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Censorship and two types of self-censorship

Cook, Philip; Heilmann, Conrad
Fonte: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics Publicador: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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We propose and defend a distinction between two types of self-censorship: public and private. In public self-censorship, individuals restrain their expressive attitudes in response to public censors. In private self-censorship, individuals do so in the absence of public censorship. We argue for this distinction by introducing a general model which allows us to identify, describe, and compare a wide range of censorship regimes. The model explicates the interaction between censors and censees and yields the distinction between two types of self-censorship. In public self-censorship, the censee aligns her expression of attitudes according to the public censor. In private self-censorship, the roles of censor and censee are fullled by the same agent. The distinction has repercussions for normative analysis: principles of free speech can only be invoked in cases of public self-censorship.

Measurement-theoretic foundations of time discounting in economics

Heilmann, Conrad
Fonte: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics Publicador: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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In economics, the concept of time discounting introduces weights on future goods to make these less valuable. Yet, both the conceptual motivation for time discounting and its specic functional form remain contested. To address these problems, this paper provides a measurement-theoretic framework of representation for time discounting. The representation theorem characterises time discounting factors by representations of time dierences. This general result can be interpreted with existing theories of time discounting to clarify their formal and conceptual assumptions. It also provides a conceptually neutral framework for comparing the descriptive and normative merits of those theories.

Can free evidence be bad? Value of information for the imprecise probabilist

Bradley, Seamus; Steele, Katie
Fonte: Philosophy of Science Association Publicador: Philosophy of Science Association
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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This paper considers a puzzling conflict between two positions that are each compelling: (A) it is irrational for an agent to pay to avoid `free' evidence before making a decision, and (B) rational agents may have imprecise beliefs and/or desires. Indeed, we show that Good's theorem (Good, 1967) concerning the invariable choice-worthiness of free evidence does not generalise to the imprecise realm, given the plausible existing decision theories for handling imprecision. A key ingredient in the analysis, and a potential source of controversy, is the general approach taken for resolving sequential decision problems { we make explicit what the key alternatives are and defend our own approach. Furthermore, we endorse a resolution of the aforementioned puzzle { we privilege decision theories that merely permit avoiding free evidence over decision theories for which avoiding free evidence is uniquely admissible. Finally, we situate this particular result about free evidence within the broader `dynamic-coherence' literature.

Philosophy of climate science part I: observing climate change

Frigg, Roman; Thompson, Erica; Werndl, Charlotte
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2015 Português
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This is the first of three parts of an introduction to the philosophy of climate science. In this first part about observing climate change, the topics of definitions of climate and climate change, data sets and data models, detection of climate change, and attribution of climate change will be discussed.

Philosophy of climate science part II: modelling climate change

Frigg, Roman; Thompson, Erica; Werndl, Charlotte
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2015 Português
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This is the second of three parts of an introduction to the philosophy of climate science. In this second part about modelling climate change, the topics of climate modelling, confirmation of climate models, the limits of climate projections, uncertainty and finally model ensembles will be discussed.

Book review: Laruelle and non-philosophy

Nell, Miranda
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/05/2013 Português
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"Laruelle and Non-Philosophy." John Mullarkey and Anthony Paul Smith (eds.). Edinburgh University Press. July 2012. --- Presenting critical essays on the work of arguably one of the most important French philosophers of the last 20 years, this collection provides an overview of Laruelle’s thought and an understanding of his contemporary relevance. Aiming to challenge concepts such as immanence, pluralism, resistance, science, democracy, Marxism, theology and materialism, Laruelle’s concept of ‘non-philosophy’ also expands our view of what counts as philosophical thought, through art, science and politics, and beyond. Reviewed by Miranda Nell.

Book review: Philosophy and resistance in the crisis: Greece and the future of Europe

Lee, Jia Hui
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/07/2013 Português
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"Philosophy and Resistance in the Crisis: Greece and the Future of Europe." Costas Douzinas. Polity. May 2013. --- This book is about the global crisis and the right to resistance, about neoliberal biopolitics and direct democracy, about the responsibility of intellectuals and the poetry of the multitude. Using Greece as an example, Costas Douzinas argues that the persistent sequence of protests, uprisings and revolutions has radically changed the political landscape. This new politics is the latest example of the drive to resist, a persevering characteristic of the human spirit. By asking if another world is possible, Douzinas presents some hope that the rebellion against austerity is perhaps a sign of a more democratic and equitable Europe to come, writes Jia Hui Lee.

Book review: do microbes question standard thinking in the philosophy of biology?

Werndl, Charlotte
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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This is a highly welcome book that offers a fresh perspective on the philosophy of biology.1 It is of interest to both philosophers and biologists and to experienced readers as well as novices. The book is structured into four sections ‘Science’, ‘Biology’, ‘Microbes’ and ‘Humans’ and consists of a collection of articles written by John Dupré over the past few years. A very wide range of topics are discussed. Among other things, Dupré defends a pluralism that emphasizes that while there is only physical stuff, the kind of things composed of this stuff are fundamentally diverse, a modest form of social constructivism, the inseparability of science and values, the thesis of promiscuous individualism that there are various ways of dividing living systems into organisms and an anti-reductionist position about biology stating that complex objects possess properties that are autonomous from properties of their constituent parts. Dupré also argues that the success in understanding the chemical basis of genetics has undermined a simplistic view of inheritance, that the New Synthesis is flawed and instead evolutionary theory is a theory in flux, that biological individuals are typically symbiotic wholes involving many organisms of radically different kinds and genomes...

An interview with Michael Dummett: from analytical philosophy to voting analysis and beyond

Fara, Rudolf; Salles, Maurice
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
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Social choice and welfare economics are subjects at the frontier of many disciplines. Even if economics played the major role in their development, sociology, psychology and, principally, political science, mathematics and philosophy have been central for the manifold inventiveness of the employed methods and for the diversity of the studied topics. This phenomenon can be compared with game theory, a subject which has, of course, many connections with social choice and welfare. This fact is reflected by the disciplinary origins of the contributors to the subject and, as an anecdote, by the disciplinary origins of the board of editors of this journal. Philosophers are expected to contribute mainly to the study of social justice and related ethical questions. But there is a tradition among logicians for studying voting theory. A famous example is C. L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), even though the complete works of Dodgson on voting occupy only a few pages. A major recent example is Michael Dummett. Michael Dummett is famous among social choice theorists for his joint paper with Robin Farquharson published in Econometrica in 1961. Later he wrote two important books on voting (Dummett (1984, 1997); for an overview see Salles (2006)). But it must be outlined that Michael Dummett is also...

Book review: Philosophy for life and other dangerous situations by Jules Evans

Simmons, Jonathan
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/01/2013 Português
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In Philosophy for Life And Other Dangerous Situations, Jules Evans explains how ancient philosophy saved his life, and how we might all use it to become happier, wiser, and more resilient. Jules explores how ancient philosophy can inspire modern communities – Socratic cafes, Stoic armies, Platonic sects, Sceptic summer camps – and even whole nations in their quest for the good life. Jonathan Simmons finds that Evans successfully delivers in his attempt to bring a therapeutic model of philosophy to general readers, but has reservations about the author’s approach.

Hunting causes and using them: approaches in philosophy and economics: summary

Cartwright, Nancy
Fonte: Oxford Journals Publicador: Oxford Journals
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
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Hunting Causes and Using Them: Approaches in Philosophy and Economics (HC&UT) is about notions of causality appropriate to the sciences, mostly generic causal claims (causal laws) and especially notions that connect causality with probability. 1 Most of the work for the book is associated with the project ‘Causality: Metaphysics and Methods’. This project argued that metaphysics – our account of what causal laws are or what general causal claims say – should march hand-in-hand with our ways of establishing them. It should be apparent, given the kind of thing we think causality is, why our methods are good for finding it. If our metaphysics does not mesh with and underwrite the methods, we are willing to trust, we should be wary of both. Many philosophers nowadays look for a single informative feature that characterizes causal laws. HC&UT argues instead for causal pluralism, for a large variety of kinds of causal laws as well as purposes for which we call scientific claims causal. Correlatively different methods for testing causal claims are suited to different kinds of causal laws. No one analysis is privileged and no methods are universally applicable. Much of the argument for pluralism is provided by authors of different accounts of causality...

Descartes' demon: a dialogical analysis of meditations on first philosophy

Gillespie, Alex
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Descartes argued that the existence of reflective thought should be the first principle of philosophy because it is indubitable. The present paper draws on Bakhtinian and Meadian theories to analyse the three key paragraphs in the Meditations in which Descartes argues this point. The analysis demonstrates: (1) that Descartes’ text contains the traces of significant others and the discourses of his time; (2) that the sequence of thoughts that leads Descartes to his first principle is fundamentally dialogical; (3) that Descartes’ self-awareness, which he takes as primary, depends upon his reflecting upon himself from the perspective of a more or less generalized other; and finally (4) that Descartes takes the perspective of the other by reversing his own reactions towards others, such that he reacts to himself in the same way that he previously reacted to others. This reanalysis challenges Cartesian solipsism, arguing that the mind, or self-reflection, is fundamentally social.

Rethinking boltzmannian equilibrium

Werndl, Charlotte; Frigg, Roman
Fonte: Philosophy of Science Association Publicador: Philosophy of Science Association
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Boltzmannian statistical mechanics partitions the phase space of a sys- tem into macro-regions, and the largest of these is identified with equilibrium. What justifies this identification? Common answers focus on Boltzmann’s combinatorial argument, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, and maxi- mum entropy considerations. We argue that they fail and present a new answer. We characterise equilibrium as the macrostate in which a system spends most of its time and prove a new theorem establishing that equilib- rium thus defined corresponds to the largest macro-region. Our derivation is completely general in that it does not rely on assumptions about a system’s dynamics or internal interactions.

Book review: Ideas of education: philosophy and politics from Plato to Dewey

Marples, Alice
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/09/2013 Português
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"Ideas of Education: Philosophy and Politics from Plato to Dewey." Christopher Brooke & Elizabeth Frazer (eds.). Routledge. May 2013. --- This book draws together a range of educational pioneers and thinkers from the canon of philosophers and philosophical schools, from Plato and Aristotle, down to Edward Carpenter and John Dewey, with attention along the way paid to both individual authors like Thomas Hobbes and Mary Wollstonecraft, as well as to intellectual movements, such as the Scottish Enlightenment and the Utopian Socialists. Alice Marples finds that this book represents something of a call for links between political philosophy and education to be debated and discussed as critically in the future as they have been for centuries past.

Book Review: Political philosophy: a beginner’s guide for students and politicians

Harkins, Steven
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2013 Português
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"Political Philosophy: A Beginner’s Guide for Students and Politicians." Third Edition. Adam Swift. Polity Press. October 2013. --- This new edition of Adam Swift‘s highly readable introduction to political philosophy includes new material on global justice, feminism, and method in political theory, as well as updated guides to further reading. This book aims to bring the insights of the world′s leading political philosophers to a wide general audience, and employs plenty of examples in an attempt to equip readers to think for themselves about the ideas that shape political life. This is a fluent and well written introductory text for students of political philosophy and it serves as a very good jumping off point for studying the issues involved in more depth, writes Steven Harkins.

Book review: a little history of philosophy

Willcox, Susannah
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/11/2012 Português
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Philosophy begins with questions about the nature of reality and how we should live. These were the concerns of Socrates, who spent his days in the ancient Athenian marketplace asking awkward questions, disconcerting the people he met by showing them how little they genuinely understood. This engaging book from Nigel Warburton introduces the great thinkers in Western philosophy and explores their most compelling ideas about the world and how best to live in it. Susannah Willcox would have appreciated a greater selection of thought from outside of the dead-white-male canon of Western philosophy.

Book review: the art of philosophy: wisdom as a practice

Duggan, Patrick
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2012 Português
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In The Art of Philosophy, Peter Sloterdijk traces the evolution of philosophical practice from ancient times to today, showing how scholars can remain true to the tradition of “the examined life” even when the temporal dimension no longer corresponds to the eternal. Building on the work of Husserl, Heidegger, Nietzsche, Arendt, and other practitioners of the life of theory, Sloterdijk launches a posthumanist defence of philosophical inquiry and its everyday, therapeutic value. Patrick Duggan enjoyed this insightful and informative book a great deal, although found it to be unnecessarily dense in places.

The aggregation of propositional attitudes: towards a general theory

Dietrich, Franz; List, Christian
Fonte: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics Publicador: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2008 Português
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How can the propositional attitudes of several individuals be aggregated into overall collective propositional attitudes? Although there are large bodies of work on the aggregation of various special kinds of propositional attitudes, such as preferences, judgments, probabilities and utilities, the aggregation of propositional attitudes is seldom studied in full generality. In this paper, we seek to contribute to filling this gap in the literature. We sketch the ingredients of a general theory of propositional attitude aggregation and prove two new theorems. Our first theorem simultaneously characterizes some prominent aggregation rules in the cases of probability, judgment and preference aggregation, including linear opinion pooling and Arrovian dictatorships. Our second theorem abstracts even further from the specific kinds of attitudes in question and describes the properties of a large class of aggrega tion rules applicable to a variety of belief-like attitudes. Our approach integrates some previously disconnected areas of investigation.

Modelling change in individual characteristics: an axiomatic framework

Dietrich, Franz
Fonte: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics Publicador: The Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science (CPNSS), London School of Economics
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
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Economic models describe individuals in terms of underlying characteristics, such as taste for some good, sympathy level for another player, time discount rate, risk attitude, and so on. In real life, such characteristics change through experiences: taste for Mozart changes through listening to it, sympathy for another player through observing his moves, and so on. Models typically ignore change, not just for simplicity but also because it is unclear how to incorporate change. I introduce a general axiomatic framework for defining, analysing and comparing rival models of change. I show that seemingly basic postulates on modelling change together have strong implications, like irrelevance of the order in which someone has his experiences and ‘linearity’ of change. This is a step towards placing the modelling of change on solid axiomatic grounds and enabling non-arbitrary incorporation of change into economic models.

Reproducibility of empirical findings: experiments in philosophy and beyond

Seyedsayamdost, Hamid
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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The field of experimental philosophy has received considerable attention, essentially for producing results that seem highly counter-intuitive and at the same time question some of the fundamental methods used in philosophy. A substantial part of this attention has focused on the role of intuitions in philosophical methodology. One of the major contributions of experimental philosophy on this topic has been concrete evidence in support of intuitional diversity; the idea that intuitions vary systematically depending on variables such as ethnicity, socioeconomic background, or gender. Because of the important implications, these findings have been the subject of extensive debate. Despite the seeming significance of the findings and despite all the debates that the experimental philosophy movement has prompted, what has not been examined systematically is the reproducibility of the results. Instead, the reported findings have been simply accepted as established facts. We set out to replicate a wide range of experiments and surprisingly failed to reproduce many of the reported findings, some of which are from the most cited and attention grabbing papers of the field. We draw two conclusions from our findings. The first is that the instability of intuitions has been exaggerated by experimental philosophers. Intuitions appear to be more uniform across different demographic groups. The argument that intuitions need to be discarded because they depend on arbitrary factors such as ethnicity...