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Competence and Religion in the Cultural Repertoire of the African American Elite

Fleming, Crystal; Lamont, Michele
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This exploratory study makes a contribution to the literature on antiracism by unpacking the cultural categories through which everyday antiracism is experienced and practiced by extraordinarily successful African Americans. Using a phenomenological approach, we focus on processes of classification to analyze the criteria that members of the African American elite mobilize to compare racial groups and establish their equality. We first summarize results from earlier work on the antiracist strategies of White and African American workers. Second, drawing upon in-depth interviews with members of the Black elite, we show that demonstrating intelligence and competence, and gaining knowledge, are particularly valued strategies of equalization, while religion has a subordinate role within their antiracist repertoire. Thus, gaining cultural membership is often equated with educational and occupational attainment. Antiracist strategies that value college education and achievement by the standards of American individualism may exclude many poor and working-class African Americans from cultural membership. In this way, strategies of equalization based on educational and professional competence may prove dysfunctional for racial solidarity.; African and African American Studies; Sociology

Recovering Green in Bronzeville: An Environmental and Cultural History of the African American Great Migration to Chicago, 1915-1940

McCammack, Brian James
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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Between 1915 and 1940, millions of African Americans migrated from the South to cities in the North. “Recovering Green in Bronzeville” examines the ways in which these migrants experienced, perceived, talked about, valued, and shaped these natural and landscaped environments in the interwar years. Taking Chicago as its focal point, this dissertation argues that not only should African Americans be central to narratives of environment and place in the early twentieth century, but also that natural and landscaped environments are central to African American culture. The dissertation’s first part compares and contrasts the environmental resonance of lives left behind in the South with those established in Chicago, particularly with regards to foodways and labor. It asserts that while many African Americans had already become integrated into national industrial networks prior to migration, residence in even the most urban southern city could not have prepared them for Chicago’s densely populated South Side. The dissertation’s second part explores the significance of African American experiences with both urban and rural natural and landscaped environments from roughly 1915 to 1929. It shows how African Americans joined a chorus of late Progressive Era Americans who saw these environments as an antidote to modern city life that produced ill health and delinquency...

The African American Student Experience at Predominantly White Colleges: Implications for School and College Counselors

Guiffrida, Douglas A. ; Douthit, Kathryn Z.
Fonte: Universidade de Rochester Publicador: Universidade de Rochester
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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Research from higher education and cultural studies that has examined the African American college student experience at predominantly white institutions (PWIs) is presented with a focus on providing an understanding of how African American college students’ relationships with faculty, family, friends from home, and peers in African American student organizations can become either assets or liabilities to their academic achievement and persistence. Implications for counseling practice are provided to assist secondary school-based counselors in preparing their African American students for the academic and socio-cultural challenges they will face when transitioning to PWIs. Implications are also provided for counselors working in college counseling centers, career counseling centers, and academic advising and retention programs at PWIs to effectively support and retain their African American college students.

How African American males become presidents of four-year predominantly white colleges and universities: three oral histories

Barker, John (1973 - ); Kimball, Bruce A. (1951 - ); Guiffrida, Douglas A.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:vii, 454 leaves
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2009.; This study is an attempt to explain the life history and career development of three African American male presidents of Predominantly White institutions (PWIs). What is evident from these interviews is that there exists a small discourse community of African American presidents who utilize one another’s knowledge and understanding to help in decision-making regarding academic trajectories and the presidency. Because only a very few people have direct access to this community, the current study adds substantially to the resources available to succeeding generations of administrative leaders. This study was not an attempt at a comprehensive understanding of every aspect in the life of an African American president at a PWI. Rather, it is designed to provide insight and observation into the significant details in the lives of presidents in the context studied. In addition, I surmise that the African American presidents studied play a significant role in promoting diversity in their institutions. Diverse leadership can be instrumental in institutions of higher education in the fact that it can represent the openness, freedom from racial stereotypes...

In The Circle : jazz Griots and the Mapping of African American Cultural Memory in Poetry

Marcoux, Jean-Philippe
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Ma thèse de doctorat, In the Circle: Jazz Griots and the Mapping of African American Cultural History in Poetry, étudie la façon dont les poètes afro-américains des années 1960 et 1970, Langston Hughes, David Henderson, Sonia Sanchez, et Amiri Baraka, emploient le jazz afin d’ancrer leur poésie dans la tradition de performance. Ce faisant, chacun de ces poètes démontre comment la culture noire, en conceptualisant à travers la performance des modes de résistance, fût utilisée par les peuples de descendance africaine pour contrer le racisme institutionnalisé et les discours discriminatoires. Donc, pour les fins de cette thèse, je me concentre sur quatre poètes engagés dans des dialogues poétiques avec la musicologie, l’esthétique, et la politique afro-américaines des années 1960 et 1970. Ces poètes affirment la centralité de la performativité littéraire noire afin d’assurer la survie et la continuité de la mémoire culturelle collective des afro-américains. De plus, mon argument est que la théorisation de l’art afro-américain comme engagement politique devient un élément central à l’élaboration d’une esthétique noire basée sur la performance. Ma thèse de doctorat propose donc une analyse originale des ces quatre poètes qui infusent leur poèmes avec des références au jazz et à la politique dans le but de rééduquer les générations des années 2000 en ce qui concerne leur mémoire collective.; My doctoral dissertation...

Stereotype threat and the standardized testing experiences of African American children at an urban elementary school

Wasserberg, Martin J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group in a particular performance domain. The theory assumes that performance in the stereotyped domain is most negatively affected when individuals are more highly identified with the domain in question. As federal law has increased the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, it can be reasonably hypothesized that the standardized test performance of African American children will be depressed when they are aware of negative societal stereotypes about the academic competence of African Americans.^ This sequential mixed-methods study investigated whether the standardized testing experiences of African American children in an urban elementary school are related to their level of stereotype awareness. The quantitative phase utilized data from 198 African American children at an urban elementary school. Both ex-post facto and experimental designs were employed. Experimental conditions were diagnostic and non-diagnostic testing experiences. The qualitative phase utilized data from a series of six focus group interviews conducted with a purposefully selected group of 4 African American children. The interview data were supplemented with data from 30 hours of classroom observations. ^ Quantitative findings indicated that the stereotype threat condition evoked by diagnostic testing depresses the reading test performance of stereotype-aware African American children (F[1...

Stereotype Threat and the Standardized Testing Experiences of African American Children at an Urban Elementary School

Wasserberg, Martin J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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67.34415%
Stereotype threat (Steele & Aronson, 1995) refers to the risk of confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group in a particular performance domain. The theory assumes that performance in the stereotyped domain is most negatively affected when individuals are more highly identified with the domain in question. As federal law has increased the importance of standardized testing at the elementary level, it can be reasonably hypothesized that the standardized test performance of African American children will be depressed when they are aware of negative societal stereotypes about the academic competence of African Americans. This sequential mixed-methods study investigated whether the standardized testing experiences of African American children in an urban elementary school are related to their level of stereotype awareness. The quantitative phase utilized data from 198 African American children at an urban elementary school. Both ex-post facto and experimental designs were employed. Experimental conditions were diagnostic and non-diagnostic testing experiences. The qualitative phase utilized data from a series of six focus group interviews conducted with a purposefully selected group of 4 African American children. The interview data were supplemented with data from 30 hours of classroom observations. Quantitative findings indicated that the stereotype threat condition evoked by diagnostic testing depresses the reading test performance of stereotype-aware African American children (F[1...

A Comparison Study of the English III/American Literature Success of African American High School Students and That of Students Whose Home Language is Haitian Creole

Samuels, Sharon A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The purpose of the study was to compare the English III success of students whose home language is Haitian Creole (SWHLIHC) with that of the more visible African American high school students in the Miami Dade County Public Schools System, in an effort to offer insight that might assist educators in facilitating the educational success of SWHLIHC in American Literature class. The study was guided by two important theories on how students interact with and learn from literature. They are Reader Response Theory which advocates giving students the opportunity to become involved in the literature experience (Rosenblatt, 1995), and Critical Literacy, a theory developed by Paolo Freire and Henry Giroux, which espouses a critical approach to analysis of society that enables people to analyze social problems through lenses that would reveal social inequities and assist in transforming society into a more equitable entity. Data for the study: 10th grade reading FCAT scores, English III/American Literature grades, and Promotion to English IV records for the school year 2010-2011 were retrieved from the records division of the Miami Dade County Public Schools System. The study used a quantitative methods approach, the central feature of which was an ex post facto design with hypotheses (Newman...

Syndemic Health Disparities and Resilience Processes Related to HIV Transmission Risk among African American/Black Men in South Florida

Buttram, Mance E.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Rates of HIV infection continue to climb among minority populations and men who have sex with men (MSM), with African American/Black MSM being especially impacted. Numerous studies have found HIV transmission risk to be associated with many health and social disparities resulting from larger environmental and structural forces. Using anthropological and social environment-based theories of resilience that focus on individual agency and larger social and environmental structures, this dissertation employed a mixed methods design to investigate resilience processes among African American/Black MSM. Quantitative analyses compared African American/Black (N=108) and Caucasian/White (N=250) MSM who participated in a previously conducted randomized controlled trial (RCT) of sexual and substance use risk reduction interventions. At RCT study entry, using past 90 day recall periods, there were no differences in unprotected sex frequency, however African American/Black MSM reported higher frequencies of days high (P Qualitative data collected among a sub-sample of African American/Black MSM from the RCT (N=21) described the men’s experiences of living with multiple health and social disparities and the importance of RCT study assessments in facilitating reductions in risk behaviors. A cross-case analysis showed different resilience processes undertaken by men who experienced low socioeconomic status...

A Study Of Food Environments And Food Management Strategies Among African American Households In Gary, Indiana

Gates, Darleesa
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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African-Americans are disproportionately affected with food-related diseases. In fact, making healthy dietary choices—which is a frequent recommendation to reduce overweight and obesity, is not always feasible with presence of food deserts in many low-income communities. Income inequalities are the basis for many of the nation’s health disparities, and individuals’ food management strategies are often shaped by what they can afford and what is available to them. Unfortunately, low-income African-American communities compared to higher-income White communities often lack access to healthy food options and/or are not in close proximity to healthy quality grocery stores (Alwitt & Donley, 1997; Morland, Wing, Diez Roux, & Poole, 2002; Zenk, Schulz, Israel, Kames, Bao, & Wilson, 2005). Therefore, in order to effectively address food related disease within African-American populations, it is important to understand the complexities surrounding eating environments (i.e. social and cultural factors influencing aspects of food purchasing, access to safe and nutritious food and overall food management strategies). The aim of the proposed small-scale study is to examine differences and similarities in food purchase and consumption strategies of African American households during perceived periods of food shortage and financial crisis. A better understanding of food choices and food environments among African American households is essential for the development of appropriate and culturally sensitive public health interventions that inform research and practice. Thus...

Representations of African American Quiltmaking: From Omission to High Art

Klassen, Teri
Fonte: American Folklore Society and the University of Illinois Press Publicador: American Folklore Society and the University of Illinois Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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African American quiltmaking began to gain recognition as an expressive form distinct from European American quiltmaking in the countercultural climate of the 1970s. Representations of it since then have served to update the Eurocentric, patriotic image of quiltmaking in the United States with components of multiculturalism and cultural critique. These representations in turn caused tensions along the lines of class, race, gender, and scholarly discipline. This study shows the power of words and things when used together, as in museum exhibits, to affirm or challenge the existing social order.

Aural fictions: Sound in African American literature

Messmer, David
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
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This dissertation explores the importance of representations of sound in the African American literary tradition. Beginning with Frederick Douglass's descriptions of the slave songs and working through depictions of jazz in the early moments of the Civil Rights movement, I show that the aural dimension of African American culture has mediated black writers' engagement with written public discourse. Looking at such diverse works as slave narratives, essays, music books, serial fiction, autobiography, and the novel, this project demonstrates that the tension between aurality and the printed word motivates much of the political work that African American literary texts accomplish. By excavating the various strategies that black writers use to resolve this tension I argue that sound, especially music, functions in African American literature to allow black writers to engage in intertextual discourses that utilize aurality to speak across temporal and stylistic boundaries that have previously limited our critical inquiries. While critics have afforded substantial attention to African American musical culture and its influence on black writing---most notably Houston A. Baker's work on the "Blues Matrix" and Alexander G. Weheliye's notion of "Sonic Afro-Modernity"---this criticism has focused on specific musical forms as structuring agents that exert a direct influence upon black literature. My dissertation not only expands the site of critical inquiry to include non-musical sound...

Reaching an Underserved Wine Customer: Connecting with the African American Wine Consumer

Hammond, Rhonda; Sydnor, Sandra; Kang, Eunjoo
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Marketing strategies addressing underserved African American wine customers’ needs that also positively impact producers’ and retailers’ clientele was the impetus for this exploratory, qualitative paper. African Americans demonstrate a thirst to elevate their education about and be more involved in the wine industry as evidenced by the proliferation of African American wine-tasting groups designed to help educate and expose their membership to a variety of wines. Moreover, compared to the average adult, African-American wine drinkers are 241% more likely to have spent $20 or more on a bottle of store bought wine (Arbitron, 2005). Despite African Americans’ representation as one of the fastest growing ethnic minority segments in the U.S., wine industry strategies don't appear to connect with this market segment. Like Alice in Wonderland, we characterize this phenomenon by suggesting this market segment is ‘peering through the looking glass’. Three focus groups were conducted to specify possible targeted media strategies as well as to identify attitudes and opinions that influence this segment's wine purchasing and consumption behaviors. Industry strategies were suggested that would appear to benefit producers, retailers...

Black Notes on Asia: Composite Figurations of Asia in the African American Transcultural Imagination, 1923-2013

Arimitsu, Michio
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
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Black Notes on Asia: Composite Figurations of Asia in the African American Transcultural Imagination, 1923-2013 sheds new light on the hitherto neglected engagements of African American writers and thinkers with various literary, cultural, and artistic traditions of Asia. Starting with a reevaluation of Lewis G. Alexander's transcultural remaking of haiku in 1923, this dissertation interrogates and revises the familiar interracial (read as "black-white") terms of the African American struggle for freedom and equality. While critics have long taken for granted these terms as the sine qua non of the African American literary imagination and practice, this dissertation demonstrates how authors like Alexander defied not only the implicit dichotomy of black-and-white but also the critical bias that represents African American literature as a nationally segregated tradition distinctly cut off from cultural sources beyond the border of the United States and made legible only within its narrowly racialized and racializing contexts.; African and African American Studies

The Social Determinants of Health for African American Mothers Living with HIV

Caiola, Courtney Ellis
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Problem: The disparate health outcomes of African American mothers living with HIV functions at the intersection of gender-, race-, and class-inequality; HIV-related stigma; and motherhood, requiring multidimensional approaches to address the complex social and economic conditions of their lives, collectively known as the social determinants of health. African American women suffer significantly higher HIV infection rates and tend to die earlier from their infection than their White counterparts. Poverty is a significant precipitating factor for HIV infection and African American women are disproportionately poorer than other subpopulations in the United States. HIV-related stigma is linked to poorer mental and physical health outcomes across a broad range of demographic profiles. Being a mother adds an extra layer of social complexity to the lives of women living with HIV. This dissertation was designed to develop knowledge on the social determinants of health for African American mothers living with HIV by describing their social location at the intersection of gender-, race- and class – inequality; HIV-related stigma; and motherhood and exploring how their unique social identity influences their health-related experiences.

Methods: Using data from a literature review on intersectional approaches and other frameworks for examining vulnerable populations...

Voices of Jim Crow: Early Urban African American English in the Segregated South

Carpenter, Jeannine Lynn
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 2807126 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Debate about the development of African American English (AAE) dominated sociolinguistic inquiry for the second half of the 20th century and continues to be a subject of investigation. All hypotheses about the development of AAE integrate ideas of shared linguistic features coupled with strong regional influences or founding effects. Most Southern evidence used in the development of these hypotheses, however, is from rural communities or somehow unique enclave communities. The early urban centers of African American life in the South that followed the abolition of slavery and disintegration of plantation life have seldom been investigated with respect to the development of AAE. This study examines precisely those sites looking at AAE in three Southern urban centers during the time of Jim Crow or institutionalized segregation: Birmingham, Memphis, and New Orleans.

This analysis is based on a series of tape-recorded oral history interviews that were conducted as part of the Behind the Veil project at Duke University. The Behind the Veil project was launched in 1990 at Duke and the majority of the interviews were conducted between 1994 and 1997. Each speaker completed a survey regarding her/his life history, education, professional history...

Renal Disease Risk and Risk Perceptions Among African-American Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Migliore, Casey Lynn
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Abstract

Problem: African Americans face a disparate risk for renal disease development secondary to type 2 diabetes (T2D), and African-American women have shown to be at the highest risk. Despite this, there is minimal research on African American's awareness of renal disease and existing renal disease risk perceptions, and none focused specifically on African-American women with T2D. Although the literature has shown that a portion of this disparate risk is due to modifiable social and cultural factors, there is still a significant amount of unexplained risk. Since past research has shown that risk perceptions can influence preventative behaviors, it is important to gain an in-depth understanding of renal disease beliefs and existing risk perceptions among high-risk African-American women with T2D. Once risk perceptions are better understood in this population, interventions can be developed to correct inaccurate beliefs and risk perceptions and aim to decrease renal disease risk.

Methods: Three different methods of analyses were employed in this dissertation, including: 1) a systematic review of the literature, 2) an exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study, and 3) a quantitative secondary analysis, including descriptive statistics...

From Slave Ship to Supermax: The Prisoner Abuse Narrative in Contemporary African American Fiction

Alexander, Patrick Elliot
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Responding to African American literary criticism's recent engagements with contemporary U.S. imprisonment, From Slave Ship to Supermax traces the development of a heretofore un-theorized tradition in African American literature in which fiction writers bring to light the voice, critical thinking, and literary production of actual prisoner abuse survivors. This dissertation treats novelists James Baldwin, Toni Morrison, Charles Johnson, and Ernest Gaines as the contemporary prison's literary intermediaries, as writers whose fictional narratives of jailhouse beatings, rape and wounding on slave ships, and state-sponsored execution are inspired and haunted by the critically-unexamined abuse stories of late-twentieth century prisoners. Drawing from the field of African American literary theory, political prisoners' writings, as well as prisoners' low-circulating zines, journals, and pamphlets, I argue that the production and distribution of abuse narratives by African American fiction's captive characters illuminate the clandestine and insurgent literary practices of actual abused prisoners. This revelatory work accomplished by Baldwin, Morrison, Johnson, and Gaines demonstrates the radical utility of African American fiction at a moment in which prisoner abuse is widespread...

African American non-nursing science majors' perceptions of nursing in the context of career ideals

Alexander, Robbi K.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Diefenbeck, Cynthia; The racial/ethnic distribution of the Registered Nurse workforce (African Americans 5.4%) differs substantially from the United States population (African Americans 13.1%), contributing to ongoing health disparities. Much of the nursing education literature that addresses the recruitment of nursing students from underrepresented minority groups focuses on the support and retention of disadvantaged and academically underprepared students. It has been suggested that a career in nursing is not the path to upward social and professional mobility that it once was for African American women, and it is unknown how a career in nursing is perceived by African American students with science interest and aptitude. A qualitative descriptive study was employed to explore the perceptions of nursing held by African American undergraduate non-nursing science majors within the context of their career ideals. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 20 African American undergraduate non-nursing science majors. Qualitative data collection techniques and three interactive processes of analysis (data condensation, data display, drawing and verifying conclusions) were employed. Results indicate that for this group of STEM (science...

Blood Pressure and Cognitive Function in an African-American and a Caucasian-American Sample: The Maine-Syracuse Study

Robbins, Michael A; Elias, Merrill F; Elias, Penelope K; Budge, Marc
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to examine associations between indices of blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function for African-American participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Corresponding data for the Caucasian-American MSLS participants were included to provide a basis for comparison. Interactions of age with BP indices were also assessed in relation to cognitive function. Methods: Data were drawn from the baseline MSLS questionnaires, medical interviews and examinations, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests, and measurements of BP for 1563 participants, of whom 147 were African American. Multiple linear regression analyses were employed to examine the relationship between several BP predictors and cognitive outcomes with statistical adjustment for demographic, psychosocial, and cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Significant inverse associations between BP indices and cognitive performance were obtained for both racial cohorts but were generally of higher magnitude for the African-American cohort. Interactions of BP with age were not obtained for any of the cognitive test scores. Conclusions: Elevations in BP are associated with poorer cognitive function for African-American and Caucasian-American cohorts. These associations are similar for younger and older participants.