Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogens depends on hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes, which control the ability to cause disease and to elicit specific defense responses in resistant plants. hrp genes encode a specialized type III secretion (TTS) system that mediates the vectorial delivery of bacterial effector proteins across both bacterial membranes as well as across the eukaryotic plasma membrane into the host cell cytosol. One well-studied effector protein is AvrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, the causal agent of bacterial spot in pepper and tomato. AvrBs3 induces hypertrophy symptoms in susceptible plants and triggers a resistance gene-specific cell death reaction in resistant plants. Intriguingly, AvrBs3 has characteristic features of eukaryotic transcription factors, suggesting that it modulates the host’s transcriptome. Here, we discuss the TTS system of X.campestris pv. vesicatoria in the light of current knowledge on type III-dependent protein secretion in plant pathogenic bacteria.
Bacteria of Shigella spp. use a virulence plasmid-encoded type III secretion (TTS) system to invade the colonic epithelium in humans. The activity of the TTS apparatus is tightly regulated in the wild-type strain and is induced upon contact of bacteria with epithelial cells, whereas it is deregulated, i.e., constitutively active, in some mutants. Under conditions of deregulated secretion, approximately 20 proteins are secreted, including VirA, OspB to OspG, and at least three members of the IpaH family, all of which are encoded by the virulence plasmid. Conditions inducing or deregulating the activity of secretion also induce the transcription of virA and four ipaH genes. The transcription of virA and ipaH9.8 requires both MxiE, a transcriptional activator of the AraC family, and IpgC, the chaperone of IpaB and IpaC, acting as a coactivator. Using reporter plasmids containing lacZ transcriptional fusions, we showed that the ipaH7.8. ipa4.5. ospC1, and ospF promoters are activated under conditions of deregulated secretion and that both MxiE and IpgC are necessary and sufficient for their activation in both Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Promoter mapping and deletion analysis of the ipaH9.8. virA, and ospC1 promoters identified a 17-bp motif...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S (ExoS) is a type III secretion (TTS) effector, which includes both a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity toward the Rho family of low-molecular-weight G (LMWG) proteins and an ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity that targets LMWG proteins in the Ras, Rab, and Rho families. The coordinate function of both activities of ExoS in J774A.1 macrophages was assessed by using P. aeruginosa strains expressing and translocating wild-type ExoS or ExoS defective in GAP and/or ADPRT activity. Distinct and coordinated functions were identified for both domains. The GAP activity was required for the antiphagocytic effect of ExoS and was linked to interference of lamellopodium and membrane ruffle formation. Alternatively, the ADPRT activity of ExoS altered cellular adherence and morphology and was linked to effects on filopodium formation. The cellular mechanism of ExoS GAP activity included an inactivation of Rac1 function, as determined in p21-activated kinase 1-glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays. The ADPRT activity of ExoS targeted Ras and RalA but not Rab or Rho proteins, and Ral binding protein 1-GST pull-down assays identified an effect of ExoS ADPRT activity on RalA activation. The results from these studies confirm the bifunctional nature of ExoS activity within macrophages when translocated by TTS.
Three patients in whom the first symptoms of the tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) emerged after an acute event proximal to but not affecting the ankle are described. These patients suggest that a pre-existing asymptomatic TTS may become manifest after a mechanism akin to that described in the "double crush" syndrome.
Exoenzyme S (ExoS) is a bifunctional toxin directly translocated into eukaryotic cells by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretory (TTS) process. The amino-terminal GTPase-activating (GAP) activity and the carboxy-terminal ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) activity of ExoS have been found to target but exert opposite effects on the same low-molecular-weight G protein, Rac1. ExoS ADP-ribosylation of Rac1 is cell line dependent. In HT-29 human epithelial cells, where Rac1 is ADP-ribosylated by TTS-ExoS, Rac1 was activated and relocalized to the membrane fraction. Arg66 and Arg68 within the GTPase-binding region of Rac1 were identified as preferred sites of ExoS ADP-ribosylation. The modification of these residues by ExoS would be predicted to interfere with Rac1 inactivation and explain the increase in active Rac1 caused by ExoS ADPRT activity. Using ExoS-GAP and ADPRT mutants to examine the coordinate effects of the two domains on Rac1 function, limited effects of ExoS-GAP on Rac1 inactivation were evident in HT-29 cells. In J774A.1 macrophages, where Rac1 was not ADP-ribosylated, ExoS caused a decrease in the levels of active Rac1, and this decrease was linked to ExoS-GAP. Using immunofluorescence staining of Rac1 to understand the cellular basis for the targeting of ExoS ADPRT activity to Rac1...
Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the co-ordinate expression of a range of factors including type IV pili (tfp), the type III secretion system (TTSS) and quorum sensing. Tfp are required for twitching motility, efficient biofilm formation, and for adhesion and type III secretion (TTS)-mediated damage to mammalian cells. We describe a novel gene (fimL) that is required for tfp biogenesis and function, for TTS and for normal biofilm development in P. aeruginosa. The predicted product of fimL is homologous to the N-terminal domain of ChpA, except that its putative histidine and threonine phosphotransfer sites have been replaced with glutamine. fimL mutants resemble vfr mutants in many aspects including increased autolysis, reduced levels of surface-assembled tfp and diminished production of type III secreted effectors. Expression of vfr in trans can complement fimL mutants. vfr transcription and production is reduced in fimL mutants whereas cAMP levels are unaffected. Deletion and insertion mutants of fimL frequently revert to wild-type phenotypes suggesting that an extragenic suppressor mutation is able to overcome the loss of fimL. vfr transcription and production, as well as cAMP levels, are elevated in these revertants...
Burkholderia mallei is a highly infectious gram-negative pathogen and is the causative agent of human and animal glanders. By generating polar mutations (disruption of bsaQ and bsaZ) in the B. mallei ATCC 23344 animal pathogen-like type III secretion system (TTS), we demonstrate that this bacterial protein delivery system is required for intracellular growth of B. mallei in J774.2 cells, formation of macrophage membrane protrusions, actin polymerization, and phagosomal escape. These findings suggest that TTS plays a role in the intracellular trafficking of B. mallei and may facilitate cell-to-cell spread via actin-based motility.
Noise exposure damages the stria and spiral ligament and may contribute to noise-induced threshold shift by altering the endocochlear potential (EP). The aim of this study was to correlate lateral wall histopathology with changes in EP and ABR thresholds. CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to octave band (8–16 kHz) noise for 2 h at intensities ranging from 94 to 116 dB SPL and evaluated 0 h to 8 weeks postexposure. EP in control mice averaged 86 and 101 mV in apical and basal turns, respectively. The 94 dB exposures caused a 40 dB temporary threshold shift (TTS), and there was with no corresponding change in EP. The 112 and 116 dB exposures caused >60 dB threshold shifts at 24 h, and EP was transiently decreased, e.g., to 21 and 27 mV in apical and basal turns after 116 dB. By 1 week postexposure, EP returned to control values in all exposure groups, although those exposed to 112 or 116 dB showed large permanent threshold shifts (PTS). Cochleas were plastic-embedded and serial-sectioned for light microscopic and ultrastructural analysis. Acute changes included degeneration of type II fibrocytes of the spiral ligament and strial edema. The strial swelling peaked at 24 h when significant EP recovery had taken place, suggesting that these changes reflect compensatory volume changes. In the chronic state...
The transverse tubular system (TTS) of skeletal muscle fibers represents the morphological basis for the inward spread of conduction of the electrical signal that triggers muscle contraction. A historical account of the main steps contributing to the elucidation of the structure and function of the TSS has been presented by Huxley (1971). While the localization of the TSS and its association with the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is well documented; there is still a need further to develop our knowledge of the morphology of the connection between the TSS and the plasma membrane. It is generally believed that the TSS opens directly to the extracellular space and that there is continuity between its membrane and the sarcolemma. However, direct observation of such a connection has been clearly shown only for the myotome of fish (Franzini-Armstrong and Porter, 1964). In other muscle fibers, only indirect evidence of the connection has been provided by experiments showing penetration of extracellular tracers into the TSS. These extracellular markers were also observed inside another membrane-bounded compartment consisting of round profiles named "caveolae" (Yamada, 1955) or "pinocytotic vesicles" (Ashurst, 1969). The present study deals with the communication between the TTS...
Contractions are evoked in single muscle fibers of crayfish by intracellular as well as extracellular applications of caffeine. Responses to external applications in concentrations above 2 mM could be induced indefinitely. With concentrations above 5 mM the caffeine-induced responses were highly repeatable. Tensions were transient even when the caffeine remained in the bath. There was no change in resting potential, but during the contraction the effective resistance decreased about 10%. A number of factors (change in pH, Ca, K, and Cl) modified the responses. The time course of the tension was greatly prolonged when the transverse tubular system (TTS) was s swollen and was again shortened when the TTS was caused to shrink. An increased permeability to Ca induced by caffeine was evidenced by the transformation of the normally graded electrical responses to Ca spikes, which are insensitive to tetrodotoxin. The overshoot is a function of both external Ca and caffeine. A 10-fold change in Ca changed the overshoot by 19 mv in the presence of 10 mM caffeine and by 29 mv in 80 mM caffeine. The role of the increased permeability to Ca for caffeine-induced contractions will be analyzed in the accompanying paper.
We have used a human artificial chromosome (HAC) to manipulate the epigenetic state of chromatin within an active kinetochore. The HAC has a dimeric α-satellite repeat containing one natural monomer with a CENP-B binding site, and one completely artificial synthetic monomer with the CENP-B box replaced by a tetracycline operator (tetO). This HAC exhibits normal kinetochore protein composition and mitotic stability. Targeting of several tet-repressor (tetR) fusions into the centromere had no effect on kinetochore function. However, altering the chromatin state to a more open configuration with the tTA transcriptional activator or to a more closed state with the tTS transcription silencer caused missegregation and loss of the HAC. tTS binding caused the loss of CENP-A, CENP-B, CENP-C, and H3K4me2 from the centromere accompanied by an accumulation of histone H3K9me3. Our results reveal that a dynamic balance between centromeric chromatin and heterochromatin is essential for vertebrate kinetochore activity.
Tako‐tsubo syndrome (TTS) or stress‐related acute reversible ventricular apical dysfunction is an emerging but seemingly under‐recognised cardiomyopathy mimicking acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) without concomitant epicardial coronary artery disease. Severe emotional stress is the most common trigger for this syndrome in the published series, but it can also be precipitated by severe intercurrent medical illness. Precise epidemiological data are not yet available, although TTS most commonly affects elderly women. The exact cause of this syndrome is undetermined, but proposed mechanisms include epicardial coronary artery vasospasm, impaired multivessel coronary microcirculation, calcium overload with direct myocyte damage and disrupted fatty acid metabolism with prolonged myocardial stunning. The time course of electrocardiographic changes is very similar to that of an acute STEMI due to an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The left ventricular dysfunction typically displays an akinetic apical half of the left or both ventricles with hyperkinetic basal segments, although a variant with apical sparing has also been described recently. The ventricular dysfunction usually resolves within weeks and carries a generally favourable prognosis.
We previously used a human artificial chromosome (HAC) with a synthetic kinetochore that could be targeted with chromatin modifiers fused to tetracycline repressor to show that targeting of the transcriptional repressor tTS within kinetochore chromatin disrupts kinetochore structure and function. Here we show that the transcriptional corepressor KAP1, a downstream effector of the tTS, can also inactivate the kinetochore. The disruption of kinetochore structure by KAP1 subdomains does not simply result from loss of centromeric CENP-A nucleosomes. Instead it reflects a hierarchical disruption of the outer kinetochore, with CENP-C levels falling before CENP-A levels and, in certain instances, CENP-H being lost more readily than CENP-C. These results suggest that this novel approach to kinetochore dissection may reveal new patterns of protein interactions within the kinetochore.
Open reading frame l0045 in the pathogenic island of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been predicted to encode a lytic transglycosylase that is homologous to two different gene products encoded by the same bacteria at loci away from the island. To deduce the necessity of the presence in the island, we created an l0045-deleted strain of EHEC and observed that both the level of cytosolic EspA and that of the other type III secreted proteins in the media were affected. In a complementation assay, a low level-expressing L0045 appeared to recover efficiently the type III secretion (TTS). On the other hand, when l0045 was driven to express robustly, the intracellular levels of representative TTS proteins were severely suppressed. This suppression is apparently caused by the protein of L0045 per se since introducing an early translational termination codon abolished the suppression. Intriguingly, the authentic L0045 was hardly detected in all lysates of EHEC differently prepared while the same construct was expectedly expressed in the K-12 strain. A unique network must exist in EHEC to tightly regulate the presence of L0045, and we found that a LEE regulator (GrlA) is critically involved in this regulation.
Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular pathogens that replicate within a membrane-bounded compartment termed an inclusion. Throughout their development, they actively modify the eukaryotic environment. The type III secretion (TTS) system is the main process by which the bacteria translocate effector proteins into the inclusion membrane and the host cell cytoplasm. Here we describe a family of type III secreted effectors that are present in all pathogenic chlamydiae and absent in the environment-related species. It is defined by a common domain of unknown function, DUF582, that is present in four or five proteins in each Chlamydiaceae species. We show that the amino-terminal extremity of DUF582 proteins functions as a TTS signal. DUF582 proteins from C. trachomatis CT620, CT621, and CT711 are expressed at the middle and late phases of the infectious cycle. Immunolocalization further revealed that CT620 and CT621 are secreted into the host cell cytoplasm, as well as within the lumen of the inclusion, where they do not associate with bacterial markers. Finally, we show that DUF582 proteins are present in nuclei of infected cells, suggesting that members of the DUF582 family of effector proteins may target nuclear cell functions. The expansion of this family of proteins in pathogenic chlamydiae and their conservation among the different species suggest that they play important roles in the infectious cycle.
Zhang, Hui; Schaubel, Douglas E; Kalbfleisch, John D; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Robinson, Bruce M; Pisoni, Ronald L; Canaud, Bernard; Jadoul, Michel; Akiba, Takashi; Saito, Akira; Port, Friedrich K; Saran, Rajiv
The risk of death for hemodialysis patients is thought to be highest on the days following the longest interval without dialysis (usually Mondays and Tuesdays); however, existing results are inconclusive. To clarify this we analyzed Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) data of 22,163 hemodialysis patients from the United States, Europe and Japan. Our study focused on the association between dialysis schedule and day-of-week of all-cause, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality with day-of-week coding as a time-dependent covariate. The models were adjusted for dialysis schedule, age, country, DOPPS Phase I or II, and other demographic and clinical covariates comparing mortality on each day to the 7-day average. Patients on a Monday-Wednesday-Friday (MFW) schedule had elevated all-cause mortality on Monday, and those on a Tuesday-Thursday-Saturday (TTS) schedule increased risk of mortality on Tuesday in all 3 regions. The association between day-of-week mortality and schedule was generally stronger for cardiovascular than non-cardiovascular mortality, and most pronounced in the United States. Unexpectedly, Japanese patients on a MWF schedule had a higher risk of non-cardiovascular mortality on Fridays, and European patients on a TTS schedule experienced an elevated cardiovascular mortality on Saturdays. Thus...
Gastric bypass is a treatment option for morbid obesity. Stenosis of the gastrojejunal anastomosis is a recognized complication. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the formation of stenosis are not well known. Gastrojejunal strictures can be classified based on time of onset, mechanism of formation, and endoscopic aspect. Diagnosis is usually obtained by endoscopy. The two main treatment alternatives for stomal stricture are: endoscopic dilatation (balloon or bouginage) and surgical revision (open or laparoscopic). Both techniques of dilation [through-the-scope (TTS) balloon dilators, Bougienage dilators] are considered safe, effective, and do not require hospitalization. The optimal technique for dilation of stomal strictures remains to be determined, but many authors prefer the use of TTS balloon catheters. Most patients can be successfully treated with 1 or 2 sessions. The need for reconstructive surgery of a stomal stricture is extremely rare.
A Tunable Terahertz Source (TTS) is beingdeveloped for commercial use by VermontPhotonics under exclusive license. The TTSis based on the Smith-Purcell free electronlaser first reported by the late ProfessorJohn E. Walsh and his co-workers . The TTS is continuouslytunable from less than 0.3 Thz to more than3 Thz (10–100 cm-1). It can beoperated CW or pulsed, with repetitionrates from DC to kHz. Detailed outputcharacteristics will be presented alongwith examples of use in spectroscopysystems using a grating monochromator, aFourier transform interferometer or ascanning Fabry Perot etalon. A comparisonwith other Thz sources will be given.
Targeting of type III secretion proteins at the injectisome is an important process in bacterial virulence. Nevertheless, how the injectisome specifically recognizes TTS substrates among all bacterial proteins is unknown. A TTS peripheral membrane ATPase protein located at the base of the injectisome has been implicated in the targeting process. We have investigated the targeting of the EspA filament protein and its cognate chaperone CesAB to the EscN ATPase of the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We show that EscN selectively engages the EspA-loaded CesAB, but not the unliganded CesAB. Structure analysis revealed that the targeting signal is encoded in a disorder-order structural transition in CesAB that is elicited only upon binding of its physiological substrate, EspA. Abrogation of the interaction between the CesAB–EspA complex and EscN resulted in severe secretion and infection defects. We further show that the targeting and secretion signals are distinct and the two processes are likely regulated by different mechanisms.
The place of the posterolateral superior temporal (PLST) gyrus within the hierarchical organization of the human auditory cortex is unknown. Understanding how PLST processes spectral information is imperative for its functional characterization. Pure-tone stimuli were presented to subjects undergoing invasive monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Recordings were made using high-density subdural grid electrodes. Pure tones elicited robust high gamma event-related band power responses along a portion of PLST adjacent to the transverse temporal sulcus (TTS). Responses were frequency selective, though typically broadly tuned. In several subjects, mirror-image response patterns around a low-frequency center were observed, but typically, more complex and distributed patterns were seen. Frequency selectivity was greatest early in the response. Classification analysis using a sparse logistic regression algorithm yielded above-chance accuracy in all subjects. Classifier performance typically peaked at 100–150 ms after stimulus onset, was comparable for the left and right hemisphere cases, and was stable across stimulus intensities. Results demonstrate that representations of spectral information within PLST are temporally dynamic and contain sufficient information for accurate discrimination of tone frequencies. PLST adjacent to the TTS appears to be an early stage in the hierarchy of cortical auditory processing. Pure-tone response patterns may aid auditory field identification.