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Towards a visual social psychology of identity and representation: photographing the self, weaving the family in a multicultural British community

Howarth, Caroline
Fonte: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2011 Português
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This comprehensive volume provides an unprecedented illustration of the potential for visual methods in psychology. Each chapter explores the set of theoretical, methodological, as well as ethical and analytical issues that shape the ways in which visual qualitative research is conducted in psychology. Using a variety of forms of visual data, including photography, documentary film-making, drawing, internet media, model making, walking and map drawing, video recording and collages, each author endeavors to broaden the scope for understanding experience and subjectivity, using visual qualitative methods. The contributors to this volume work within a variety of traditions to inform the interpretations they form of their data, including narrative psychology, personal construct theory, discursive psychology and conversation analysis, phenomenology and psychoanalysis. Each addresses how a particular visual approach has contributed to existing social and psychological theory in their topic area, as well as clearly outlining how they carried out their specific research project. The contributors draw on qualitative sources of verbal data, such as spoken interview, ethnographic notes, diaries, focus group discussions and naturalistic conversation alongside their use of visual material...

Personality psychology: lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story - why it is time for a paradigm shift

Uher, Jana
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
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This article develops a comprehensive philosophy-of-science for personality psychology that goes far beyond the scope of the lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts that currently prevail. One of the field’s most important guiding scientific assumptions, the lexical hypothesis, is analysed from meta-theoretical viewpoints to reveal that it explicitly describes two sets of phenomena that must be clearly differentiated: 1) lexical repertoires and the representations that they encode and 2) the kinds of phenomena that are represented. Thus far, personality psychologists largely explored only the former, but have seriously neglected studying the latter. Meta-theoretical analyses of these different kinds of phenomena and their distinct natures, commonalities, differences, and interrelations reveal that personality psychology’s focus on lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts entails a) erroneous meta-theoretical assumptions about what the phenomena being studied actually are, and thus how they can be analysed and interpreted, b) that contemporary personality psychology is largely based on everyday psychological knowledge, and c) a fundamental circularity in the scientific explanations used in trait psychology. These findings seriously challenge the widespread assumptions about the causal and universal status of the phenomena described by prominent personality models. The current state of knowledge about the lexical hypothesis is reviewed...

Two minds, three ways: dual system and dual process models in consumer psychology

Samson, Alain; Voyer, Benjamin G.
Fonte: Springer New York Publicador: Springer New York
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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Dual system and dual process views of the human mind have contrasted automatic, fast, and non-conscious with controlled, slow, and conscious thinking. This paper integrates duality models from the perspective of consumer psychology by identifying three relevant theoretical strands: Persuasion and attitude change (e.g. Elaboration Likelihood Model), judgment and decision making (e.g. Intuitive vs. Reflective Model), as well as buying and consumption behavior (e.g. Reflective-Impulsive Model). Covering different aspects of consumer decision making, we discuss the conditions under which different types of processes are evoked, how they interact and how they apply to consumers’ processing of marketing messages, the evaluation of product-related information, and purchasing behavior. We further compare and contrast theoretical strands and incorporate them with the literature on attitudes, showing how duality models can help us understand implicit and explicit attitude formation in consumer psychology. Finally, we offer future research implications for scholars in consumer psychology and marketing.

Psychology in the press 1988-1999

Howard, Susan; Bauer, Martin W.
Fonte: The British Psychological Society Publicador: The British Psychological Society
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2001 Português
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THE BPS celebrates its centenary this year, a fitting juncture at which to explore the relationship between psychology and the public. The history of this relationship is longer than a hundred years: at the beginning of the last century, psychology had already come a long way from its roots. In its ‘long past’ (Farr, 1996) psychology had been entwined with philosophy. Yet by the late 1800s psychology had met a crossroads, one fork leading to the spiritual psyche, the other to scientific methods and aims of debunking (Burnham, 1987). Henceforth psychology was not only concerned with communicating the substance of research, but also with secularisation: severing ‘spiritual’ psychology from the canon of scientific activity. The First World War boosted the popularity of psychology (Burnham, 1987); the public were turning to psychology as a substitute for superstitious dissections of the soul (Rapp, 1988). From the 1920s psychology has, with peaks and troughs, remained in the public sphere. It has been conceived of as science, but also as quackery, as an expression of common sense, and as the antipathy of common sense (Harré et al., 1985). This article will consider what an analysis of press coverage of psychology says about our public image. The content of popularised psychology may not always be what psychologists would wish...

Realising the richness of psychology theory in contingency-based management accounting research

Hall, Matthew
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Psychology theory has been employed extensively in contingency-based management accounting research, but there has been little consideration of how it could be utilised more fruitfully. After analysing prior research, particularly studies published in Management Accounting Research, I identify and discuss five ways to develop the use of psychology theory in contingency-based management accounting research: (1) stronger linkages between individual and organisational-level studies, (2) a more dynamic perspective on relations between management accounting practices and psychological processes, (3) greater use of field studies in contrast to surveys, (4) examination of the interdependencies between management accounting practices and other types of information, and (5) a greater focus on the role of emotions.

Book review: Psychology and politics: a social identity perspective

Laberge, Yves
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/05/2013 Português
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"Psychology and Politics: a Social Identity Perspective." Alexa Ispas. Psychology Press. December 2012. --- This book covers a wide range of political topics, such as the way in which categorising ourselves into groups influences how we perceive the social world, the implications of categorisation for social influence, and the mechanisms underlying obedience under authoritarian regimes. Yves Laberge thinks this book serves as an excellent update on the social identity perspective.

Reimagining community health psychology: maps, journeys and new terrains

Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /01/2014 Português
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This special issue celebrates and maps out the ‘coming of age’ of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field’s engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change – in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.

A critical psychology of the postcolonial

Hook, Derek
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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Of the theoretical resources typically taken as the underlying foundations of critical social psychology, elements, typically, each of Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis, and Post-Structuralism, one particular mode of critique remains notably absent: postcolonial theory. What might be the most crucial contributions that postcolonial critique can make to the project of critical psychology? One answer is that of a reciprocal forms of critique, the retrieval of a ‘psychopolitics’ in which we not only place the psychological within the register of the political, but - perhaps more challengingly - in which the political is also, strategically, approached through the register of the psychological. What the writings of Fanon and Biko make plain in this connection is the degree to which the narratives and concepts of the social psychological may be reformulated so as to fashion a novel discourse of resistance, one that opens up new avenues for critique for critical psychology, on one hand, and that affords an innovative set of opportunities for the psychological investigation of the vicissitudes of the postcolonial, on the other

The role of 'the environment' in cognitive and evolutionary psychology

Franks, Bradley
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2005 Português
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Evolutionary psychology is widely understood as involving an integration of evolutionary theory and cognitive psychology, in which the former promises to revolutionise the latter. In this paper, I suggest some reasons to doubt that the assumptions of evolutionary theory and of cognitive psychology are as directly compatible as is widely assumed. These reasons relate to three different problems of specifying adaptive functions as the basis for characterising cognitive mechanisms: the disjunction problem, the grain problem and the environment problem. Each of these problems can be understood as arising from incommensurate characterisations of the nature and role of “the environment” in the two approaches. Purported solutions to the problems appear to require detailed information concerning the EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptedness), with the disjunction problem placing the lowest requirement, the environment problem placing the highest requirement, and the grain problem placing an intermediate one. In each case, such information is not likely to be forthcoming, because it may require iterating through successively more distant EEA’s with no principled stopping point. This produces a dilemma for evolutionary psychology – either to solve these apparently insoluble problems...

From social cognition to the cognition of the social: remembering Gerard Duveen

Jovchelovitch, Sandra
Fonte: Institute of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Institute of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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In this article the author summarises the career and contribution of Gerard Duveen to social psychology and the understanding of the development of cognition.

Paradigms in the study of creativity: introducing the perspective of cultural psychology

Glăveanu, Vlad Petre
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2010 Português
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This article identifies three paradigms in creativity theory and research in psychology. The He-paradigm, focused on the solitary genius, has been followed, mainly after the 1950s, by the I-paradigm, equally individualistic in nature but attributing creativity to each and every individual. Extending this view, the We-paradigm incorporates what became known as the social psychology of creativity. The cultural psychology of creativity builds upon this last theoretical approach while being critical of some of its assumptions. This relatively new perspective, using the conceptual and methodological framework of cultural psychology, investigates the sociocultural roots and dynamics of all our creative acts and employs a tetradic framework of self – community – new artifact – existing artifacts in its conceptualization of creativity. The theoretical basis of the cultural psychology approach is analyzed as well as some of its main implications for both the understanding and study of creativity.

How the mind worked: some obstacles and developments in the popularisation of psychology

Adams, Jon
Fonte: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/2006 Português
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Chronicling the history of science and health popularisation in the United States, John C. Burnham sees a decline from the Victorian “men of science” to a situation in the mid-1980s where what passed as the popularisation of science consisted of little more than a litany of unrelated facts. Burnham’s contention is that these “scientific facts” will not travel as such (that is, as scientific facts) unless they are firmly embedded within a coherent scientific framework. It is this framework – a theory capable of organising the data – that he perceives to be lacking from the modern popularisation. Whilst this may have been the case at the time Burnham was writing (the mid-1980s), it is a position that is increasingly untenable today. Looking here at the popularisation of psychology, this paper demonstrates how those unifying theories have since returned. Through a close reading of Steven Pinker’s 1997 How The Mind Works (in comparison with Cyril Burt’s 1933 book of the same title), this paper illustrates the ways in which facts and theories are interpolated by the modern populariser in precisely the manner that Burnham feared had been abandoned forever.

Fragmentation or differentiation: questioning the crisis in psychology

Zittoun, Tania; Gillespie, Alex; Cornish, Flora
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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There is a recurrent discourse about the fragmentation of psychology and its crises as a science, which often leads to a disenchanted view about its future. To this discourse we oppose a developmental one, in which crises can be occasions for development, and in which development might imply differentiation. We first review why psychology can be said to be in crisis. We then situate the crisis in the pragmatics of doing psychology. Crises occur when psychologists have problems either working with other psychologists or with communities. We argue that collaborative research is a way to overcome these crises. Specifically we suggest three specific scientific activities that can lead to the development of psychology: collaborative research methods, the identification of nodal concepts that enable the bringing together of different approaches and disciplines, and the creation and maintenance of institutional spaces that enable creative, collaborative work.

Towards a Lacanian group psychology: the prisoner's dilemma and the trans-subjective

Hook, Derek
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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Revisiting Lacan's discussion of the puzzle of the prisoner's dilemma provides a means of elaborating a theory of the trans-subjective. An illustration of this dilemma provides the basis for two important arguments. Firstly, that we need to grasp a logical succession of modes of subjectivity: from subjectivity to inter-subjectivity, and from inter-subjectivity to a form of trans-subjective social logic. The trans-subjective, thus conceptualized, enables forms of social objectivity that transcend the level of (inter)subjectivity, and which play a crucial role in consolidating given societal groupings. The paper advances, secondly, that various declarative and symbolic activities are important non-psychological bases—trans-subjective foundations—for psychological identifications of an inter-subjective sort. These assertions link interesting to recent developments in the contemporary social psychology of interobjectivity, which likewise emphasize a type of objectivity that plays an indispensible part in co-ordinating human relations and understanding.

Insights from societal psychology: a contextual politics of societal change

Howarth, Caroline; Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora; Franks, Bradley; Garcia-Lorenzo, Lucia; Gillespie, Alex; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Goncalves-Portelinha, I.; Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Lahlou, Saadi; Mannell, Jenevieve Claire; Reader, Tom W.; Tennant, C.
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2013 Português
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In this paper we demonstrate that societal psychology makes a unique contribution to the study of change through its focus on the 'contextual politics' of change, examining the different interests at stake within any social context. Societal psychology explores the contexts which promote or inhibit social and societal change and can be seen as a bridge between social and political psychology. It focuses on how the context shapes the ways in which societal change is understood, supported or resisted. To understand the intellectual rationale of societal psychology, and how it aims to foster societal change, we first consider the history of the discipline. Second, we consider what is meant by 'context', as understanding the environment of change is the hallmark of societal psychology. Third, we lay out three distinct features of a societal psychological approach to change: the politics of change; interventions and planned change; emergent change processes. Finally, the paper examines possible future developments of societal psychology and its role in understanding and creating societal change, alongside its place within the wider canon of social and political psychology. The article is available in full...

Book review: the poet’s mind: the psychology of Victorian poetry 1830-1870

Faubert, Michelle
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2013 Português
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In The Poet’s Mind, Gregory Tate considers why and how psychological analysis became an increasingly important element of poetic theory and practice in the mid-nineteenth century, a time when the discipline of psychology was emerging alongside the growing recognition that the workings of the mind might be understood using the analytical methods of science. Tate provides a good overview of recent work on Victorian literature and psychology, writes Michelle Faubert, though some gaps in research remain.

Dialogue across disciplines: bringing politics to a social psychology of multiculture

Howarth, Caroline
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Historically much of social psychology has failed to develop a sufficiently political analysis of multiculture.Rather than leave our friends and colleagues in neighbouring disciplines to led debates in nacademic, policy and community spheres, I would suggest that we need to enter into dialogue ourselves and offer a range of perspectives on the psychology of multiculture.

Future directions for a critical social psychology of racism/antiracism

Howarth, Caroline; Hook, Derek
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Research Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Research
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2005 Português
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A variety of possible future directions for a critical psychology of racism/antiracism may assist us in avoiding the trappings of conceptual/methodological homogeneity and disciplinary insularity. Greater reference to the literature of fiction, to the epistemological domain of the aesthetic, may benefit us given that it permits different positionings, imaginings and modes of self-reflection than afforded within the strict truth-conditions of mainstream social science practice. We stand also to profit from greater attention to personal experience and to the embodied materiality of everyday life, powerful themes in the oft-neglected Black Consciousness tradition of critique. Likewise, a renewed focus on subjectification. This is particularly pressing for critical social psychology given that certain of the formative conditions of the subject subjectivity may be taken to predate psychological subjectivity; without an adequate engagement with such factors (sociality, materiality, the bodily, the historical) we fail to apprehend the psychic life of power. Lastly, an innovative and critically effective social psychology of racism/antiracism cannot neglect the collaborative opportunities afforded by cultural studies, postcolonial criticism and contemporary social theory. The concepts of performativity...

"So, you're from Brixton?": towards a social psychology of community

Howarth, Caroline
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 Português
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This thesis examines the social psychological significance of 'community', as it is experienced and talked about in Brixton, a culturally diverse area in South London. There are two points of entry into the social psychology of a community: (1) the negotiation of social representations of the community and (2) the co-construction of community identities. The theoretical perspective that I have developed through this research is grounded in the theory of social representations (Moscovici, 1984, 1988; Farr, 1987) and draws on other theories of representation (Hall, 1997a), community (Cohen, 995), identity and self-consciousness (Hall, 1991a; Tajfel, 1982; Mead, 1934), stigma (Goffman, 1968) and the media (Thompson, 1995). It is an ethnographic study which combines ongoing participant-observation, 7 focus groups with 44 adolescents aged between 12 and 16, 5 in-depth interviews with deputy-heads of Brixton's schools, a media analysis of a documentary set in Brixton, and follow-up discussions. These accounts are woven together to answer the principal research question: how is `community' lived in Brixton? This study shows that communities emerge as sites of struggle in the negotiation of self-identity, belonging and difference. Community identities are constructed through and against social representations of the community...

Evolutionary psychology: theoretical and methodological foundations

Goldfinch, Andrew
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2012 Português
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Of all the research programmes in the evolutionary behavioural sciences, evolutionary psychology is unique in the scale and intensity of criticism it faces, from both philosophers and social scientists, forming a powerful impression that, no matter its purported benefits, evolutionary psychology is a discredited research programme, an outdated research programme, something one can legitimately dismiss. This thesis contends that those who dismiss evolutionary psychology wholesale fail to entitle themselves to that dismissal. I begin by championing a streamlined evolutionary psychology, one that navigates away from unnecessary controversy, one that better reflects the actual practice of evolutionary psychology on the ground, and one that doesn’t overshadow what’s valuable about the programme. After correcting several common misconceptions about evolutionary psychology, I arrive at the heart of what adaptationist hypothesizing can do for psychology: discovering new design features of extant psychological traits and discovering hitherto unknown psychological traits. I go through the logic of adaptationist reasoning in psychology. Inter alia, I argue that, although evolutionary psychology hypotheses might start off as ‘simple’...