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Dynamical models for computer viruses propagation

PIQUEIRA, Jose R. C.; CESAR, Felipe Barbosa
Fonte: HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION Publicador: HINDAWI PUBLISHING CORPORATION
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nowadays, digital computer systems and networks are the main engineering tools, being used in planning, design, operation, and control of all sizes of building, transportation, machinery, business, and life maintaining devices. Consequently, computer viruses became one of the most important sources of uncertainty, contributing to decrease the reliability of vital activities. A lot of antivirus programs have been developed, but they are limited to detecting and removing infections, based on previous knowledge of the virus code. In spite of having good adaptation capability, these programs work just as vaccines against diseases and are not able to prevent new infections based on the network state. Here, a trial on modeling computer viruses propagation dynamics relates it to other notable events occurring in the network permitting to establish preventive policies in the network management. Data from three different viruses are collected in the Internet and two different identification techniques, autoregressive and Fourier analyses, are applied showing that it is possible to forecast the dynamics of a new virus propagation by using the data collected from other viruses that formerly infected the network. Copyright (c) 2008 J. R. C. Piqueira and F. B. Cesar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License...

Interdigital dielectrometry based detection and identification of dangerous materials for security applications

Sears, Jason, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 137 p.; 2179275 bytes; 15358149 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Recent terrorist threats have increased the attention paid to searching airline passengers for dangerous and explosive materials. In particular, the possibility that terrorists might hide explosives in shoes has prompted most airline screening stations to require that shoes be removed for x-ray inspection. This thesis is a preliminary investigation of an interdigital dielectrometry based method that could safely and accurately determine the material content within shoes while they are worn. Theoretical modeling of the sensor and the representative materials under test were conducted with the finite element analysis package Maxwell from Ansoft Corp. and analytic/numerical mathematical models for material property estimation. The studies show that dangerous materials hidden in the sole of a shoe could be detected and identified if they lie within the penetration depth of the sensor and if they are sufficiently different in their complex dielectric properties from the normal shoe material. Preliminary finite element computer simulations were also performed to show the effects of sensing electrode segmentation on improving the penetration depth of the electric field, but at the cost of reduced signal strength. Experiments using interdigital sensors with wavelengths ranging from 1 mm to 40 mm in the frequency range of 0.005 Hz to 10 kHz first on homogeneous materials such as air...

Efficient algorithms for new computational models

Ruhl, Jan Matthias, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 163 p.; 1188364 bytes; 1287306 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Advances in hardware design and manufacturing often lead to new ways in which problems can be solved computationally. In this thesis we explore fundamental problems in three computational models that are based on such recent advances. The first model is based on new chip architectures, where multiple independent processing units are placed on one chip, allowing for an unprecedented parallelism in hardware. We provide new scheduling algorithms for this computational model. The second model is motivated by peer-to-peer networks, where countless (often inexpensive) computing devices cooperate in distributed applications without any central control. We state and analyze new algorithms for load balancing and for locality-aware distributed data storage in peer-to-peer networks. The last model is based on extensions of the streaming model. It is an attempt to capture the class of problems that can be efficiently solved on massive data sets. We give a number of algorithms for this model, and compare it to other models that have been proposed for massive data set computations. Our algorithms and complexity results for these computational models follow the central thesis that it is an important part of theoretical computer science to model real-world computational structures...

Building a trajectory syntax through language evolution

Kim, Anthony Hahn, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 leaves; 3357365 bytes; 3366134 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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If we are to understand the innately human ability to solve complex problems, we must first understand the cognitive processes that allow us to combine different kinds of knowledge, to learn new things and to communicate with other people. I have built a computer simulation, based on the work of Simon Kirby, in which I show that a population of induction agents, capable of perceiving their environment and producing utterances, can develop a compositional grammar to describe the world they observe with no prior linguistic knowledge. This system expands the semantic domain proposed by Kirby which expressed meanings such as "John knows Pete" to a physical world of trajectories such as "The boy ran from the tree to the pole". In this new simulation, I demonstrate that a compositional syntax still develops if the level of semantic complexity increases over time. I then argue that using multiple representations decreases the time necessary for a compositional grammar to emerge.; by Anthony Hahn Kim.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 81-82).

Advanced Faraday cage measurements of charge, short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage

Amin, M. Shahrooz, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 117 leaves; 7105429 bytes; 7119908 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) above atmospheric pressure caused both positive current and negative current pulses with the negative pulse larger than the positive pulse. A pressure decrease of more than 10psi below atmospheric pressure also caused both positive current and negative current pulses with the positive current larger than the negative current pulse. Experiments showed that the negative current was generated by the galvanic action between the two dissimilar metals in the triaxial connector connecting the center electrode of the electrode chamber with the electrometer, as water condensed. Positive current could have been produced by the evaporation of moisture from the center electrode of the electrode chamber. Dew point analysis is performed to show that for water to condense on metallic surfaces, it is not necessary to reach the dew point. The calculated dew point temperature is lower than the temperature at which the water condenses upon the electrode surfaces. In the liquid and solid dielectric experiments, we use a patented Faraday cage which is composed of two identical in-line hollow, gold-plated Faraday cup electrodes that enclose the samples which move between them during each measurement under computer control. We conducted charge measurements using various electrometers to rule out the possibility of false instrument readings due to input offset voltage and other experimental effects. One wire mesh style of Faraday cage connected with an electrometer was also used to measure the charge. The liquid dielectrics are distilled water...

Towards a unified framework for sub-lexical and supra-lexical linguistic modeling

Mou, Xiaolong, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 178 p.; 8408900 bytes; 8408707 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Conversational interfaces have received much attention as a promising natural communication channel between humans and computers. A typical conversational interface consists of three major systems: speech understanding, dialog management and spoken language generation. In such a conversational interface, speech recognition as the front-end of speech understanding remains to be one of the fundamental challenges for establishing robust and effective human/computer communications. On the one hand, the speech recognition component in a conversational interface lives in a rich system environment. Diverse sources of knowledge are available and can potentially be beneficial to its robustness and accuracy. For example, the natural language understanding component can provide linguistic knowledge in syntax and semantics that helps constrain the recognition search space. On the other hand, the speech recognition component also faces the challenge of spontaneous speech, and it is important to address the casualness of speech using the knowledge sources available. For example, sub-lexical linguistic information would be very useful in providing linguistic support for previously unseen words, and dynamic reliability modeling may help improve recognition robustness for poorly articulated speech. In this thesis...

Efficient volumetric reconstruction from multiple calibrated cameras

Jethwa, Manish, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 142 p.; 8204361 bytes; 8223335 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The automatic reconstruction of large scale 3-D models from real images is of significant value to the field of computer vision in the understanding of images. As a consequence, many techniques have emerged to perform scene reconstruction from calibrated images where the position and orientation of the camera are known. Feature based methods using points and lines have enjoyed much success and have been shown to be robust against noise and changing illumination conditions. The models produced by these techniques however, can often appear crude when untextured due to the sparse set of points from which they are created. Other reconstruction methods, such as volumetric techniques, use image pixel intensities rather than features, reconstructing the scene as small volumetric units called voxels. The direct use of pixel values in the images has restricted current methods to operating on scenes with static illumination conditions. Creating a volumetric representation of the scene may also require millions of interdependent voxels which must be efficiently processed. This has limited most techniques to constrained camera locations and small indoor scenes. The primary goal of this thesis is to perform efficient voxel-based reconstruction of urban environments using a large set of pose-instrumented images. In addition to the 3- D scene reconstruction...

Optoelectronic fiber webs for imaging applications

Arnold, Jerimy Reeves
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 73 p.; 2459428 bytes; 2462252 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We demonstrate the use of novel visible and infrared light-sensitive optoelectronic fiber in the development of large scale photodector arrays. Unlike conventional point photodetectors these one-dimensional linear photodectors are capable of sensing light along the entire length of the fiber and 360 radially. Multiple fibers can be arranged in an orthogonal grid to create a two-dimensional fiber web. The fiber web is capable of tracking a time-and space-varying beam, and output it onto a computer screen. Other imaging applications for the fiber web include image recovery for 2D images based on Computed Axial Tomography concepts. and lensless imaging. Lensless imaging is accomplished d using two fiber webs separated by a fixed distance, recovering the intensity distribution on each fiber web, and applying a phase retrieval algorithm to the two distributions. Furthermore, fiber webs consisting of six planar arrays forming a cube can be used to detect incident light in three dimensions.; by Jerimy Reeves Arnold.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 73).

Large vocabulary continuous speech recognition using linguistic features and constraints

Tang, Min, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 leaves; 777354 bytes; 732301 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a process of applying constraints, as encoded in the computer system (the recognizer), to the speech signal until ambiguity is satisfactorily resolved to the extent that only one sequence of words is hypothesized. Such constraints fall naturally into two categories. One deals with the ordering of words (syntax) and organization of their meanings (semantics, pragmatics, etc). The other governs how speech signals are related to words, a process often termed as lexical access". This thesis studies the Huttenlocher-Zue lexical access model, its implementation in a modern probabilistic speech recognition framework and its application to continuous speech from an open vocabulary. The Huttenlocher-Zue model advocates a two-pass lexical access paradigm. In the first pass, the lexicon is effectively pruned using broad linguistic constraints. In the original Huttenlocher-Zue model, the authors had proposed six linguistic features motivated by the manner of pronunciation. The first pass classifies speech signals into a sequence of linguistic features, and only words that match this sequence - the cohort - are activated. The second pass performs a detailed acoustic phonetic analysis within the cohort to decide the identity of the word. This model differs from the lexical access model nowadays commonly employed in speech recognizers where detailed acoustic phonetic analysis is performed directly and lexical items are retrieved in one pass. The thesis first studies the implementation issues of the Huttenlocher-Zue model. A number of extensions to the original proposal are made to take advantage of the existing facilities of a probabilistic...

Mesh modification using deformation gradients

Sumner, Robert Walker, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 131 p.; 30355738 bytes; 30404763 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Computer-generated character animation, where human or anthropomorphic characters are animated to tell a story, holds tremendous potential to enrich education, human communication, perception, and entertainment. However, current animation procedures rely on a time consuming and difficult process that requires both artistic talent and technical expertise. Despite the tremendous amount of artistry, skill, and time dedicated to the animation process, there are few techniques to help with reuse. Although individual aspects of animation are well explored, there is little work that extends beyond the boundaries of any one area. As a consequence, the same procedure must be followed for each new character without the opportunity to generalize or reuse technical components. This dissertation describes techniques that ease the animation process by offering opportunities for reuse and a more intuitive animation formulation. A differential specification of arbitrary deformation provides a general representation for adapting deformation to different shapes, computing semantic correspondence between two shapes, and extrapolating natural deformation from a finite set of examples.; (cont.) Deformation transfer adds a general-purpose reuse mechanism to the animation pipeline by transferring any deformation of a source triangle mesh onto a different target mesh. The transfer system uses a correspondence algorithm to build a discrete many-to-many mapping between the source and target triangles that permits transfer between meshes of different topology. Results demonstrate retargeting both kinematic poses and non-rigid deformations...

A Web application to improve emotional awareness in high-functioning autistics

Sonuyi, Temitope O
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 leaves
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The web application built here is based on the idea of presenting scenarios to users, using text, and having the users choose likely emotions that match the scenarios. Taken for granted by most neurotypical people, high-functioning autistics are often lacking in this area of social-skill development. This idea of emotion to scenario matching is accomplished using a series of different games that take different approaches to exercise these skills. The application relies on the two main Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches. The first AI approach is classical, relying on computer-based algorithms developed by others to judge text and put out the correct affect or emotion. The other part of the AI relies on users of the system contributing via regular usage or explicit correction to train the system in a type of feedback loop.; by Temitope O. Sonuyi.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Leaf 116 blank.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 64).

Context-based visual feedback recognition

Morency, Louis-Philippe, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 195 p.
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During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g., head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and to synchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visual feedback, people often rely on more than their visual perception. For instance, knowledge about the current topic and from previous utterances help guide the recognition of nonverbal cues. The goal of this thesis is to augment computer interfaces with the ability to perceive visual feedback gestures and to enable the exploitation of contextual information from the current interaction state to improve visual feedback recognition. We introduce the concept of visual feedback anticipation where contextual knowledge from an interactive system (e.g. last spoken utterance from the robot or system events from the GUI interface) is analyzed online to anticipate visual feedback from a human participant and improve visual feedback recognition. Our multi-modal framework for context-based visual feedback recognition was successfully tested on conversational and non-embodied interfaces for head and eye gesture recognition. We also introduce Frame-based Hidden-state Conditional Random Field model, a new discriminative model for visual gesture recognition which can model the substructure of a gesture sequence...

Real-time enveloping with rotational regression

Wang, Robert Yuanbo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 53 p.
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Enveloping (or skinning) is the process that relates a skeleton, which an animator controls, to a 3-D surface mesh, which the audience sees. This process is necessary in most computer graphics applications that involve animated characters. The complexity (and speed) of enveloping solutions vary from photo-realistic muscle simulations used for movie production, to artifact-ridden heuristics such as linear blend skinning used for video games and training simulations. We propose a method for example-based enveloping of 3-D characters. We can approximate the output of muscle simulations or other high-quality enveloping tools with a model that can be evaluated at speeds comparable to the fastest enveloping techniques. Our technique introduces a rotational regression model that can accurately capture common skinning behaviors such as muscle bulging, twisting, and challenging areas such as the shoulders. Our better treatment of rotational quantities is made possible by a framework that predicts mesh deformation gradients instead of mesh vertex positions. We reconstruct the vertex positions from deformation gradients in an additional step by solving a Poisson equation. We show that our model is significantly more expressive than linear blend skinning and capable of capturing a wider variety of effects without generalization problems. Our method is also comparable in run-time speed to linear blend skinning. All in all...

Towards short-term forecasting of ventricular tachyarrhythmias

Santos, Gustavo Sato dos
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 49 p.
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This thesis reports the discovery of spectral patterns in ECG signals that exhibit a temporal behavior correlated with an approaching Ventricular Tachyarrhythmic (VTA) event. A computer experiment is performed where a supervised learning algorithm models the ECG signals with the targeted behavior, applies the models on other signals, and analyzes consistencies in the results. The procedure was successful in discovering patterns that happen before the onset of a VTA in 23 of the 79 ECG signal segments examined. A database with signals from healthy patients was used as a control, and there were no false positives on this database. The patterns discovered by this modeling process, although promising, still require thorough external validation. An important contribution of this work is the experimental procedure itself, which can be easily reproduced and expanded to search for more complicated patterns.; by Gustavo Sato dos Santos.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 48-49).

Aggregation of student answers in a classroom setting

Smith, Amanda C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 p.
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In a typical class, an instructor does not have enough time to poll all students for answers to questions, although it would be the best method for discovering students' misconceptions. The aggregator module of a system called Classroom Learning Partner provides a solution to this problem by collecting answers students wirelessly submit on tablet PCs and placing them in clusters, which then are displayed to the instructor in histogram form. The student answers are compared, via syntactic parsing and similarity measures, to each other and to instructor-provided example answers to form clusters, which represent student misconceptions. In tests, the aggregator module consistently created relevant clusters, very similar to those created by humans working with the same data. Classroom Learning Partner, including the aggregator module, has been deployed successfully in an MIT introductory computer science class.; by Amanda C. Smith.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 51-52).

Dr. Jones : a software design explorer's crystal ball; Software design explorer's crystal ball

Foltz, Mark A. (Mark Alan), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 154 p.
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Most of software design is redesign. Redesign in the normal course of design happens when the software becomes difficult to maintain and the problem it is intended to solve has changed. Although software redesign is necessary, frequent, and pervasive, there is a dearth of tools that help programmers do it. Instead, programmers primarily use pen and paper, away from the computer where tools could help the most. To address this shortcoming, I have developed DR. JONES, a redesign assistant for Java programs. DR. JONES diagrams the class structure of a Java program and allows the programmer to modify that design by applying refactorings. Refactorings are localized patterns of structural change intended to improve a program's design, without changing its observable behavior. With DR. JONES, the programmer can explore the design space of the program, inspect future designs as visual diagrams, and get design assistance to guide his refactoring choices. As the programmer explores designs, DR. JONES explicitly maps the design space he traverses. This map lets him revisit any prior design and branch to explore an alternative design path, without having to explicitly manage versions of the program. DR. JONES is distinguished from other refactoring tools by separating the tasks of developing an improved design through design exploration from transforming the source code to execute design changes. It does so by deriving and using an abstract representation of the program that captures the essential information needed for design exploration...

Developing effective management flight simulators

DiBello, Bruce J. (Bruce Jonathan)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 47 leaves
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A novel, easy-to-use interactive simulator is developed to help students and others learn about the impact of time delays in complex systems. Users attempt to follow a target on a computer screen, with different patterns for the target and different time delays between control actions and their impact on the screen position. The delay simulator is an effective management flight simulator for assisting in teaching the concept of delays in supply chains and other complex systems. The simulator's usability factored into its effectiveness. Extensive user feedback and testing were carried out to yield a simple, intuitive interface. Human subjects were given specific tasks to perform on the simulator. The results from these experiments were used to determine the learning effect of the simulator. As expected, performance and consistency both improved as the number of trials for each user grew.; by Bruce J. DiBello.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 34).

Cognitive-developmental learning for a humanoid robot : a caregiver's gift

Arsenio, Artur Miguel Do Amaral, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 341 p.; 16402738 bytes; 16449178 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) which are then applied to developmentally acquire new object representations. The humanoid robot therefore sees the world through the caregiver's eyes. Building an artificial humanoid robot's brain, even at an infant's cognitive level, has been a long quest which still lies only in the realm of our imagination. Our efforts towards such a dimly imaginable task are developed according to two alternate and complementary views: cognitive and developmental.; The goal of this work is to build a cognitive system for the humanoid robot, Cog, that exploits human caregivers as catalysts to perceive and learn about actions, objects, scenes, people, and the robot itself. This thesis addresses a broad spectrum of machine learning problems across several categorization levels. Actions by embodied agents are used to automatically generate training data for the learning mechanisms, so that the robot develops categorization autonomously. Taking inspiration from the human brain, a framework of algorithms and methodologies was implemented to emulate different cognitive capabilities on the humanoid robot Cog. This framework is effectively applied to a collection of AI, computer vision, and signal processing problems. Cognitive capabilities of the humanoid robot are developmentally created...

Mondriaan memory protection; MMP

Witchel, Emmett Jethro, 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 135 p.; 11365227 bytes; 11382952 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Reliability and security are quickly becoming users' biggest concern due to the increasing reliance on computers in all areas of society. Hardware-enforced, fine-grained memory protection can increase the reliability and security of computer systems, but will be adopted only if the protection mechanism does not compromise performance, and if the hardware mechanism can be used easily by existing software. Mondriaan memory protection (MMP) provides fine-grained memory protection for a linear address space, while supporting an efficient hardware implementation. MMP's use of linear addressing makes it compatible with current software programming models and program binaries, and it is also backwards compatible with current operating systems and instruction sets. MMP can be implemented efficiently because it separates protection information from program data, allowing protection information to be compressed and cached efficiently. This organization is similar to paging hardware, where the translation information for a page of data bytes is compressed to a single translation value and cached in the TLB. MMP stores protection information in tables in protected system memory, just as paging hardware stores translation information in page tables. MMP is well suited to improve the robustness of modern software. Modern software development favors modules (or plugins) as a way to structure and provide extensibility for large systems...

A Case-Study on Teaching Undergraduate-Level Software Engineering Course Using Inverted-Classroom, Large-Group, Real-Client and Studio-Based Instruction Model

Sureka, Ashish; Gupta, Monika; Sarkar, Dipto; Chaudhary, Vidushi
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/09/2013 Português
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We present a case-study on teaching an undergraduate level course on Software Engineering (second year and fifth semester of bachelors program in Computer Science) at a State University (New Delhi, India) using a novel teaching instruction model. Our approach has four main elements: inverted or flipped classroom, studio-based learning, real-client projects and deployment, large team and peer evaluation. We present our motivation and approach, challenges encountered, pedagogical benefits, findings (both positive and negative) and recommendations. Our motivation was to teach Software Engineering using an active learning (significantly increasing the engagement and collaboration with the Instructor and other students in the class), team-work, balance between theory and practice, imparting both technical and managerial skills encountered in real-world and problem-based learning (through an intensive semester-long project). We conduct a detailed survey (anonymous, optional and online) and present the results of student responses. Survey results reveal that for nearly every students (class size: 89) the instruction model was new, interesting and had a positive impact on the motivation in addition to meeting the learning outcome of the course.