs. 29.6 %, p = 0.11), need for chronic dialysis (9.7 vs. 6.5 %, p = 0.23), and hospital mortality (63.4 vs. 63.9 %, p = 0.94). The groups were different in metabolic and fluid control. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and bicarbonate levels were stabilized faster in EHD group than in HVPD group. Delivered Kt/V and ultrafiltration were higher in EHD group. Despite randomization, there were significant differences between the groups in some covariates, including age...

Prevalence in the United States of Selected Candidate Gene Variants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1991–1994

Chang, Man-huei; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Butler, Mary A.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dowling, Nicole F.; Gallagher, Margaret; Moonesinghe, Ramal; Moore, Cynthia A.; Ned, Renée M.; Reichler, Mary R.; Sanders, Christopher L.; Welch, Robert; Yesupriya, Ajay; Khoury,
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Population-based allele frequencies and genotype prevalence are important for measuring the contribution of genetic variation to human disease susceptibility, progression, and outcomes. Population-based prevalence estimates also provide the basis for epidemiologic studies of gene–disease associations, for estimating population attributable risk, and for informing health policy and clinical and public health practice. However, such prevalence estimates for genotypes important to public health remain undetermined for the major racial and ethnic groups in the US population. DNA was collected from 7,159 participants aged 12 years or older in Phase 2 (1991–1994) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Certain age and minority groups were oversampled in this weighted, population-based US survey. Estimates of allele frequency and genotype prevalence for 90 variants in 50 genes chosen for their potential public health significance were calculated by age, sex, and race/ethnicity among non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. These nationally representative data on allele frequency and genotype prevalence provide a valuable resource for future epidemiologic studies in public health in the United States.

The Effect of a Structured Exercise Program on Nutrition and Fitness Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children

Miller, Tracie L.; Somarriba, Gabriel; Kinnamon, Daniel D.; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Friedman, Lawrence B.; Scott, Gwendolyn B.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
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37.002803%
The feasibility and effectiveness of a hospital-based exercise-training program followed by a home-based program for improving fitness, strength, and changes in body composition in children and adolescents with HIV were evaluated. Subjects participated in nonrandomized 24-session, hospital supervised exercise training program followed by an unsupervised home-based maintenance program. Outcome measurements included muscular strength/endurance, flexibility, relative peak VO2, body composition, and lipids. Seventeen subjects (eight females) with a median age of 15.0 years (range: 6.0–22.6) and BMI z-score of 0.61 (range: −1.70–2.57) at entry completed the intervention. After 24 training sessions, the median increases in muscular strength were between 8% and 50%, depending on muscle group. The median increases in muscle endurance, relative peak VO2, and lean body mass were 38.7% (95% CI: 12.5–94.7; p = 0.006), 3.0 ml/kg/min (95% CI: 1.5–6.0; p < 0.001), and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.4–6.6; p < 0.001), respectively. Twelve children completed the home-based maintenance program. Median changes in these outcomes between completion of the hospital-based intervention and a follow-up after completion of the home-based program were near zero. No adverse events occurred during the intervention. A supervised hospital-based fitness program is feasible...

(n-3) Fatty Acids: Clinical Trials in People with Type 2 Diabetes1

Hendrich, Suzanne
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/11/2010 Português
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37.127466%
Recent human clinical trials of the effects of (n-3) fatty acids on participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) were reviewed, focusing on 11 clinical trials conducted within the past 4 y, and subsequent to a Cochrane Database meta-analysis of this topic. Doses of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in these studies were mostly in the range of ∼2 g/d provided for 6 wk to 6 mo. Summarizing across these studies, there were no changes in fasting glucose or insulin compared with baseline or placebo. (n-3) Fatty acids generally decreased serum triglycerides but had varying effects on serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. A few studies indicated beneficial effects of (n-3) fatty acids on arterial blood flow. The effects of EPA and/or DHA have not yet been studied in clinical trials in participants at risk for T2D; the prevention or exacerbation of T2D by fish oil or EPA and DHA supplements of amounts >0.5 g/d deserves study. The prevention of adverse vascular effects of T2D by (n-3) fatty acids may be a promising direction for further study.

A Database of Gene-Environment Interactions Pertaining to Blood Lipid Traits, Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes

Lee, Yu-Chi; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovas, Jose M; Parnell, Laurence D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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As the role of the environment – diet, exercise, alcohol and tobacco use and sleep among others – is accorded a more prominent role in modifying the relationship between genetic variants and clinical measures of disease, consideration of gene-environment (GxE) interactions is a must. To facilitate incorporation of GxE interactions into single-gene and genome-wide association studies, we have compiled from the literature a database of GxE interactions relevant to nutrition, blood lipids, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Over 550 such interactions have been incorporated into a single database, along with over 1430 instances where a lack of statistical significance was found. This database will serve as an important resource to researchers in genetics and nutrition in order to gain an understanding of which points in the human genome are sensitive to variations in diet, physical activity and alcohol use, among other lifestyle choices. Furthermore, this GxE database has been designed with future integration into a larger database of nutritional phenotypes in mind.

ENABLING HIGH-THROUGHPUT GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGIC ARCHITECTURE FOR GENES LINKED TO ENVIRONMENT (EAGLE) PROJECT AS PART OF THE POPULATION ARCHITECTURE USING GENOMICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY (PAGE) STUDY

BUSH, WILLIAM S.; BOSTON, JONATHAN; PENDERGRASS, SARAH A.; DUMITRESCU, LOGAN; GOODLOE, ROBERT; BROWN-GENTRY, KRISTIN; WILSON, SARAH; MCCLELLAN, BOB; TORSTENSON, ERIC; BASFORD, MELISSA A.; SPENCER, KYLEE L.; RITCHIE, MARYLYN D.; CRAWFORD, DANA C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Genetic association studies have rapidly become a major tool for identifying the genetic basis of common human diseases. The advent of cost-effective genotyping coupled with large collections of samples linked to clinical outcomes and quantitative traits now make it possible to systematically characterize genotype-phenotype relationships in diverse populations and extensive datasets. To capitalize on these advancements, the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) project, as part of the collaborative Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, accesses two collections: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and BioVU, Vanderbilt University’s biorepository linked to de-identified electronic medical records. We describe herein the workflows for accessing and using the epidemiologic (NHANES) and clinical (BioVU) collections, where each workflow has been customized to reflect the content and data access limitations of each respective source. We also describe the process by which these data are generated, standardized, and shared for meta-analysis among the PAGE study sites. As a specific example of the use of BioVU, we describe the data mining efforts to define cases and controls for genetic association studies of common cancers in PAGE. Collectively...

Accumulation of autophagosomes in breast cancer cells induces TRAIL resistance through downregulation of surface expression of death receptors 4 and 5

Di, Xu; Zhang, Guofeng; Zhang, Yaqin; Takeda, Kazuyo; Rosado, Leslie A. Rivera; Zhang, Baolin
Fonte: Impact Journals LLC Publicador: Impact Journals LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/07/2013 Português
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37.00479%
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through death receptors (DRs) 4 and/or 5 expressed on the surface of target cells. We have previously shown that deficiency of DR4 and DR5 on the surface membrane is a critical mechanism of cancer cell resistance to the recombinant human TRAIL and its receptor agonistic antibodies, which are being evaluated clinically for treating cancers. In certain cancer cells, DR4 and DR5 were found to be mislocalized in intracellular compartments yet to be characterized. Here, we report a novel role of autophagy in the regulation of dynamics of TRAIL death receptors. We first assessed basal levels of autophagosomes in a panel of 11 breast cancer cell lines using complementary approaches (LC3 immunoblotting, RFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy). We found high levels of basal autophagosomes in TRAIL resistant breast cancer cell lines (e.g. BT474 and AU565) and relevant mouse xenograft models under nutrition-rich conditions. Notably, DR4 and DR5 co-localized with LC3-II in the autophagosomes of TRAIL-resistant cells. Disruption of basal autophagosomes successfully restored the surface expression of the death receptors which was accompanied by sensitization of TRAIL-resistant cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis. By contrast...

On the Relative Relevance of Subject-Specific Geometries and Degeneration-Specific Mechanical Properties for the Study of Cell Death in Human Intervertebral Disk Models

Malandrino, Andrea; Pozo, José M.; Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Frangi, Alejandro F.; van Rijsbergen, Marc M.; Ito, Keita; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Dao, Tien Tuan; Ho Ba Tho, Marie-Christine; Noailly, Jérôme
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/02/2015 Português
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37.137053%
Capturing patient- or condition-specific intervertebral disk (IVD) properties in finite element models is outmost important in order to explore how biomechanical and biophysical processes may interact in spine diseases. However, disk degenerative changes are often modeled through equations similar to those employed for healthy organs, which might not be valid. As for the simulated effects of degenerative changes, they likely depend on specific disk geometries. Accordingly, we explored the ability of continuum tissue models to simulate disk degenerative changes. We further used the results in order to assess the interplay between these simulated changes and particular IVD morphologies, in relation to disk cell nutrition, a potentially important factor in disk tissue regulation. A protocol to derive patient-specific computational models from clinical images was applied to different spine specimens. In vitro, IVD creep tests were used to optimize poro-hyperelastic input material parameters in these models, in function of the IVD degeneration grade. The use of condition-specific tissue model parameters in the specimen-specific geometrical models was validated against independent kinematic measurements in vitro. Then, models were coupled to a transport-cell viability model in order to assess the respective effects of tissue degeneration and disk geometry on cell viability. While classic disk poro-mechanical models failed in representing known degenerative changes...

Archaea and Fungi of the Human Gut Microbiome: Correlations with Diet and Bacterial Residents

Hoffmann, Christian; Dollive, Serena; Grunberg, Stephanie; Chen, Jun; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Bushman, Frederic D.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Diet influences health as a source of nutrients and toxins, and by shaping the composition of resident microbial populations. Previous studies have begun to map out associations between diet and the bacteria and viruses of the human gut microbiome. Here we investigate associations of diet with fungal and archaeal populations, taking advantage of samples from 98 well-characterized individuals. Diet was quantified using inventories scoring both long-term and recent diet, and archaea and fungi were characterized by deep sequencing of marker genes in DNA purified from stool. For fungi, we found 66 genera, with generally mutually exclusive presence of either the phyla Ascomycota or Basiodiomycota. For archaea, Methanobrevibacter was the most prevalent genus, present in 30% of samples. Several other archaeal genera were detected in lower abundance and frequency. Myriad associations were detected for fungi and archaea with diet, with each other, and with bacterial lineages. Methanobrevibacter and Candida were positively associated with diets high in carbohydrates, but negatively with diets high in amino acids, protein, and fatty acids. A previous study emphasized that bacterial population structure was associated primarily with long-term diet...

Associations between Changes in City and Address Specific Temperature and QT Interval - The VA Normative Aging Study

Mehta, Amar J.; Kloog, Itai; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three visits between 2000–2008 (n = 743). We analyzed associations between QTc and moving averages (1–7, 14, 21, and 28 days) of the 24-hour mean and standard deviation of temperature as measured from a local weather monitor, and the 24-hour mean temperature estimated from a spatiotemporal prediction model, in time-varying linear mixed-effect regression. Effect modification by season, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and age was also evaluated. Results: Higher mean temperature as measured from the local monitor, and estimated from the prediction model, was associated with longer QTc at moving averages of 21 and 28 days. Increased 24-hr standard deviation of temperature was associated with longer QTc at moving averages from 4 and up to 28 days; a 1.9°C interquartile range increase in 4-day moving average standard deviation of temperature was associated with a 2.8 msec (95%CI: 0.4...

Improving Health Outcomes for the Poor in Uganda : Current Status and Implications for Health Sector Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This study shows that Uganda has similar or somewhat better health indicators than other African countries with a similar income level. However further effort is needed to address inequality in health outcomes and in the health system. Overall recommendations arising from this report, which are discussed in detail in Chapter 8, center on five areas: (a) prioritizing interventions that affect infant and maternal mortality, (b) improving health promotion and disease prevention practices at the family and community level through community mobilization and inter-sectoral collaboration, (c) mobilizing funds for the health sector including strategies that encourage risk polling mechanisms; (d) focusing on human resources and collaboration with the private sector to improve health service delivery, and (e) improving accountability through improving information systems and supervision.

Shaping Healthier Societies and Building Higher Performing Health Systems in the GCC Countries

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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37.145603%
This policy note summarizes the central health sector trends and challenges in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries of the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA). These countries are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Qatar. The note also provides an overview of the GCC country context, discussing the commonalities between the six member states, and the major areas of engagement by the health, nutrition, and population (HNP) global practice of the World Bank in support of the health sector reform priorities of these countries. The areas of engagement focus on three main clusters of work: (i) developing multi-layered solutions for improving non-communicable disease and road safety outcomes; (ii) health system strengthening; and (iii) integrating health policy solutions within the wider institutional and policy frameworks in the GCC countries. The note builds on an earlier HNP regional strategy prepared by the World Bank in 2013 focusing on the concepts of fairness and accountability. The strategy highlighted the importance of improvements in health system performance in MENA countries from an equity...

Calcium requirement is a sliding scale

Nordin, B.
Fonte: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition Publicador: Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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37.139177%
It must be a source of some surprise to rational scientists that the human requirement for calcium, an apparently inoffensive nutrient that contributes so much to our physical stability, arouses strong emotions in many breasts. Calcium requirements and allowances seem to attract more controversy and generate more heat than do the requirements and allowances for any other nutrient, the latest example of this being a recent controversy in the columns of the New York Times (1). The problem may be that calcium turnover is too slow and the effects of deprivation and replenishment too gradual to be easily demonstrated in humans; perhaps it is the very efficacy of the calcium homeostatic system that makes this system difficult to study. Whereas plasma concentrations of other nutrients (eg, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium) can be lowered relatively easily and quickly by experimental deprivation (2), plasma (ionized) calcium is so well protected through access to the reserve stores in the skeleton that it cannot be used as a marker of calcium nutrition. Although there is overwhelming evidence that calcium deprivation causes osteoporosis in experimental animals (3), it would be both immoral and impractical to try to reproduce such experiments in humans. The calcium requirement therefore must be estimated by indirect means that...

Moving toward Universal Coverage of Social Health Insurance in Vietnam : Assessment and Options

Somanathan, Aparnaa; Tandon, Ajay; Dao, Huong Lan; Hurt, Kari L.; Fuenzalida-Puelma, Hernan L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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37.076362%
To address the growth in resultant out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and associated problems of financial barriers to access, the government issued several policies aimed at expanding coverage throughout the 1990s and 2000s, particularly for the poor and other vulnerable groups. Universal coverage (UC) can be an elusive concept and is about three objectives: (a) equity (linking care to need, and not to ability to pay); (b) financial protection (ensuring that health care use does not lead to impoverishment); (c) effective access to a comprehensive set of quality services (ensuring that providers make the right diagnosis and prescribe a treatment that is appropriate and affordable; and (d) to ensure that the financing needed to achieve UC is mobilized in a fiscally sustainable manner, and is used efficiently and equitably. The objective of this report is to assess the implementation of Vietnam social health insurance (SHI) and provide options for moving toward UC, with a view to contributing to the law revision process. It analyzes progress to date on the two major goals of the master plan. The report assesses Vietnam's readiness to meet these goals...

Global Climate Change and Health: Developing a Research Agenda for the NIH

Rosenthal, Joshua P.; Jessup, Christine M.
Fonte: American Clinical and Climatological Association Publicador: American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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37.07808%
Global climate change is receiving worldwide attention because of its anticipated impacts on the Earth's physical and biological systems. Through its effects on natural and human environments, climate change will likely impact economic viability and human health and well-being. The impact of climate change on human health is likely to be complex and significant, including effects on cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory disease, food-, water-, and vector-borne diseases, heat-related illness, mental and social well-being, nutrition, trauma, and vulnerable demographic sectors. Most assessments predict that these effects will disproportionately affect the poor, the elderly and the young, especially those living in Africa and Southeast Asia, where environmental conditions are poor, health infrastructure is weak and the burden of disease is great. Enormous efforts are underway to plan and finance climate change adaptation programs within national governments (including multiple U.S. agencies), United Nations organizations and private philanthropies. However, these endeavors are proceeding with a relatively poor understanding of the nature and magnitude of probable effects of climate change on health. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) already funds a portfolio of projects that are indirectly related to the concerns posed by global climate change. At the NIH...

The marriage of nutrigenomics with the microbiome: the case of infant-associated bifidobacteria and milk12345

Sela, David A; Mills, David A
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.063645%
Broadly, nutrigenomics examines the association of exogenous nutrients and molecular responses to maintain homeostasis in an individual. Phenotypic expression profiling, often transcriptomics, has been applied to identify markers and metabolic consequences of suboptimal diet, lifestyle, or both. The decade after the Human Genome Project has been marked with advances in high-throughput analysis of biological polymers and metabolites, prompting a rapid increase in characterization of the profound nature by which our symbiotic microbiota influences human physiology. Although the technology is widely accessible to assess microbiome composition, genetic potential, and global function, nutrigenomics studies often exclude the microbial contribution to host responses to ingested nutritive molecules. Perhaps a hallmark of coevolution, milk provides a dramatic example of a diet that promotes a particular microbial community structure, because the lower infant gastrointestinal tract is often dominated by bifidobacteria that flourish on milk glycans. Systems-level approaches should continue to be applied to examine the microbial communities in the context of their host's dietary habits and metabolic status. In addition, studies of isolated microbiota species should be encouraged to inform clinical studies and interventions as well as community studies. Whereas nutrigenomics research is beginning to account for resident microbiota...

Iron supplementation benefits physical performance in women of reproductive age: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Pasricha, S.R.; Low, M.; Thompson, J.; Farrell, A.; De-Regil, L.M.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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37.003865%
Animal and human observational studies suggest that iron deficiency impairs physical exercise performance, but findings from randomized trials on the effects of iron are equivocal. Iron deficiency and anemia are especially common in women of reproductive age (WRA). Clear evidence of benefit from iron supplementation would inform clinical and public health guidelines. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of iron supplementation compared with control on exercise performance in WRA. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, MEDLINE, Scopus (comprising Embase and MEDLINE), WHO regional databases, and other sources in July 2013. Randomized controlled trials that measured exercise outcomes in WRA randomized to daily oral iron supplementation vs. control were eligible. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate mean differences (MDs) and standardized MDs (SMDs). Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Of 6757 titles screened, 24 eligible studies were identified, 22 of which contained extractable data. Only 3 studies were at overall low risk of bias. Iron supplementation improved both maximal exercise performance, demonstrated by an increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) [for relative VO2 max...

Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants

Tubman, Richard TRJ; Thompson, Sam; McGuire, William
Fonte: The Cochrane Library Publicador: The Cochrane Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.015042%
Background: Glutamine endogenous biosynthesis may be insufficient for tissue needs in states of metabolic stress. Trials in adults have suggested that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. It has been suggested tha