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Targeting of the Visna Virus Tat Protein to AP-1 Sites: Interactions with the bZIP Domains of Fos and Jun In Vitro and In Vivo

Morse, B. A.; Carruth, L. M.; Clements, J. E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1999 Português
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The visna virus Tat protein is required for efficient viral transcription from the visna virus long terminal repeat (LTR). AP-1 sites within the visna virus LTR, which can be bound by the cellular transcription factors Fos and Jun, are also necessary for Tat-mediated transcriptional activation. A potential mechanism by which the visna virus Tat protein could target the viral promoter is by protein-protein interactions with Fos and/or Jun bound to AP-1 sites in the visna virus LTR. Once targeted to the visna virus promoter, the Tat protein could then interact with basal transcription factors to activate transcription. To examine protein-protein interactions with cellular proteins at the visna virus promoter, we used an in vitro protein affinity chromatography assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, in addition to an in vivo two-hybrid assay, to show that the visna virus Tat protein specifically interacts with the cellular transcription factors Fos and Jun and the basal transcription factor TBP (TATA binding protein). The Tat domain responsible for interactions with Fos and Jun was localized to an alpha-helical domain within amino acids 34 to 69 of the protein. The TBP binding domain was localized to amino acids 1 to 38 of Tat...

Coreceptor Competition for Association with CD4 May Change the Susceptibility of Human Cells to Infection with T-Tropic and Macrophagetropic Isolates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

Lee, Shirley; Lapham, Cheryl K.; Chen, Hong; King, Lisa; Manischewitz, Jody; Romantseva, Tatiana; Mostowski, Howard; Stantchev, Tzanko S.; Broder, Christopher C.; Golding, Hana
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
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The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were found to function in vivo as the principal coreceptors for M-tropic and T-tropic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains, respectively. Since many primary cells express multiple chemokine receptors, it was important to determine if the efficiency of virus-cell fusion is influenced not only by the presence of the appropriate coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5) but also by the levels of other coreceptors expressed by the same target cells. We found that in cells with low to medium surface CD4 density, coexpression of CCR5 and CXCR4 resulted in a significant reduction in the fusion with CXCR4 domain (X4) envelope-expressing cells and in their susceptibility to infection with X4 viruses. The inhibition could be reversed either by increasing the density of surface CD4 or by antibodies against the N terminus and second extracellular domains of CCR5. In addition, treatment of macrophages with a combination of anti-CCR5 antibodies or β-chemokines increased their fusion with X4 envelope-expressing cells. Conversely, overexpression of CXCR4 compared with CCR5 inhibited CCR5-dependent HIV-dependent fusion in 3T3.CD4.401 cells. Thus, coreceptor competition for association with CD4 may occur in vivo and is likely to have important implications for the course of HIV type 1 infection...

Selective Interactions of Polyanions with Basic Surfaces on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gp120

Moulard, Maxime; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Mondor, Isabelle; Roca, Guillaume; Wyatt, Richard; Sodroski, Joseph; Zhao, Lu; Olson, William; Kwong, Peter D.; Sattentau, Quentin J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2000 Português
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It is well established that the gp120 V3 loop of T-cell-line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) binds both cell-associated and soluble polyanions. Virus infectivity is increased by interactions between HIV-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans on some cell types, and soluble polyanions such as heparin and dextran sulfate neutralize HIV-1 in vitro. However, the analysis of gp120-polyanion interactions has been limited to T-cell-line-adapted, CXCR4-using virus and virus-derived gp120, and the polyanion binding ability of gp120 regions other than the V3 loop has not been addressed. Here we demonstrate by monoclonal-antibody inhibition, labeled heparin binding, and surface plasmon resonance studies that a second site, most probably corresponding to the newly defined, highly conserved coreceptor binding region on gp120, forms part of the polyanion binding surface. Consistent with the binding of polyanions to the coreceptor binding surface, dextran sulfate interfered with the gp120-CXCR4 association while having no detectable effect on the gp120-CD4 interaction. The interaction between polyanions and X4 or R5X4 gp120 was readily detectable, whereas weak or undetectable binding was observed with R5 gp120. Analysis of mutated forms of X4 gp120 demonstrated that the V3 loop is the major determinant for polyanion binding whereas other regions...

Herpes Simplex Virus gE/gI Sorts Nascent Virions to Epithelial Cell Junctions, Promoting Virus Spread

Johnson, David C.; Webb, Mike; Wisner, Todd W.; Brunetti, Craig
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2001 Português
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Alphaherpesviruses spread rapidly through dermal tissues and within synaptically connected neuronal circuitry. Spread of virus particles in epithelial tissues involves movement across cell junctions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and pseudorabies virus (PRV) all utilize a complex of two glycoproteins, gE and gI, to move from cell to cell. HSV gE/gI appears to function primarily, if not exclusively, in polarized cells such as epithelial cells and neurons and not in nonpolarized cells or cells that form less extensive cell junctions. Here, we show that HSV particles are specifically sorted to cell junctions and few virions reach the apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells. gE/gI participates in this sorting. Mutant HSV virions lacking gE or just the cytoplasmic domain of gE were rarely found at cell junctions; instead, they were found on apical surfaces and in cell culture fluids and accumulated in the cytoplasm. A component of the AP-1 clathrin adapter complexes, μ1B, that is involved in sorting of proteins to basolateral surfaces was involved in targeting of PRV particles to lateral surfaces. These results are related to recent observations that (i) HSV gE/gI localizes specifically to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) during early phases of infection but moves out to cell junctions at intermediate to late times (T. McMillan and D. C. Johnson...

Antigenic Properties of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope during Cell-Cell Fusion

Finnegan, Catherine M.; Berg, Werner; Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2001 Português
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) fusion and entry involves sequential interactions between the viral envelope protein, gp120, cell surface CD4, and a G-protein-coupled coreceptor. Each interaction creates an intermediate gp120 structure predicted to display distinct antigenic features, including key functional domains for viral entry. In this study, we examined the disposition of these features during the fusion of HeLa cells expressing either HIVHXB2 envelope (Env cells) or CXCR4 and CD4 (target cells). Cell-cell fusion, indicated by cytoplasmic dye transfer, was allowed to progress for various times and then arrested. The cells were then examined for reactivity with antibodies directed against receptor-induced epitopes on gp120. Analyses of cells arrested by cooling to 4°C revealed that antibodies against the CD4-induced coreceptor-binding domain, i.e., 17b, 48d, and CG10, faintly react with Env cells even in the absence of target cell or soluble CD4 (sCD4) interactions. Such reactivity increased after exposure to sCD4 but remained unchanged during fusion with target cells and was not intensified at the Env-target cell interface. Notably, the antibodies did not react with Env cells when treated with a covalent cross-linker either alone or during fusion with target cells. Immunoreactivity could not be promoted or otherwise altered on either temperature arrested or cross-linked cells by preventing coreceptor interactions or by using a 17b Fab. In comparison...

Quantitative Expression and Virus Transmission Analysis of DC-SIGN on Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

Baribaud, Frédéric; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Leslie, George; Mortari, Frank; Doms, Robert W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2002 Português
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The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR efficiently bind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains and can transmit bound virus to adjacent CD4-positive cells. DC-SIGN also binds efficiently to the Ebola virus glycoprotein, enhancing Ebola virus infection. DC-SIGN is thought to be responsible for the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to capture HIV and transmit it to T cells, thus promoting HIV dissemination in vitro and perhaps in vivo as well. To investigate DC-SIGN function and expression levels on DCs, we characterized a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the carbohydrate recognition domain of DC-SIGN. Using quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorter technology, we found that DC-SIGN is highly expressed on immature monocyte-derived DCs, with at least 100,000 copies and often in excess of 250,000 copies per DC. There was modest variation (three- to fourfold) in DC-SIGN expression levels between individuals and between DCs isolated from the same individual at different times. Several MAbs efficiently blocked virus binding to cell lines expressing human or rhesus DC-SIGN, preventing HIV and SIV transmission. Interactions with Ebola virus pseudotypes were also blocked efficiently. Despite their ability to block virus-DC-SIGN interactions on cell lines...

Dendritic Cell-Mediated Viral Transfer to T Cells Is Required for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Persistence in the Face of Rapid Cell Turnover

Gummuluru, Suryaram; KewalRamani, Vineet N.; Emerman, Michael
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2002 Português
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected and activated CD4+ T cells have short half-lives in vivo (<2 days). We have established an in vitro culture system in which infected T cells are turned over frequently to provide a model system that examines this important facet of in vivo HIV-1 replication. We observed that virus replication in T cells under rapid-turnover conditions was possible only when immature dendritic cells or DC-SIGN-expressing cells mediated HIV-1 transmission to T cells. Virus replication was initiated more rapidly in T cells infected with the cell-associated form of virus compared to infection by the cell-free route. This accelerated transfer of virus required adhesion molecule-mediated interactions between the virus-presenting cell and T cell, but surprisingly, HIV-1 transfer could occur independently of DC-SIGN (DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3 [ICAM-3]-grabbing nonintegrin)in the dendritic-cell-T-cell cocultures. These results suggest that dendritic cell-mediated transmission of HIV-1 enables virus replication under conditions of rapid cell turnover in vivo.

Hepatitis C Virus Glycoproteins Interact with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR

Pöhlmann, Stefan; Zhang, Jie; Baribaud, Frédéric; Chen, Zhiwei; Leslie, George J.; Lin, George; Granelli-Piperno, Angela; Doms, Robert W.; Rice, Charles M.; McKeating, Jane A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2003 Português
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DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR are two closely related membrane-associated C-type lectins that bind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein with high affinity. Binding of HIV to cells expressing DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR can enhance the efficiency of infection of cells coexpressing the specific HIV receptors. DC-SIGN is expressed on some dendritic cells, while DC-SIGNR is localized to certain endothelial cell populations, including hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells. We found that soluble versions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein and retrovirus pseudotypes expressing chimeric forms of both HCV E1 and E2 glycoproteins bound efficiently to DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expressed on cell lines and primary human endothelial cells but not to other C-type lectins tested. Soluble E2 bound to immature and mature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Binding of E2 to immature MDDCs was dependent on DC-SIGN interactions, while binding to mature MDDCs was partly independent of DC-SIGN, suggesting that other cell surface molecules may mediate HCV glycoprotein interactions. HCV interactions with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR may contribute to the establishment or persistence of infection both by the capture and delivery of virus to the liver and by modulating dendritic cell function.

Mutations in the N Termini of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 gDs Alter Functional Interactions with the Entry/Fusion Receptors HVEM, Nectin-2, and 3-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate but Not with Nectin-1

Yoon, Miri; Zago, Anna; Shukla, Deepak; Spear, Patricia G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2003 Português
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Multiple cell surface molecules (herpesvirus entry mediator [HVEM], nectin-1, nectin-2, and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate) can serve as entry receptors for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or HSV-2 and also as receptors for virus-induced cell fusion. Viral glycoprotein D (gD) is the ligand for these receptors. A previous study showed that HVEM makes contact with HSV-1 gD at regions within amino acids 7 to 15 and 24 to 32 at the N terminus of gD. In the present study, amino acid substitutions and deletions were introduced into the N termini of HSV-1 and HSV-2 gDs to determine the effects on interactions with all of the known human and mouse entry/fusion receptors, including mouse HVEM, for which data on HSV entry or cell fusion were not previously reported. A cell fusion assay was used to assess functional activity of the gD mutants with each entry/fusion receptor. Soluble gD:Fc hybrids carrying each mutation were tested for the ability to bind to cells expressing the entry/fusion receptors. We found that deletions overlapping either or both of the HVEM contact regions, in either HSV-1 or HSV-2 gD, severely reduced cell fusion and binding activity with all of the human and mouse receptors except nectin-1. Amino acid substitutions described previously for HSV-1 (L25P...

Insertion of Host-Derived Costimulatory Molecules CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) into Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Affects the Virus Life Cycle

Giguère, Jean-François; Bounou, Salim; Paquette, Jean-Sébastien; Madrenas, Joaquín; Tremblay, Michel J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) carries virus-encoded and host-derived proteins. Recent advances in the functional characterization of host molecules inserted into mature virus particles have revealed that HIV-1 biology is influenced by the acquisition of host cell membrane components. The CD28/B7 receptor/ligand system is considered one of the fundamental elements of the normal immune response. Two major cell types that harbor HIV-1 in vivo, i.e., monocytes/macrophages and CD4+ T cells, express the costimulatory molecules CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2). We investigated whether CD80 and CD86 are efficiently acquired by HIV-1, and if so, whether these host-encoded molecules can contribute to the virus life cycle. Here we provide the first evidence that the insertion of CD80 and CD86 into HIV-1 increases virus infectivity by facilitating the attachment and entry process due to interactions with their two natural ligands, CD28 and CTLA-4. Moreover, we demonstrate that NF-κB is induced by CD80- and CD86-bearing virions when they are combined with the engagement of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex, an event that is inhibited upon surface expression of CTLA-4. Finally, both CD80 and CD86 were found to be efficiently incorporated into R5- and X4-tropic field strains of HIV-1 expanded in cytokine-treated macrophages. Thus...

Mechanism of CD150 (SLAM) Down Regulation from the Host Cell Surface by Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein

Welstead, G. Grant; Hsu, Eric C.; Iorio, Caterina; Bolotin, Shelly; Richardson, Christopher D.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2004 Português
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Measles virus has been reported to enter host cells via either of two cellular receptors, CD46 and CD150 (SLAM). CD46 is found on most cells of higher primates, while SLAM is expressed on activated B, T, and dendritic cells and is an important regulatory molecule of the immune system. Previous reports have shown that measles virus can down regulate expression of its two cellular receptors on the host cell surface during infection. In this study, the process of down regulation of SLAM by measles virus was investigated. We demonstrated that expression of the hemagglutinin (H) protein of measles virus was sufficient for down regulation. Our studies provided evidence that interactions between H and SLAM in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can promote the down regulation of SLAM but not CD46. In addition, we demonstrated that interactions between H and SLAM at the host cell surface can also contribute to SLAM down regulation. These results indicate that two mechanisms involving either intracellular interactions between H and SLAM in the ER or receptor-mediated binding to H at the surfaces of host cells can lead to the down regulation of SLAM during measles virus infection.

Vaccinia Virus Interactions with the Cell Membrane Studied by New Chromatic Vesicle and Cell Sensor Assays▿

Orynbayeva, Z.; Kolusheva, S.; Groysman, N.; Gavrielov, N.; Lobel, L.; Jelinek, R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The potential danger of cross-species viral infection points to the significance of understanding the contributions of nonspecific membrane interactions with the viral envelope compared to receptor-mediated uptake as a factor in virus internalization and infection. We present a detailed investigation of the interactions of vaccinia virus particles with lipid bilayers and with epithelial cell membranes using newly developed chromatic biomimetic membrane assays. This analytical platform comprises vesicular particles containing lipids interspersed within reporter polymer units that emit intense fluorescence following viral interactions with the lipid domains. The chromatic vesicles were employed as membrane models in cell-free solutions and were also incorporated into the membranes of epithelial cells, thereby functioning as localized membrane sensors on the cell surface. These experiments provide important insight into membrane interactions with and fusion of virions and the kinetic profiles of these processes. In particular, the data emphasize the significance of cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains (lipid rafts) as a crucial factor promoting bilayer insertion of the viral particles. Our analysis of virus interactions with polymer-labeled living cells exposed the significant role of the epidermal growth factor receptor in vaccinia virus infectivity; however...

Predominant Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transfer between T Cells Is Mediated by Sustained Env-Dependent Neutralization-Resistant Virological Synapses▿ †

Chen, Ping; Hübner, Wolfgang; Spinelli, Matthew A.; Chen, Benjamin K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cell-free human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can initiate infections, but contact between infected and uninfected T cells can enhance viral spread through intercellular structures called virological synapses (VS). The relative contribution of VS to cell-free viral transfer has not been carefully measured. Using an ultrasensitive, fluorescent virus transfer assay, we estimate that when VS between HIV-expressing Jurkat T cells and primary CD4+ T cells are formed, cell-associated transfer of virus is 18,000-fold more efficient than uptake of cell-free virus. Furthermore, in contrast to cell-free virus uptake, the VS deposits virus rapidly into focal, trypsin-resistant compartments in target T cells. This massive virus internalization requires Env-CD4 receptor interactions but is resistant to inhibition by patient-derived neutralizing antisera that inhibit homologous cell-free virus. Deleting the Env cytoplasmic tail does not abrogate VS-mediated transfer, but it renders the VS sensitive to neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that the tail limits exposure of VS-neutralizing epitopes on the surface of infected cells. Dynamic live imaging of the VS reveals that HIV-expressing cells are polarized and make sustained, Env-dependent contacts with target cells through uropod-like structures. The polarized T-cell morphology...

Triple Gene Block Protein Interactions Involved in Movement of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus▿

Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Ganesan, Uma; Lawrence, Diane M.; Yu, Jialin; Isogai, Masimachi; Hammond, John; Jackson, Andrew O.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) encodes three movement proteins in an overlapping triple gene block (TGB), but little is known about the physical interactions of these proteins. We have characterized a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex consisting of the TGB1 protein and plus-sense BSMV RNAs from infected barley plants and have identified TGB1 complexes in planta and in vitro. Homologous TGB1 binding was disrupted by site-specific mutations in each of the first two N-terminal helicase motifs but not by mutations in two C-terminal helicase motifs. The TGB2 and TGB3 proteins were not detected in the RNP, but affinity chromatography and yeast two-hybrid experiments demonstrated that TGB1 binds to TGB3 and that TGB2 and TGB3 form heterologous interactions. These interactions required the TGB2 glycine 40 and the TGB3 isoleucine 108 residues, and BSMV mutants containing these amino acid substitution were unable to move from cell to cell. Infectivity experiments indicated that TGB1 separated on a different genomic RNA from TGB2 and TGB3 could function in limited cell-to-cell movement but that the rates of movement depended on the levels of expression of the proteins and the contexts in which they are expressed. Moreover, elevated expression of the wild-type TGB3 protein interfered with cell-to-cell movement but movement was not affected by the similar expression of a TGB3 mutant that fails to interact with TGB2. These experiments suggest that BSMV movement requires physical interactions of TGB2 and TGB3 and that substantial deviation from the TGB protein ratios expressed by the wild-type virus compromises movement.

Glycosphingolipid Composition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Particles Is a Crucial Determinant for Dendritic Cell-Mediated HIV-1 trans-Infection▿

Hatch, Steven C.; Archer, Jacob; Gummuluru, Suryaram
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with dendritic cells (DCs) are multifactorial and presumably require nonredundant interactions between the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and molecules expressed on the DC surface that define the cellular fate of the virus particle. Surprisingly, neutralization of HIV-1 gp120-dependent binding interactions with DCs was insufficient to prevent HIV-1 attachment. Besides gp120, HIV-1 particles also incorporate host cell-derived proteins and lipids in their particle membrane. In this study, we demonstrate a crucial role for host cell-derived glycosphingolipids (GSLs) for the initial interactions of HIV-1 particles with both immature and mature DCs. Production of HIV-1 particles from virus producer cells treated with ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1 or glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PDMP) resulted in the production of virus particles that, although capable of binding previously defined HIV-1 gp120-specific attachment factors CD4, DC-SIGN, and syndecans, were attenuated in their ability to be captured by both immature and mature DCs. Furthermore, GSL-deficient HIV-1 particles were inhibited in their ability to establish productive infections in DC-T-cell cocultures. These studies provide initial evidence for the role of HIV-1 particle membrane-associated GSLs in virus invasion of DCs and also provide additional novel cellular targets...

Subcellular Localization of the Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Triple Gene Block Proteins▿

Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Bragg, Jennifer N.; Ganesan, Uma; Ruzin, Steven; Schichnes, Denise; Lee, Mi Yeon; Vaira, Anna Maria; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Hammond, John; Jackson, Andrew O.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) spreads from cell to cell through the coordinated actions of three triple gene block (TGB) proteins (TGB1, TGB2, and TGB3) arranged in overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Our previous studies (D. M. Lawrence and A. O. Jackson, J. Virol. 75:8712-8723, 2001; D. M. Lawrence and A. O. Jackson, Mol. Plant Pathol. 2:65-75, 2001) have shown that each of these proteins is required for cell-to-cell movement in monocot and dicot hosts. We recently found (H.-S. Lim, J. N. Bragg, U. Ganesan, D. M. Lawrence, J. Yu, M. Isogai, J. Hammond, and A. O. Jackson, J. Virol. 82:4991-5006, 2008) that TGB1 engages in homologous interactions leading to the formation of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing viral genomic and messenger RNAs, and we have also demonstrated that TGB3 functions in heterologous interactions with TGB1 and TGB2. We have now used Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells and site-specific mutagenesis to determine how TGB protein interactions influence their subcellular localization and virus spread. Confocal microscopy revealed that the TGB3 protein localizes at the cell wall (CW) in close association with plasmodesmata and that the deletion or mutagenesis of a single amino acid at the immediate C terminus can affect CW targeting. TGB3 also directed the localization of TGB2 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the CW...

Oxylipin Biosynthesis Genes Positively Regulate Programmed Cell Death during Compatible Infections with the Synergistic Pair Potato Virus X-Potato Virus Y and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

García-Marcos, Alberto; Pacheco, Remedios; Manzano, Aranzazu; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Tenllado, Francisco
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2013 Português
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One of the most severe symptoms caused by compatible plant-virus interactions is systemic necrosis, which shares common attributes with the hypersensitive response to incompatible pathogens. Although several studies have identified viral symptom determinants responsible for systemic necrosis, mechanistic models of how they contribute to necrosis in infected plants remain scarce. Here, we examined the involvement of different branches of the oxylipin biosynthesis pathway in the systemic necrosis response caused either by the synergistic interaction of Potato virus X with Potato virus Y (PVX-PVY) or by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing either 9-lipoxygenase (LOX), 13-LOX, or α-dioxygenase-1 (α-DOX-1) attenuated the programmed cell death (PCD)-associated symptoms caused by infection with either PVX-PVY or TSWV. In contrast, silencing of the jasmonic acid perception gene, COI1 (Coronatine insensitive 1), expedited cell death during infection with compatible viruses. This correlated with an enhanced expression of oxylipin biosynthesis genes and dioxygenase activity in PVX-PVY-infected plants. Moreover, the Arabidopsis thaliana double lox1 α-dox-1 mutant became less susceptible to TSWV infection. We conclude that oxylipin metabolism is a critical component that positively regulates the process of PCD during compatible plant-virus interactions but does not play a role in restraining virus accumulation in planta.

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein M and the Membrane-Associated Protein UL11 Are Required for Virus-Induced Cell Fusion and Efficient Virus Entry

Kim, In-Joong; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Walker, Jason D.; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) facilitates virus entry into cells and cell-to-cell spread by mediating fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes and fusion of adjacent cellular membranes. Although virus strains isolated from herpetic lesions cause limited cell fusion in cell culture, clinical herpetic lesions typically contain large syncytia, underscoring the importance of cell-to-cell fusion in virus spread in infected tissues. Certain mutations in glycoprotein B (gB), gK, UL20, and other viral genes drastically enhance virus-induced cell fusion in vitro and in vivo. Recent work has suggested that gB is the sole fusogenic glycoprotein, regulated by interactions with the viral glycoproteins gD, gH/gL, and gK, membrane protein UL20, and cellular receptors. Recombinant viruses were constructed to abolish either gM or UL11 expression in the presence of strong syncytial mutations in either gB or gK. Virus-induced cell fusion caused by deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 28 amino acids of gB or the dominant syncytial mutation in gK (Ala to Val at amino acid 40) was drastically reduced in the absence of gM. Similarly, syncytial mutations in either gB or gK did not cause cell fusion in the absence of UL11. Neither the gM nor UL11 gene deletion substantially affected gB...

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin αvβ3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.; Herold, Betsy C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2014 Português
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Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together...

A Second Receptor Binding Site on Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Contributes to Activation of the Fusion Mechanism▿

Porotto, Matteo; Fornabaio, Micaela; Kellogg, Glen E.; Moscona, Anne
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of paramyxoviruses carries out three discrete activities that each affect the ability of HN to promote viral fusion and entry: receptor binding, receptor cleaving (neuraminidase), and triggering of the fusion protein. The interrelationship between the receptor binding and fusion-triggering functions of HN has not been clear. For human parainfluenza type 3 (HPIV3), one bifunctional site on HN can carry out both receptor binding and neuraminidase activities, and this site's receptor binding can be inhibited by the small receptor analog zanamivir. We now report experimental evidence, complemented by computational data, for a second receptor binding site near the HPIV3 HN dimer interface. This second binding site can mediate receptor binding even in the presence of zanamivir, and it differs from the second receptor binding site of the paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus in its function and its relationship to the primary binding site. This second binding site of HPIV3 HN is involved in triggering F. We suggest that the two receptor binding sites on HPIV3 HN each contribute in distinct ways to virus-cell interaction; one is the multifunctional site that contains both binding and neuraminidase activities...