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Taxonomic assessment and biotechnological potential of yeasts hold at the Unesp - Central for microbial resources

Dayo-Owoyemi, Ifeloju
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 205 f. : il., tabs.
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Pós-graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Microbiologia Aplicada) - IBRC; Atualmente, existe um crescente interesse em explorar diversos habitats, a fim de revelar a biodiversidade microbiana, incluindo as leveduras. Tal diversidade ainda não acessada guarda a descoberta de novas espécies para ciência, provavelmente muitas das quais com potencial para aproveitamento em processos biotecnológicos. Com o objetivo de explorar e conservar a diversidade de fungos, o Central de Recursos Microbianos da UNESP (CRM – UNESP) mantém em seu acervo várias estirpes de leveduras isoladas de ecossistemas diversos, sendo alguns deles pouco explorados. No início deste trabalho sabíamos que muitas das leveduras depositadas no acervo do CRM – UNESP não estavam totalmente caracterizadas tanto em nível taxonômico, quanto em relação ao potencial biotecnológico que poderiam apresentar. Portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para caracterizar e identificar taxonomicamente leveduras depositadas no CRM – UNESP, bem como selecionar estirpes que produzem enzimas extracelulares degradadoras de polissacarídeos como amilase, celulase, xilanase, pectinase e ligninase. Usando uma abordagem polifásica, um total de 340 isolados de leveduras foi identificado...

Diversidade de basidiomicetes (Fungi) xilófilos na Reserva Rio das Furnas, Alfredo Wagner, Santa Catarina, Brasil

Gerlach, Alice da Cruz Lima
Fonte: Florianópolis, SC. Publicador: Florianópolis, SC.
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: 61
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TCC(graduação) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Centro de Ciências Biológicas. Biologia.; O inventário dos basidiomicetes (Basidiomycota, Fungi) lignolíticos no município de Alfredo Wagner, Santa Catarina, Brasil, resultou na identificação de 38 táxons distribuídos nas famílias Ganodermataceae (Donk) Donk (2), Meruliaceae P. Karst. (5), Phanerochaetaceae Jülich (1), Polyporaceae Corda (15), Meripilaceae Jülich (2), Schizophyllaceae Quél. (1), Gloeophyllaceae Jülich (1), Hymenochaetaceae Imazeki & Toki (7), Schizoporaceae Jülich (1), Auriculariaceae Fr. (1), Dacrymycetaceae J. Schröt (1) e Tremellaceae Fr. (1), pertencentes a 7 ordens (Polyporales, Agaricales, Gloephyllales, Hymenochaetales, Auriculariales, Dacrymycetales e Tremellales) e a 3 classes (Agaricomycetes, Dacrymycetes e Tremellomycetes). Três espécies, Mycobonia brunneoleuca (Berkeley & Curtis) Patouillard, Mycoacia cf aurea (Fr.) J. Erikss. & Ryvarden, e Spongipellis cf africana Ipulet & Ryvarden foram citadas pela primeira vez para o Brasil. Esta última, se confirmada, será o segundo registro para a Ciência. Por outro lado, Amauroderma schomburgkii (Mont. & Berk) Torrend, Inocutis jamaicensis (Murrill) A.M. Gottlieb, J.E. Wright & Moncalvo...

Lactarius deliciosus isolate UEZB1 internal transcribed spacer 1, partial sequence; 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence

Santos-Silva, Celeste; Louro, Rogério; Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Martins, Maria Rosário; Klimaszewska, Kristina; Ganhão, Elsa; Zavattieri, Amely
Fonte: National Center for Biotechnology Information, GENBANK, USA Publicador: National Center for Biotechnology Information, GENBANK, USA
Tipo: Aula
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LOCUS JQ066791 439 bp DNA linear PLN 20-MAR-2012 DEFINITION Lactarius deliciosus isolate UEZB1 internal transcribed spacer 1, partial sequence; 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ACCESSION JQ066791 VERSION JQ066791.1 GI:380467948 KEYWORDS . SOURCE Lactarius deliciosus ORGANISM Lactarius deliciosus Eukaryota; Fungi; Dikarya; Basidiomycota; Agaricomycotina; Agaricomycetes; Russulales; Russulaceae; Lactarius.

Biogeography of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, a yeast with biotechnological potential: population mapping and host associations

Palma, Márcia Cristina David, 1982
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Microbiologia Aplicada). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011; Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous é uma levedura basidiomiceta cuja grande relevância biotecnológica advém do facto de ser a única espécie cujo principal pigmento produzido é astaxantina. Este carotenoide possui várias atividades biológicas relevantes e inúmeras aplicações industriais, sendo o segundo carotenoide mais rentável do mercado. Apesar do interesse nesta levedura devido às suas aplicações biotecnológicas, ainda são limitados os conhecimentos sobre a sua biologia e biogeografia. X. dendrorhous foi isolada pela primeira vez durante a década de 60 do século passado a partir de exsudados de árvores de folha caduca em diversas localizações no Hemisfério Norte, tendo-se considerado durante muito tempo restrita a estes habitats e latitudes. Inicialmente descrita como uma levedura assexuada designada Phaffia rhodozyma, em 1995 o seu estado sexuado, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous, foi observado e descrito pela primeira vez. O seu ciclo sexuado é caracterizado pela conjugação entre a célula-mãe e a gémula, após a qual ocorre a formação de um holobasídio aéreo que subsequentemente dá origem a basidiósporos na sua extremidade apical. Este estado sexuado é despoletado pela presença de polióis no meio de cultura. Taxonomicamente esta levedura encontra-se classificada na ordem Cystofilobasidiales...

Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses§

Zhao, Rui-lin; Desjardin, Dennis E.; Soytong, Kasem; Hyde, Kevin D.
Fonte: Zhejiang University Press Publicador: Zhejiang University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2008 Português
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We present an overview of previous research results on the molecular phylogenetic analyses in Agaricales and its higher ranks (Agaricomycetes/Agaricomycotina/Basidiomycota) along with the most recent treatments of taxonomic systems in these taxa. Establishing phylogenetic hypotheses using DNA sequences, from which an understanding of the natural evolutionary relationships amongst clades may be derived, requires a robust dataset. It has been recognized that single-gene phylogenies may not truly represent organismal phylogenies, but the concordant phylogenetic genealogies from multiple-gene datasets can resolve this problem. The genes commonly used in mushroom phylogenetic research are summarized.

Septal Pore Cap Protein SPC18, Isolated from the Basidiomycetous Fungus Rhizoctonia solani, Also Resides in Pore Plugs▿

van Driel, Kenneth G. A.; van Peer, Arend F.; Grijpstra, Jan; Wösten, Han A. B.; Verkleij, Arie J.; Müller, Wally H.; Boekhout, Teun
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The hyphae of filamentous fungi are compartmentalized by septa that have a central pore. The fungal septa and septum-associated structures play an important role in maintaining cellular and intrahyphal homeostasis. The dolipore septa in the higher Basidiomycota (i.e., Agaricomycotina) are associated with septal pore caps. Although the ultrastructure of the septal pore caps has been studied extensively, neither the biochemical composition nor the function of these organelles is known. Here, we report the identification of the glycoprotein SPC18 that was found in the septal pore cap-enriched fraction of the basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Based on its N-terminal sequence, the SPC18 gene was isolated. SPC18 encodes a protein of 158 amino acid residues, which contains a hydrophobic signal peptide for targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum and has an N-glycosylation motif. Immunolocalization showed that SPC18 is present in the septal pore caps. Surprisingly, we also observed SPC18 being localized in some plugs. The data reported here strongly support the hypothesis that septal pore caps are derived from endoplasmic reticulum and are involved in dolipore plugging and, thus, contribute to hyphal homeostasis in basidiomycetous fungi.

Atractiellomycetes belonging to the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina) form mycorrhizae with terrestrial and epiphytic neotropical orchids

Kottke, Ingrid; Suárez, Juan Pablo; Herrera, Paulo; Cruz, Dario; Bauer, Robert; Haug, Ingeborg; Garnica, Sigisfredo
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Distinctive groups of fungi are involved in the diverse mycorrhizal associations of land plants. All previously known mycorrhiza-forming Basidiomycota associated with trees, ericads, liverworts or orchids are hosted in Agaricomycetes, Agaricomycotina. Here we demonstrate for the first time that Atractiellomycetes, members of the ‘rust’ lineage (Pucciniomycotina), are mycobionts of orchids. The mycobionts of 103 terrestrial and epiphytic orchid individuals, sampled in the tropical mountain rainforest of Southern Ecuador, were identified by sequencing the whole ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and part of 28S rDNA. Mycorrhizae of 13 orchid individuals were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Simple septal pores and symplechosomes in the hyphal coils of mycorrhizae from four orchid individuals indicated members of Atractiellomycetes. Molecular phylogeny of sequences from mycobionts of 32 orchid individuals out of 103 samples confirmed Atractiellomycetes and the placement in Pucciniomycotina, previously known to comprise only parasitic and saprophytic fungi. Thus, our finding reveals these fungi, frequently associated to neotropical orchids, as the most basal living basidiomycetes involved in mycorrhizal associations of land plants.

Insights into evolution of multicellular fungi from the assembled chromosomes of the mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea (Coprinus cinereus)

Stajich, Jason E.; Wilke, Sarah K.; Ahrén, Dag; Au, Chun Hang; Birren, Bruce W.; Borodovsky, Mark; Burns, Claire; Canbäck, Björn; Casselton, Lorna A.; Cheng, C.K.; Deng, Jixin; Dietrich, Fred S.; Fargo, David C.; Farman, Mark L.; Gathman, Allen C.; Gol
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea is a classic experimental model for multicellular development in fungi because it grows on defined media, completes its life cycle in 2 weeks, produces some 108 synchronized meiocytes, and can be manipulated at all stages in development by mutation and transformation. The 37-megabase genome of C. cinerea was sequenced and assembled into 13 chromosomes. Meiotic recombination rates vary greatly along the chromosomes, and retrotransposons are absent in large regions of the genome with low levels of meiotic recombination. Single-copy genes with identifiable orthologs in other basidiomycetes are predominant in low-recombination regions of the chromosome. In contrast, paralogous multicopy genes are found in the highly recombining regions, including a large family of protein kinases (FunK1) unique to multicellular fungi. Analyses of P450 and hydrophobin gene families confirmed that local gene duplications drive the expansions of paralogous copies and the expansions occur in independent lineages of Agaricomycotina fungi. Gene-expression patterns from microarrays were used to dissect the transcriptional program of dikaryon formation (mating). Several members of the FunK1 kinase family are differentially regulated during sexual morphogenesis...

Characterization of Three mnp Genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and Report of Additional Class II Peroxidases in the Order Hymenochaetales ▿ †

Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L.; Hibbett, David S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.13) containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only.

Distinct Microbial Communities within the Endosphere and Rhizosphere of Populus deltoides Roots across Contrasting Soil Types ▿†

Gottel, Neil R.; Castro, Hector F.; Kerley, Marilyn; Yang, Zamin; Pelletier, Dale A.; Podar, Mircea; Karpinets, Tatiana; Uberbacher, Ed; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Schadt, Christopher W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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The root-rhizosphere interface of Populus is the nexus of a variety of associations between bacteria, fungi, and the host plant and an ideal model for studying interactions between plants and microorganisms. However, such studies have generally been confined to greenhouse and plantation systems. Here we analyze microbial communities from the root endophytic and rhizospheric habitats of Populus deltoides in mature natural trees from both upland and bottomland sites in central Tennessee. Community profiling utilized 454 pyrosequencing with separate primers targeting the V4 region for bacterial 16S rRNA and the D1/D2 region for fungal 28S rRNA genes. Rhizosphere bacteria were dominated by Acidobacteria (31%) and Alphaproteobacteria (30%), whereas most endophytes were from the Gammaproteobacteria (54%) as well as Alphaproteobacteria (23%). A single Pseudomonas-like operational taxonomic unit (OTU) accounted for 34% of endophytic bacterial sequences. Endophytic bacterial richness was also highly variable and 10-fold lower than in rhizosphere samples originating from the same roots. Fungal rhizosphere and endophyte samples had approximately equal amounts of the Pezizomycotina (40%), while the Agaricomycotina were more abundant in the rhizosphere (34%) than endosphere (17%). Both fungal and bacterial rhizosphere samples were highly clustered compared to the more variable endophyte samples in a UniFrac principal coordinates analysis...

Comparing COI and ITS as DNA Barcode Markers for Mushrooms and Allies (Agaricomycotina)

Dentinger, Bryn T. M.; Didukh, Maryna Y.; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/09/2011 Português
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DNA barcoding is an approach to rapidly identify species using short, standard genetic markers. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) has been proposed as the universal barcode locus, but its utility for barcoding in mushrooms (ca. 20,000 species) has not been established. We succeeded in generating 167 partial COI sequences (∼450 bp) representing ∼100 morphospecies from ∼650 collections of Agaricomycotina using several sets of new primers. Large introns (∼1500 bp) at variable locations were detected in ∼5% of the sequences we obtained. We suspect that widespread presence of large introns is responsible for our low PCR success (∼30%) with this locus. We also sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions (ITS) to compare with COI. Among the small proportion of taxa for which COI could be sequenced, COI and ITS perform similarly as a barcode. However, in a densely sampled set of closely related taxa, COI was less divergent than ITS and failed to distinguish all terminal clades. Given our results and the wealth of ITS data already available in public databases, we recommend that COI be abandoned in favor of ITS as the primary DNA barcode locus in mushrooms.

Diversity Measures in Environmental Sequences Are Highly Dependent on Alignment Quality—Data from ITS and New LSU Primers Targeting Basidiomycetes

Krüger, Dirk; Kapturska, Danuta; Fischer, Christiane; Daniel, Rolf; Wubet, Tesfaye
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/02/2012 Português
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The ribosomal DNA comprised of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions is widely used as a fungal marker in molecular ecology and systematics but cannot be aligned with confidence across genetically distant taxa. In order to study the diversity of Agaricomycotina in forest soils, we designed primers targeting the more alignable 28S (LSU) gene, which should be more useful for phylogenetic analyses of the detected taxa. This paper compares the performance of the established ITS1F/4B primer pair, which targets basidiomycetes, to that of two new pairs. Key factors in the comparison were the diversity covered, off-target amplification, rarefaction at different Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) cutoff levels, sensitivity of the method used to process the alignment to missing data and insecure positional homology, and the congruence of monophyletic clades with OTU assignments and BLAST-derived OTU names. The ITS primer pair yielded no off-target amplification but also exhibited the least fidelity to the expected phylogenetic groups. The LSU primers give complementary pictures of diversity, but were more sensitive to modifications of the alignment such as the removal of difficult-to align stretches. The LSU primers also yielded greater numbers of singletons but also had a greater tendency to produce OTUs containing sequences from a wider variety of species as judged by BLAST similarity. We introduced some new parameters to describe alignment heterogeneity based on Shannon entropy and the extent and contents of the OTUs in a phylogenetic tree space. Our results suggest that ITS should not be used when calculating phylogenetic trees from genetically distant sequences obtained from environmental DNA extractions and that it is inadvisable to define OTUs on the basis of very heterogeneous alignments.

Patterns of Repeat-Induced Point Mutation in Transposable Elements of Basidiomycete Fungi

Horns, Felix; Petit, Elsa; Yockteng, Roxana; Hood, Michael E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous genomic parasites that have prompted the evolution of genome defense systems that restrict their activity. Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) is a homology-dependent genome defense that introduces C-to-T transition mutations in duplicated DNA sequences and is thought to control the proliferation of selfish repetitive DNA. Here, we determine the taxonomic distribution of hypermutation patterns indicative of RIP among basidiomycetes. We quantify C-to-T transition mutations in particular di- and trinucleotide target sites for TE-like sequences from nine fungal genomes. We find evidence of RIP-like patterns of hypermutation at TpCpG trinucleotide sites in repetitive sequences from all species of the Pucciniomycotina subphylum of the Basidiomycota, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, Puccinia graminis, Melampsora laricis-populina, and Rhodotorula graminis. In contrast, we do not find evidence for RIP-like hypermutation in four species of the Agaricomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina subphyla of the Basidiomycota. Our results suggest that a RIP-like process and the specific nucleotide context for mutations are conserved within the Pucciniomycotina subphylum. These findings imply that coevolutionary interactions between TEs and a hypermutating genome defense are stable over long evolutionary timescales.

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation to a humic-rich ecological niche

Morin, Emmanuelle; Kohler, Annegret; Baker, Adam R.; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Lombard, Vincent; Nagye, Laszlo G.; Ohm, Robin A.; Patyshakuliyeva, Aleksandrina; Brun, Annick; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bailey, Andrew M.; Billette, Christophe; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Dea
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Agaricus bisporus is the model fungus for the adaptation, persistence, and growth in the humic-rich leaf-litter environment. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the “button mushroom” forms a multibillion dollar industry. We present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles on compost and during mushroom formation. The genomes encode a full repertoire of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes similar to that of wood-decayers. Comparative transcriptomics of mycelium grown on defined medium, casing-soil, and compost revealed genes encoding enzymes involved in xylan, cellulose, pectin, and protein degradation are more highly expressed in compost. The striking expansion of heme-thiolate peroxidases and β-etherases is distinctive from Agaricomycotina wood-decayers and suggests a broad attack on decaying lignin and related metabolites found in humic acid-rich environment. Similarly, up-regulation of these genes together with a lignolytic manganese peroxidase, multiple copper radical oxidases, and cytochrome P450s is consistent with challenges posed by complex humic-rich substrates. The gene repertoire and expression of hydrolytic enzymes in A. bisporus is substantially different from the taxonomically related ectomycorrhizal symbiont Laccaria bicolor. A common promoter motif was also identified in genes very highly expressed in humic-rich substrates. These observations reveal genetic and enzymatic mechanisms governing adaptation to the humic-rich ecological niche formed during plant degradation...

The evolution and pathogenic mechanisms of the rice sheath blight pathogen

Zheng, Aiping; Lin, Runmao; Zhang, Danhua; Qin, Peigang; Xu, Lizhi; Ai, Peng; Ding, Lei; Wang, Yanran; Chen, Yao; Liu, Yao; Sun, Zhigang; Feng, Haitao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Fu, Rongtao; Tang, Changqing; Li, Qiao; Zhang, Jing; Xie, Zelin; Deng, Qiming; Li, Shu
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/01/2013 Português
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Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice (Oryza sativa L.) that causes great yield losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the rice sheath blight disease pathogen, R. solani AG1 IA, assembled using next-generation Illumina Genome Analyser sequencing technologies. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of secreted proteins, enzymes of primary and secondary metabolism, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transporters, which probably reflect an exclusive necrotrophic lifestyle. We find few repetitive elements, a closer relationship to Agaricomycotina among Basidiomycetes, and expand protein domains and families. Among the 25 candidate pathogen effectors identified according to their functionality and evolution, we validate 3 that trigger crop defence responses; hence we reveal the exclusive expression patterns of the pathogenic determinants during host infection.

DIRS and Ngaro Retrotransposons in Fungi

Muszewska, Anna; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2013 Português
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Retrotransposons with a tyrosine recombinase (YR) have been discovered recently and lack thorough annotation in fungi. YR retrotransposons are divided into 3 groups: DIRS, Ngaro and VIPER (known only from kinetoplastida). We used comparative genomics to investigate the evolutionary patterns of retrotransposons in the fungal kingdom. The identification of both functional and remnant elements provides a unique view on both recent and past transposition activity. Our searches covering a wide range of fungal genomes allowed us to identify 2241 YR retrotransposons. Based on CLANS clustering of concatenated sequences of the reverse transcriptase (RT), RNase H (RH), DNA N-6-adenine-methyltransferase (MT) and YR protein domains we propose a revised classification of YR elements expanded by two new categories of Ngaro elements. A phylogenetic analysis of 477 representatives supports this observation and additionally demonstrates that DIRS and Ngaro abundance changed independently in Basidiomycota and Blastocladiomycota/Mucoromycotina/Kixellomycotina. Interestingly, a single remnant Ngaro element could be identified in an Ascomycota genome. Our analysis revealed also that 3 Pucciniomycotina taxa, known for their overall mobile element abundance and big genome size...

Two new species of hydnoid-fungi from India

Das, Kanad; Stalpers, Joost A.; Stielow, J. Benjamin
Fonte: International Mycological Association Publicador: International Mycological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Two taxa, Hericium yumthangense (Russulales, Agaricomycotina) and Mycoleptodonoides sharmae (Polyporales, Agaricomycotina) are described as new to science from the Shingba Rhododendron sanctuary located in the northern district of Sikkim, India. Macro- and micromorphological characters are described and illustrated for both species, which are compared with allied taxa. ITS rDNA sequences supported H. yumthangense as a rather isolated species within Hericium, the species complexes of which were not resolved due to low interspecific sequence divergence. In the case of M. sharmae, 28S rDNA (D1/D2) data rendered this poorly known genus among well-known taxa of the core-polyporoid clade.

The genome of the basal agaricomycete Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous provides insights into the organization of its acetyl-CoA derived pathways and the evolution of Agaricomycotina

Sharma, Rahul; Gassel, Sören; Steiger, Sabine; Xia, Xiaojuan; Bauer, Robert; Sandmann, Gerhard; Thines, Marco
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2015 Português
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Basidioascus undulatus: genome, origins, and sexuality

Nguyen, Hai D.T.; Chabot, Denise; Hirooka, Yuuri; Roberson, Robert W.; Seifert, Keith A.
Fonte: International Mycological Association Publicador: International Mycological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Basidioascus undulatus is a soil basidiomycete belonging to the order Geminibasidiales. The taxonomic status of the order was unclear as originally it was only tentatively classified in the class Wallemiomycetes. The fungi in Geminibasidiales have an ambiguously defined sexual cycle. In this study, we sequenced the genome of B. undulatus to gain insights into its sexuality and evolutionary origins. The assembled genome draft was approximately 32 Mb in size, had a median nucleotide coverage of 24X, and contained 6123 predicted genes. Previous morphological descriptions of B. undulatus relied on interpretation of putative sexual structures. In this study, nuclear staining and confocal microscopy showed meiosis occurring in basidia and genome analysis confirmed the existence of genes involved in meiosis and mating. Using 35 protein-coding genes extracted from genomic information, phylogenomic and molecular dating analyses confirmed that B. undulatus indeed belongs to a lineage distantly related to Wallemia while retaining a basal position in Agaricomycotina. These results, combined with differences in septal pore morphology, led us to move the order Geminibasidiales out of the Wallemiomycetes and into the new class Geminibasidiomycetes cl. nov. Finally...

Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens

Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Matowane, Godfrey; Chen, Wanping; Sun, Yuxin; Letsimo, Elizabeth Mpholoseng; Parvez, Mohammad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Syed, Khajamohiddin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2015 Português
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Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence). Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea), Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis) and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala), revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea) to 14 (M. osmundae). Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms...