Página 9 dos resultados de 103911 itens digitais encontrados em 0.036 segundos

Empirically derived methods for analysing simulation model output.

Mejia, Alicia
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1992 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
Often in simulation procedures are not proposed unless they are supported by a strong mathematical background. As will be shown in this thesis, this approach does not always give good results when the procedures are applied to complex simulation models, especially on output analysis. For this reason we have used an empirical rather than a theoretical approach for dealing with some of the output problems of simulation. The research carried out has dealt mainly with queuing networks. The first problem we address is that of the identification of possible unstable queues. We also deal with the problem of the identification of queues that may require a long simulation run length to reach the steady state. The method of replications is used for the estimation of terminating and sometimes of steady state parameters. In this thesis we study the relationship that exists between the number of replications used in the simulation and the simulation run length required for the parameter being estimated to reach the steady state. We also study the influence of the random number streams on the values of the mean estimates as a function of the number of replications. One of the most commonly discussed problems related to the estimation of steady state parameters is that of the initialisation bias problem. Two methods are proposed in this thesis to deal with this problem. In one of the methods we propose an effective procedure that can be used for the estimation of the number of initial observations that are to be deleted. The second method...

Uneven development and peripheral capitalism: The case of Brazilian informatics.

Freitas de Castro, Marcia
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1993 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis examines the development of the Brazilian informatics industry and its relationship with and role in the international division of labour for informatics. The principal focus of the analysis is the Brazilian national policy for informatics (PNI). The PNI successes and failures at the national and regional level are related to the weak articulations between the Brazilian and the global informatics industry. The evidence for these fragile links are in the regional distribution patterns of the informatics industry throughout the national territory. The thesis differs from previous studies of Brazilian development policies in its assertion that industry and firms have specific sets of social relations which are spatially grounded and these depend on technology, itself socially created. Previous studies however have depended solely upon technological criteria with which to evaluate Brazilian development strategies. Five main points are covered: the organization of the global informatics industry; different forms of state intervention to cope with and secure nations' strategic stakes in this important industry in the AICs and NICs; interactions between this sector and other sectors of the national industry; and regional patterns of this sector's industrial development in the country. The thesis identifies contradictions between Brazilian policies for modernization of the economy as a whole and modernization of the informatics sector. Modernization requires introduction of new technologies (products and processes) which the heavily protected national informatics industry is not yet capable of producing. Current industrial (and therefore also regional) development bottlenecks faced by the Brazilian industry reflects structural rigidities in the nation's social-political structure. The inward-looking character of Brazil's informatics development policies...

The concept of urban social sustainability: Co-ordinating everyday life and institutional structures in London.

Wu, Cheng-chong
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
The aim of the thesis is to clarify the meaning of sustainable development by addressing the underlying causalities of sustainability issues - urban social sustainability. This thesis redefines sustainable development as a fundamental interdependency between people's life-chances and their environments. This requires a distinction between the external physical aspect, and the internal social aspect of sustainability. The former is mainly concerned with the interrelationship between the natural environment and human society as a whole; the latter is particularly concerned with the interrelationship between the created environment and individual life-chances. By virtue of the origins and the consequences of sustainability issues, this thesis argues that a proper conception of sustainable development should recover the human scale of development. A socially unsustainable society will inevitably increase exploitation of the natural environment. In other words, to achieve physical sustainability must achieve social sustainability first. Accordingly, the purpose here is to explore the practical meanings of urban social sustainability. Having argued that the expanding logic, and the utilitarian tendency of industrial capitalism, is the underlying cause of the current unsustainable trends...

Way back to Aztlan: Sixteenth century Hispanic-Nahuatl transculturation and the construction of the new Mexico.

Levin-Rojo, Danna Alexandra
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis is a library and archive-based study within the field of historical anthropology. It is concerned with one particular case of cross-cultural borrowing that occurred during the sixteenth century Spanish conquest of mainland North America; a process of imperial expansion that resulted in the establishment of several colonial provinces, which comprised all of present-day Mexico, Guatemala and some parts of the United States of America and were administratively dependent on the viceroyalty of New Spain. The thesis focuses on the creation of the most northerly province within this territory, Nuevo Mexico, which - unlike other provinces in the Spanish overseas domains - had a social and political existence before it had an actual geographic embodiment. Rather than the actual politico-geographic entity founded as a colonial "kingdom" in 1598, Nuevo Mexico is understood in this study as a "disembodied imaginary world," mainly consisting of the image of the Aztec ancestral homeland that Spanish conquerors and their Indian allies and/or subjects fabricated in the context of their colonial interaction. Therefore the focus of this thesis is on the transformation of abstract, symbolic space into concrete, politically marked territory. Through the semantic analysis of the term Nuevo Mexico and via reconstructing the process of its formulation and reification (1539-1598) I have explored issues of alterity...

Negotiating European trade policy: Industrial influence, diplomatic constraints and bureaucratic behaviour in the 1995 EU-Israel Association Agreement.

Alt, Yvette Camilla
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis explores the role of Government negotiations, industrial pressure and private interests in the development of European Union (EU) trade relations with Israel, focusing on the 1995 EU-Israel Association Agreement. Employing a two-level metaphor, it discusses the evolution of the EU's ability to negotiate and ratify trade agreements, the history of European-Israeli political and commercial relations, and Israel's political economy. This thesis posits that trade policy can be used to further ideological foreign-policy goals, but that the content of trade policy is ultimately shaped less by "high political" considerations than by developing linkages at the domestic levels. In evaluating the ability of commercial and scientific communities to sway the progress of the Association Agreement negotiations, this thesis finds that the existence of some types of links between Israel and EU member states allowed Israeli interests to gain domestic "allies" in Europe, and thus to secure additional trade concessions. A further consideration developed in this paper is the existence of at least two "domestic" arenas within the Community: at the transnational EU level, within the member states, and increasingly at the regional level. This thesis discusses the way in which both negotiators and private interests recognised these tensions and exploited traditional political relations at the national and occasionally the regional levels in order to further affect negotiation and ratification capabilities of the Community. The thesis thus argues for a more complex rendering of the traditional multi-level analytical model...

A study of the barriers to strategic planning faced by governing bodies in selected inner London state secondary schools.

Heuer, Thaddeus Alan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The statutory responsibilities of governing bodies have increased greatly since the 1988 Education Reform Act, yet unresolved issues persist concerning how well governing bodies have adjusted to their new role. This thesis focuses on one such issue: the discrepancy between policy and practice regarding the statutory responsibility of governing bodies to 'provide a strategic view'. After reviewing the existing literature and presenting the research design (comprised of five qualitative case studies and a quantitative survey), this thesis poses three questions about the strategic planning processes of inner London state-maintained secondary school governing bodies: First, do governors in these schools perceive their role as strategic. Second, is there an evident absence of strategic planning within these governing bodies. And third, if there is such an absence, then why. The research begins by providing affirmative answers to the first two questions. Evidence demonstrates that it is possible to outline a definition of strategic planning based on governors' own beliefs, and that governors did not believe that this definition of strategic planning was being fulfilled in practice. In relation to the third question, this thesis argues that two sets of 'barriers' impede governing body strategic planning. The research explores these barriers in detail...

Constitutional thought of Joseph de Maistre.

Upton, John Dominic
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis, the first in English on this topic, is an examination of central aspects of Joseph de Maistre's constitutional thought: namely the concepts of constituent power, constitutions, sovereignty and forms of government. Research for the thesis has been conducted with the use of archival sources and French texts and it describes and analyses the above concepts in some detail. The thesis also takes into account both historical and modern scholarship written in French and English. It argues that Maistre's constitutional thought is a useful tool with which to investigate some contemporary constitutional problems in liberal constitutional theory, e.g. those of constitutional self - binding, the circularity of the notion of the sovereignty of the people and the nature of sovereignty in the modern state. Maistre's thought provides a view of constitutional matters which opposes certain enlightenment - inspired perspectives that now dominate constitutional discourse and which treat the constitution as a purely normative phenomenon, rather than as a relational concept which cannot be separated entirely from political considerations. The thesis carries out these tasks with reference to other constitutional and public law thinkers in order historically and intellectually to contextualise Maistre's constitutional thought. It seeks to place Maistre within an intellectual tradition stretching from Bodin...

Private security in international politics: Deconstructing the state's monopoly of security governance.

Cullen, Patrick Jerome
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis examines the theoretical implications of private security for International Relations (IR) theory and global politics from the perspective of a security governance model. It draws upon multi-disciplinary theoretical research on private security to both map the way security governance has been de-linked from the state, as well as to map the public-private hybrids and security networks that constitute private security's continued connection to the state. On one level, this thesis engages in a direct theoretical critique of Realist theory and its Weberian inspired understanding of the state's monopoly of security governance. Thus, the security governance framework used within this thesis is understood in terms of a theoretical response to the inability of Realist theory to conceptualize the political content of private security. Against this backdrop of a critique of Realist theory-and its idea of the state's monopoly relationship to authority, territory and coercion-this thesis re-articulates each of these concepts with reference to a security governance approach to the study of private security. This thesis then provides a positive application of this security governance theoretical framework to a series of original case studies of hybrid public-private and private- private security networks.

Institutions, geography and market power: The political economy of rubber in the Brazilian Amazon, c. 1870-1910.

Fernandes, Felipe Tamega
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
The thesis applies a political economy approach to the study of how institutions and geography explain the development of a commodity chain. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon from 1870 to 1910, the analysis develops a new theoretical framework constructed by combining standard trade models with institutions and economic geography. There are two levels of analysis: interactions among, and within, different nodes of the commodity chain. A quantitative-driven analysis from macroeconomic data supports inferences from microeconomic behaviour. The thesis provides new information on rubber prices and exports, trader ledgers, estate accounts, newspapers, travellers accounts, and official documents. The research develops a demand- and supply-side analysis of the history of rubber, from tappers to manufacturers. It features the main rubber manufacturing countries, Britain and the USA, and shows how competition prevailed along the chain, translating into a struggle for rubber supply. Rubber was not a homogeneous product. Due to a combination of quantity and quality, the Brazilian Amazon possessed significant market power, market power that shaped the rubber chain. In this light, the thesis investigates how the Brazilian rubber supply chain was organised and how agents profited from its monopolistic position. It also shows that taxation increased the regional welfare and allowed the government to support two related activities: telegraphs and shipping. The thesis proves that violence and coercion were not necessary features of rubber production...

A computationally efficient procedure for data envelopment analysis.

Parthasarathy, Srinivasan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis is the final outcome of a project carried out for the UK's Department for Education and Skills (DfES). They were interested in finding a fast algorithm for solving a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to compare the relative efficiency of 13216 primary schools in England based on 9 input-output factors. The standard approach for solving a DEA model comparing n units (such as primary schools) based on m factors, requires solving 2n linear programming (LP) problems, each with m constraints and at least n variables. At m = 9 and n = 13216, it was proving to be difficult. The research reported in this thesis describes both theoretical and practical contributions to achieving faster computational performance. First we establish that in analysing any unit t only against some critically important units - we call them generators - we can either (a) complete its efficiency analysis, or (b) find a new generator. This is an important contribution to the theory of solution procedures of DEA. It leads to our new Generator Based Algorithm (GBA) which solves only n LPs of maximum size (m x k), where k is the number of generators. As k is a small percentage of n, GBA significantly improves computational performance in large datasets. Further...

A rights-based perspective on permissible harm

Burri, Susanne
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis takes up a rights-based perspective to discuss a number of issues related to the problem of permissible harm. It appeals to a person’s capacity to shape her life in accordance with her own ideas of the good to explain why (i) her death can be bad for her, and why (ii) each of us should have primary say over what may be done to her. The thesis begins with an investigation of the badness of death for the person who dies. If death is bad for us, this helps explain the wrongness of killing. The thesis defends the deprivation account—i.e. the idea that death is bad for us when and because it deprives us of good life—against two Epicurean challenges. It adds that death is also bad when and because it thwarts our agency. Next, the thesis deals with the logic of our moral rights to non-interference. It proposes a conception of rights according to which the stringency of our rights derives from and is justified by the rational aspect of our human nature. It argues that this conception of moral rights solves the paradox of deontology. While our rights to non-interference are stringent, they are not absolute. The thesis considers two possible exceptions to the general rule that it is impermissible to harm an innocent person against her consent. First...

Images of the transnational corporation: Sensemaking by German managers.

Litz, Stefan A
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis discusses images of the Transnational Corporation (TNC) based on Bartlett/Goshal's (1989; 1998) proposal to consider the TNC as a particular type of supranational business organizations. The thesis tackles the question: are TNCs perceived by people working for large supranational organizations to be conceptually distinctive from other types of such organizations. For this purpose, several semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers working in Germany for two large corporations, i.e. DaimlerChrysler and Accenture. Interviewees had been challenged to make sense of the idea that their corporation is considered to represent the TNC rather than any other type of supranational corporation. The results of these sensemaking processes (Weick 2000) are compared and contrasted with Bartlett/Goshal's (1989; 1998) conceptualization of the TNC. In addition to highlighting key characteristic attributes of the two companies featuring similarities with Bartlett/Goshal's (1989; 1998) conceptualization of the TNC, important differences have been outlined. The results triggered the development of a typology of subtypes of TNCs, which is proposed in this thesis as the result of conceptual generalization (Yin 2003) from the case studies. The thesis also highlights the differences between the TNC sub-types employing Ritzer's (2003; 2004) conceptual distinction of "grobalization" and "glocalization" processes and Hollingsworth (1991; 1996) distinction between monitoring and support networks. Finally...

To be or to become? An enquiry into the changing nature of requirements in open source health IT

Curto-Millet, Daniel
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis develops a contemporary problematisation of software requirements. It departs from traditional conceptions of requirements as simple, tamed objects with deterministic force over socio-technical actors and based on assumptions of stability. Such views can lead to a narrow, ultimately unfruitful understanding of the significance of requirements and denied wider consequences of their modes of articulation. Instead, the thesis builds on perspectives where requirements are complex and interactive actors. The thesis uses openEHR—an open source health IT project aiming to build interoperable Electronic Health Records (EHRs)—as a case study. Studying open source practice offers a good opportunity to consider the nature of requirements because there is an ongoing debate about requirements’ role and influence on development activities and project organisation. The analysis uses Deleuzian concepts of assemblage, multiplicity and becoming. These themes align with a larger body of work influenced by STS and process oriented theorisations, which see the world as dynamic and performative. The philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari in particular provides a counter-balance to any assumed stability in the world. The thesis presents a new account of the nature of requirements...

From no work to work? The role of job placement and skills training services in assisting unemployment Benefit II recipients find work under Germany’s Hartz IV welfare reforms

Brady, Anne
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis presents the results of a qualitative investigation of Unemployment Benefit II (UBII) recipients' experiences of skill training and job placement services under Germany's Hartz IV welfare reforms—arguably a (neo-) liberal intervention in the context of what has traditionally been described as a conservative-corporatist welfare regime. This thesis explores the experience of skills training and job placement services in terms of the degree to which these support mechanisms engage with UBII recipients’ needs and perceptions and how these necessarily reflect the purposes of the support and activation mechanisms (to provide support to and assist the long-term unemployed find work) and the underlying policy assumptions (that the long-term unemployed need to be made to demonstrate responsibility in finding work). The evidence presented suggests such services have not necessarily provided a route into regular employment. Instead the ‘support’ mechanisms tend to ‘busy’ the recipients; to be irrelevant to the recipients’ employment history and/or future interests; and not to match what recipients wish to, or are interested in, doing. Secondly, the policy rhetoric and design of the Hartz IV reforms implied, ostensibly...

Continuity, communion and the dread: the Maori Rastafari of Ruatoria, Aotearoa-New Zeland

Robinson, Dave
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis is based upon ethnographic field research conducted in and around the predominantly Māori-populated town of Ruatoria; a small rural settlement situated in the sparsely inhabited heartland of the iwi (tribe), Ngāti Porou, on the east coast of Aotearoa-New Zealand’s North Island. The thesis investigates the apparent paradox concerning how and why the Jamaican Rastafari movement appeals to, and has invigorated, rather than obliterated the Māoritanga (Māori culture) of a group of Ngāti Porou who self-identify as ‘The Dread’. Thus far, anthropological analyses of the Rastafari movement have tended to characterise its manifestation as a religion of protest, a religion of resistance or a religion of the post-colonially oppressed. In this thesis I destabilise such interpretations by demonstrating that we can best understand The Dread’s assimilation of Rastafari through their articulation of aspects of Māori cosmology charged with promoting communion with God, gods and ancestors. Theoretically, this thesis combines traditional ethnographic explorations of hierarchy, identity, myth and comparative Rastafari, with more recent approaches to the anthropological study of ontology, cosmology, human-ancestor and human-environment relations. I also consider key methodological implications that attention to the latter analytical approaches ensue. By situating my analysis of The Dread’s articulation of cosmology and mythic narrative at the interface of ontology and agency...

Justifying force: A feminist analysis of the international law on the use of force.

Heathcote, Gina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
The thesis argues that feminist approaches to international law provide relevant and necessary methods for understanding the limitations of the international law on the use of force. The primary argument is that justifications for violence made under international law replicate, at a conceptual level, the construction of justifications for interpersonal violence within Western legal systems. Consequently, feminist legal theories that expose the sexed and gendered limitations of interpersonal justifications help demonstrate the sexed and gendered contours of international justifications for the use of force. In adopting a structural feminism methodology, the thesis examines the legal reasoning developed by states to justify the use of force. In particular, the thesis offers critical insight into five types of situations where force may be deployed: Security Council authorised force, Article 51 self-defence, self-determination, humanitarian intervention and justifications for the use of force under the 'War on Terror'. Recommendations for action are developed through the use of a law as narrative technique that situates legal accounts within (as opposed to above or separate to) other social and cultural discourses. This includes the use of women's narratives of violence that link the violence experienced by women in the private sphere of with the public violence of states and militaries. I also demonstrate how the domestic analogy can be utilised to develop contours for reform through an analysis of feminist accounts of the limitations of mandatory interventions into domestic (intimate partner) violence. The thesis contributes to the literature on the international law on the use of force with a detailed feminist response to justifications for the use of force...

What use is the turtle?': Cultural perceptions of land, work, animals and 'ecologists' in a Greek farming community.

Theodossopoulos, Dimitrios
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
This thesis examines the cultural features of landholding and cultivation, as well as perceptions of domestic and wild animals in a community on the island of Zakynthos in southwest Greece. Vassilikos, the community in question, is renowned for its persistent resistance to ecological conservation, as manifested in a ten year long dispute over the local people's right to control parts of their land designated to become a conservation area for the reproduction of Loggerhead sea-turtles. The legislative regulations of turtle conservation allow for the establishment of a marine national park in the area which restrains some inhabitants of Vassilikos from building on their land and engaging in tourism-related enterprises. The particular conservation dispute serves as the common uniting theme of several topics explored in this thesis, all related to the relationship of Vassilikos' people with their physical environment and the animals living in it. In fact, the entire thesis in an attempt to illuminate the cultural matrix behind the local farmers' resistance to ecological conservation. For this reason, the thesis provides a thorough ethnographic analysis of the following six themes: the significance of land ownership for the local farmers...

Characterising EC regulation: Emulation, innovation, re-regulation.

Matthews, Duncan Neville
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
The thesis characterises European Community (EC) regulation in terms of three levels of ideas, namely that: (a) the EC regulatory process is best understood by particular styles or processes of regulation that the thesis terms emulation, innovation and re-regulation; (b) there are particular determinants or causes of regulation that are best understood as regulatory competition, consensus and co-operation; and (c) a hypothesis can be derived from the review of associated literature to the effect that diffusion of ideas and policy learning leading to consensus and co-operation are often of greater significance than regulatory competition in the EC regulatory process. To this end, taking as a frame of reference the characterisation of styles or processes of regulation as emulation, innovation and re-regulation, the thesis challenges the assumption, prevalent in much of the literature, that the main determinant or cause of EC regulation is regulatory competition among member states seeking to enhance their own competitive position in the European market and reduce the costs associated with legal adjustment. Using evidence from case study material relating to EC regulation of insurance services and drinking water quality the thesis tests the hypothesis that...

Did zakat deliver welfare and justice? Islamic welfare policy in Pakistan, 1980-1994.

Khan, Arshi Rasheed
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The thesis evaluates the effectiveness of the official zakat policy in Pakistan in delivering welfare and justice to poorer sections of society over the period 1980-1994. The thesis contrasts the idealistic and theological aspirations of Islamists regarding zakat with the practical outcomes of zakat policy in Pakistan. It also compares zakat policy outcome with the objectives of the government. It is argued that the performance of zakat can be easily manipulated and influenced because it is not only a welfare instrument but also a political tool in the hands of the Islamic state, and thus can be used to advance political ends entirely divorced from the specific welfare goals of zakat. The lack of clarity of Shariah regarding zakat's aspirations for welfare and justice can facilitate this politicisation of the zakat policy. The thesis also argues that the religious nature of zakat does not guarantee automatic compliance with zakat policy, and that if individuals are to internalise the welfare goals of zakat it is necessary for them to have trust in the Islamic state's commitment to these goals. The thesis shows that in Pakistan the Islamic state manipulated zakat policy formation and that there existed a lack of commitment on its part regarding zakat which hampered zakat's effectiveness. This is visible in the shape and the process of zakat policy formulation which demonstrates that the ideals of zakat policy were sacrificed by Zia's Islamic state to gain political patronage and power. This had huge negative implications for the workability and effectiveness of zakat. An analysis of micro-data derived from Household Income and Expenditure Surveys for Pakistan from 1985 to 1994 reveals that zakat failed to exploit the wealth of the rich...

Rethinking urban risk and adaptation: the politics of vulnerability in informal urban settlements

Fraser, Arabella
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: text
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.142434%
Informal urban settlements are increasingly recognised as vulnerable to climate related risks. Their political-legal status is known to influence their vulnerability, but the linkages between state governance and vulnerability in this setting remain under researched. In particular, as more urban governments develop climate risk assessments, questions arise about how risks are defined, operationalised and received; and the impact this politics has on local-scale vulnerabilities. The thesis proposes a new conceptual direction for urban vulnerability research. First, it draws on livelihoods debates to highlight how the politics of access influences vulnerability, and shows how this is shaped through the interaction between agency and structure, and the social and political relations of meaning and power in which livelihoods decisions are embedded. Second, the thesis shows how theories of Science and Technology Studies (STS) and public policy, and theories of the state, can be used to investigate the politics of risk assessment in informal, urban areas. This theoretical frame generates insights at the interface between development studies and post-structural thought, providing a new perspective on questions of how adaptation takes place in informal areas...