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University education and training of microbiologists in Brazil : 1990-2000

Freire, Joao Ruy Jardim; Sa, Enilson Luiz Saccol de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This paper aims to contribute to the discussion and concern on the future of microbiology in Brazil. This work presents a survey carried out in 2001 that shows a picture of Microbiology status in Brazil. Most of the conclusions are based on the data collected from the university courses and from the data supplied by the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES). However, some of the affirmatives are more based on the experiences with postgraduate teaching in microbiology than on the data provided by official institutions. Such affirmatives were made in order to improve the development of the microbiology in Brazil. Also, a plan that proposes higher number of scholarships awarded to microbiology, to increase the possibility to form a critical mass necessary for further development of the Brazilian microbiology, is presented in order to produce discussion and more debate on the future of the Microbiology in Brazil.

University education and training of microbiologists in Brazil: 1990-2000

Freire,João Ruy Jardim; Sá,Enilson Luiz Saccol de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 Português
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This paper aims to contribute to the discussion and concern on the future of microbiology in Brazil. This work presents a survey carried out in 2001 that shows a picture of Microbiology status in Brazil. Most of the conclusions are based on the data collected from the university courses and from the data supplied by the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) and the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES). However, some of the affirmatives are more based on the experiences with postgraduate teaching in microbiology than on the data provided by official institutions. Such affirmatives were made in order to improve the development of the microbiology in Brazil. Also, a plan that proposes higher number of scholarships awarded to microbiology, to increase the possibility to form a critical mass necessary for further development of the Brazilian microbiology, is presented in order to produce discussion and more debate on the future of the Microbiology in Brazil.

Infectious disease physicians rate microbiology services and practices.

Baron, E J; Francis, D; Peddecord, K M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1996 Português
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Recent years have seen increasing emphasis on cost containment and quality improvement in clinical laboratory activities. Modifying those activities to enhance clinical relevance is one strategy that should be satisfying to both laboratory scientists and administrators. This guest commentary describes one approach to quality improvement--the use of user surveys to identify areas for improvement. As an initial attempt to define such areas in clinical diagnostic microbiology, infectious disease specialists, targeted for their particular interest and expertise in microbiology laboratory results, were polled and their responses were analyzed. Some of these data have been presented previously (E. J. Baron, D. P. Francis, and K. M. Peddecord, abstr. C-170, p. 520, in Abstracts of the 94th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 1994; K. M. Peddecord, E. J. Baron, D. P. Francis, and A. S. Benenson, abstr. C-172, p. 520, in Abstracts of the 94th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 1994; K. M. Peddecord, E. J. Baron, D. P. Francis, and J. A. Drew, Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 105:58-64, 1996). The discussion includes our recommendations for the use of these survey responses, and their limitations, as stimuli to initiate reexamination of certain microbiology laboratory practices in the interest of developing more cost-effective and clinically relevant protocols.

Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; der Reijden Wa, Wil A Van; Dahlen, Gunnar; Smith, Andrew J.
Fonte: CoAction Publishing Publicador: CoAction Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/11/2011 Português
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Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB) Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135) number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes...

Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience

Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
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Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles...

Teaching Phagocytosis Using Flow Cytometry

BOOTHBY, JOHN T.; KIBLER, RUTHANN; RECH, SABINE; HICKS, ROBERT
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
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Investigative microbiology on protists in a basic teaching laboratory environment is limited by student skill level, ease of microbial culture and manipulation, instrumentation, and time. The flow cytometer is gaining use as a mainstream instrument in research and clinical laboratories, but has had minimal application in teaching laboratories. Although the cost of a flow cytometer is currently prohibitive for many microbiology teaching environments and the number of trained instructors and teaching materials is limited, in many ways the flow cytometer is an ideal instrument for teaching basic microbiology. We report here on a laboratory module to study phagocytosis in Tetrahymena sp. using flow cytometry in a basic microbiology teaching laboratory. Students and instructors found the flow cytometry data analysis program, Paint-AGatePRO-TM, to be very intuitive and easy to learn within a short period of time. Assessment of student learning about Tetrahymena sp., phagocytosis, flow cytometry, and investigative microbiology using an inquiry-based format demonstrated an overall positive response from students.

Structuring Free-text Microbiology Culture Reports For Secondary Use

Yim, Wen-wai; Evans, Heather L.; Yetisgen, Meliha
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2015 Português
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Microbiology lab culture reports are a frequently used diagnostic tool for clinical providers. However, their incorporation into clinical surveillance applications and evidence-based medicine can be severely hindered by the free-text nature of these reports. In this work, we (1) created a microbiology culture template to structure free-text microbiology reports, (2) generated an annotated microbiology report corpus, and (3) built a microbiology information extraction system. Specifically, we combined rule-based, hybrid, and statistical techniques to extract microbiology entities and fill templates for structuring data. System performances were favorable, with entity f1-score 0.889 and relation f1-score 0.795. We plan to incorporate these extractions as features for our ongoing ventilator-associated pneumonia surveillance project, though this tool can be used as an upstream process in other applications. Our newly created corpus includes 1442 unique gram stain and culture microbiology reports generated from a cohort of 715 patients at the University of Washington Medical Facilities.

The effects of living distantly from peritoneal dialysis units on peritonitis risk, microbiology, treatment and outcomes: a multi-centre registry study

Cho, Y.; Badve, S.; Hawley, C.; McDonald, S.; Brown, F.; Boudville, N.; Wiggins, K.; Bannister, K.; Clayton, P.; Johnson, D.
Fonte: Biomed Central Publicador: Biomed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Background:The aim of the study was to determine whether distance between residence and peritoneal dialysis (PD) unit influenced peritonitis occurrence, microbiology, treatment and outcomes. Methods: The study included all patients receiving PD between 1/10/2003 and 31/12/2008, using ANZDATA Registry data. Results: 365 (6%) patients lived ≥100 km from their nearest PD unit (distant group), while 6183 (94%) lived <100 km (local group). Median time to first peritonitis in distant patients (1.34 years, 95% CI 1.07-1.61) was significantly shorter than in local patients (1.68 years, 95% CI 1.59-1.77, p = 0.001), whilst overall peritonitis rates were higher in distant patients (incidence rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.46). Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was independently associated with a higher risk of S. aureus peritonitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.47). Distant patients with first peritonitis episodes were less likely to be hospitalised (64% vs 73%, p = 0.008) and receive antifungal prophylaxis (4% vs 10%, p = 0.01), but more likely to receive vancomycin-based antibiotic regimens (52% vs 42%, p < 0.001). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis of peritonitis outcomes, distant patients were more likely to be cured with antibiotics alone (OR 1.55...

Homage to Ferdinand J. Cohn, Driving Force in the Emergence of Modern Microbiology

Gest, Howard
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This essay reviews the life and career of German scientist Ferdinand Cohn (1828-1898). A botanist by training, Cohn was a major force in establishing bacteriology/microbiology as a scientific discipline. He was a mentor of bacteriologist Robert Koch (Nobel Laureate 1905) and had significant interactions with Charles Darwin. Cohn was important in demolishing the erroneous idea of “spontaneous generation” of living organisms and was a pioneer in advancing concepts of microbial taxonomy.

Retrospections on a Career in Microbiology, Biochemistry, Radiochemistry and the History & Philosophy of Science

Gest, Howard
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This retrospective memoir by Howard Gest covers highlights of his career in several experimental sciences (microbiology, biochemistry, radiochemistry) and in the history & philosophy of science. These interests developed through serendipic events and associations with several mentors who were outstanding scientists. Photographs are included and references are given to key publications.

Why be down in the mouth? Three decades of research in oral microbiology

Rogers, A.
Fonte: Australian Dental Assn Inc Publicador: Australian Dental Assn Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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This paper describes some of the work done in the author's laboratory over the past 35 years. The research covers the following areas: the physiology of oral streptococci and their interactions; the physiology of some Gram-negative anaerobes and their interactions in relation to periodontal diseases; preventing the major dental diseases; and the future of oral microbiology.; AH Rogers; The document attached has been archived with permission from the Australian Dental Association. An external link to the publisher's copy is included.

Two-Center Collaborative Evaluation of the Performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

Fahr, Anne-Marie; Eigner, Ulrich; Armbrust, Martina; Caganic, Alexandra; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Bertoncini, Luca; Benecchi, Magda; Menozzi, Maria Grazia
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2003 Português
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The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 469 bacterial isolates of the genera Staphylococcus (275 isolates), Enterococcus (179 isolates), and Streptococcus (15 isolates, for ID only) were investigated; of these, 367 were single patient isolates, and 102 were challenge strains tested at one center. Sixty-four antimicrobial drugs were tested, including the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, folate antagonists, quinolones, glycopeptides, macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS), and others. Phoenix ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 32 Staph, API 32 Strep, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS guidelines (NCCLS document M 100-S 9, approved standard M 7-A 4). Discrepant results were repeated in duplicate. Concordant IDs of 97.1...

Two-Center Collaborative Evaluation of Performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

Menozzi, Maria Grazia; Eigner, Ulrich; Covan, Silvia; Rossi, Sabina; Somenzi, Pietro; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo; Fahr, Anne-Marie
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) was assessed for identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of the majority of clinically encountered bacterial isolates in a European collaborative two-center trial. A total of 494 bacterial isolates including various species of the Enterobacteriaceae and 110 nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria were investigated: of these, 385 were single patient isolates, and 109 were challenge strains tested at one center. The performance of the Phoenix extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) test was also evaluated for 203 strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Klebsiella oxytoca included in the study. Forty-two antimicrobial drugs were tested, including members of the following drug classes: aminoglycosides, β-lactam antibiotics, β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, cephems, monobactams, folate antagonists, quinolones, and others. Phoenix system ID results were compared to those of the laboratories' routine ID systems (API 20E and API CHE, ATB ID32E, ID32GN, and VITEK 2 [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]); Phoenix AST results were compared to those of frozen standard broth microdilution (SBM) panels according to NCCLS (now CLSI) guidelines (NCCLS document M100-S9...

Evaluation of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Staphylococci and Enterococci

Carroll, Karen C.; Borek, Anita P.; Burger, Chad; Glanz, Brian; Bhally, Hasan; Henciak, Susan; Flayhart, Diane C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2006 Português
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We evaluated the Phoenix automated microbiology system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) for the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of challenge and clinical staphylococci and enterococci recovered from patients in a tertiary-care medical center. In total, 424 isolates were tested: 90 enterococci; 232 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including 14 vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus isolates; and 102 staphylococci other than S. aureus (non-S. aureus). The Phoenix panels were inoculated according to the manufacturer's instructions. The reference methods for ID comparisons were conventional biochemicals and cell wall fatty acid analysis with the Sherlock microbial identification system (v 3.1; MIDI, Inc. Newark, DE). Agar dilution was the reference AST method. The overall rates of agreement for identification to the genus and the species levels were 99.7% and 99.3%, respectively. All S. aureus isolates and enterococci were correctly identified by the Phoenix panels. For the non-S. aureus staphylococci, there was 98.0% agreement for the ID of 16 different species. The AST results were stratified by organism group. For S. aureus, the categorical agreement (CA) and essential agreement (EA) were 98.2% and 98.8%...

Surveillance of Bulk Raw and Commercially Pasteurized Cows' Milk from Approved Irish Liquid-Milk Pasteurization Plants To Determine the Incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis

O'Reilly, Ciara E.; O'Connor, Lisa; Anderson, Wayne; Harvey, Peter; Grant, Irene R.; Donaghy, John; Rowe, Michael; O'Mahony, Pat
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2004 Português
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Over the 13-month period from October 2000 to November 2001 (inclusive), the Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) carried out surveillance of Irish bulk raw (n = 389) and commercially pasteurized (n = 357) liquid-milk supplies to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The pasteurization time-temperature conditions were recorded for all pasteurized samples. Overall, 56% of whole-milk pasteurized samples had been heat treated at or above a time-temperature combination of 75°C for 25 s. All analyses were undertaken at the Department of Food Science (Food Microbiology) laboratory at Queen's University Belfast. Each milk sample was subjected to two tests for M. paratuberculosis: immunomagnetic separation-PCR (IMS-PCR; to detect the presence of M. paratuberculosis cells, live or dead) and chemical decontamination and culture (to confirm the presence of viable M. paratuberculosis). Overall, M. paratuberculosis DNA was detected by IMS-PCR in 50 (12.9%; 95% confidence interval, 9.9 to 16.5%) raw-milk samples and 35 (9.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.1 to 13.3%) pasteurized-milk samples. Confirmed M. paratuberculosis was cultured from one raw-milk sample and no pasteurized-milk samples. It is concluded that M. paratuberculosis DNA is occasionally present at low levels in both raw and commercially pasteurized cows' milk. However...

Noninvasive Quantitative Measurement of Bacterial Growth in Porous Media under Unsaturated-Flow Conditions †

Yarwood, R. R.; Rockhold, M. L.; Niemet, M. R.; Selker, J. S.; Bottomley, P. J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2002 Português
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Glucose-dependent growth of the luxCDABE reporter bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44 was monitored noninvasively in quartz sand under unsaturated-flow conditions within a 45- by 56- by 1-cm two-dimensional light transmission chamber. The spatial and temporal development of growth were mapped daily over 7 days by quantifying salicylate-induced bioluminescence. A nonlinear model relating the rate of increase in light emission after salicylate exposure to microbial density successfully predicted growth over 4 orders of magnitude (r2 = 0.95). Total model-predicted growth agreed with growth calculated from the mass balance of the system by using previously established growth parameters of HK44 (predicted, 1.2 × 1012 cells; calculated, 1.7 × 1012 cells). Colonization expanded in all directions from the inoculation region, including upward migration against the liquid flow. Both the daily rate of expansion of the colonized zone and the population density of the first day's growth in each newly colonized region remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. Nonetheless, substantial growth continued to occur on subsequent days in the older regions of the colonized zone. The proportion of daily potential growth that remained within the chamber declined progressively between days 2 and 7 (from 97 to 13%). A densely populated...

Evaluation of the Biomic V3 Microbiology System for Identification of Selected Species on BBL CHROMagar Orientation Agar and CHROMagar MRSA Medium ▿

Baron, Ellen Jo; D'Souza, Holly; Qi Wang, Andrew; Gibbs, David L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Biomic V3 microbiology system identifies bacteria by reading the color of colonies selected by the user. For CHROMagar orientation, Biomic results agreed with conventional methods for 94% of the strains assayed. For CHROMagar MRSA, Biomic correctly identified 100% of the strains tested and did not misidentify two methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains growing on the plates.

Molecular Testing for Infectious Diseases Should Be Done in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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Over the past decade, there has been an explosion in the use of molecular tests to diagnose and manage infectious diseases. HIV is a prime example of an infectious agent whose diagnosis at least in the acute stage, susceptibility testing, and management are all dependent on molecular diagnostics. The ability to accurately diagnose a plethora of respiratory pathogens quickly, simply, and relatively inexpensively compared to traditional methods is becoming a reality. Direct sequencing and microarray analysis holds great promise for directly detecting a wide variety of organisms from clinical specimens. The question is where this testing should be done in the clinical laboratory. There are at least four models that have emerged: Molecular infectious disease testing as an arm of the clinical microbiology laboratoryMolecular infectious disease testing done in a central molecular pathology laboratory under the leadership of a clinical microbiologistMolecular infectious disease testing done in a central molecular pathology laboratory under the leadership of an individual whose primary interest is in another area of molecular pathologyMolecular infectious disease testing sent to a reference laboratory and not done on site or within the institution's health care system.

A New Rate Law Describing Microbial Respiration

Jin, Qusheng; Bethke, Craig M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2003 Português
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The rate of microbial respiration can be described by a rate law that gives the respiration rate as the product of a rate constant, biomass concentration, and three terms: one describing the kinetics of the electron-donating reaction, one for the kinetics of the electron-accepting reaction, and a thermodynamic term accounting for the energy available in the microbe's environment. The rate law, derived on the basis of chemiosmotic theory and nonlinear thermodynamics, is unique in that it accounts for both forward and reverse fluxes through the electron transport chain. Our analysis demonstrates how a microbe's respiration rate depends on the thermodynamic driving force, i.e., the net difference between the energy available from the environment and energy conserved as ATP. The rate laws commonly applied in microbiology, such as the Monod equation, are specific simplifications of the general law presented. The new rate law is significant because it affords the possibility of extrapolating in a rigorous manner from laboratory experiment to a broad range of natural conditions, including microbial growth where only limited energy is available. The rate law also provides a new explanation of threshold phenomena, which may reflect a thermodynamic equilibrium where the energy released by electron transfer balances that conserved by ADP phosphorylation.

From Clinical Microbiology to Infection Pathogenesis: How Daring To Be Different Works for Staphylococcus lugdunensis

Frank, Kristi L.; del Pozo, José Luis; Patel, Robin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2008 Português
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Staphylococcus lugdunensis has gained recognition as an atypically virulent pathogen with a unique microbiological and clinical profile. S. lugdunensis is coagulase negative due to the lack of production of secreted coagulase, but a membrane-bound form of the enzyme present in some isolates can result in misidentification of the organism as Staphylococcus aureus in the clinical microbiology laboratory. S. lugdunensis is a skin commensal and an infrequent pathogen compared to S. aureus and S. epidermidis, but clinically, infections caused by this organism resemble those caused by S. aureus rather than those caused by other coagulase-negative staphylococci. S. lugdunensis can cause acute and highly destructive cases of native valve endocarditis that often require surgical treatment in addition to antimicrobial therapy. Other types of S. lugdunensis infections include abscess and wound infection, urinary tract infection, and infection of intravascular catheters and other implanted medical devices. S. lugdunensis is generally susceptible to antimicrobial agents and shares CLSI antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints with S. aureus. Virulence factors contributing to this organism's heightened pathogenicity remain largely unknown. Those characterized to date suggest that the organism has the ability to bind to and interact with host cells and to form biofilms on host tissues or prosthetic surfaces.