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Parental Absence and Academic Achievement in Immigrant Students

Wright, Chrysalis L
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Academic achievement and educational expectations as a function of parental absence were examined among 268 newly immigrant elementary, middle, and high-school students from Spanish-speaking countries. Data collected as part of a longitudinal study of adaptation and achievement in newly immigrant students were analyzed. Participants had varying experiences with parental absence, in terms of length of absence, gender of absent parent, and reason for absence. Reasons for parental absence included parental divorce, parental death, and serial migration, a cause unique to immigrant children. Students who experienced parental absence reported lower educational expectations. Students who experienced the death of a parent had lower achievement scores and lower expectations than students who did not experience parental death. Prolonged absence was also important, with students who experienced parental absence for more than one year performing worse than students who had minimal parental separation. In addition, boys who experienced parental absence because of serial migration performed worse academically than boys who did not have this occurrence. Educational expectations were reduced among students who experienced parental absence as a result of the migratory process...

The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Unzueta, Caridad H
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic organizers offer a possible solution to assist them in their writing. This study investigated the effects of a computer graphic organizer on the persuasive writing compositions of Hispanic middle school students with SLD. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to examine its effects on six dependent variables: number of arguments and supporting details, number and percentage of transferred arguments and supporting details, planning time, writing fluency, syntactical maturity (measured by T-units, the shortest grammatical sentence without fragments), and overall organization. Data were collected and analyzed throughout baseline and intervention. Participants were taught persuasive writing and the writing process prior to baseline. During baseline, participants were given a prompt and asked to use paper and pencil to plan their compositions. A computer was used for typing and editing. Intervention required participants to use a computer graphic organizer for planning and then a computer for typing and editing. The planning sheets and written composition were printed and analyzed daily along with the time each participant spent on planning. The use of computer graphic organizers had a positive effect on the planning and persuasive writing compositions. Increases were noted in the number of supporting details planned...

The Effects of Self-monitoring on Homework Completion and Accuracy Rates of Students with Disabilities in an Inclusive General Education Classroom

Falkenberg, Carol Ann
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This study investigated the effects of self-monitoring on the homework completion and accuracy rates of four, fourth-grade students with disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom. A multiple baseline across subjects design was utilized to examine four dependent variables: completion of spelling homework, accuracy of spelling homework, completion of math homework, accuracy of math homework. Data were collected and analyzed during baseline, three phases of intervention, and maintenance. Throughout baseline and all phases, participants followed typical classroom procedures, brought their homework to school each day and gave it to the general education teacher. During Phase I of the intervention, participants self-monitored with a daily sheet at home and on the computer at school in the morning using KidTools (Fitzgerald & Koury, 2003); a student friendly, self-monitoring program. They also participated in brief daily conferences to review their self-monitoring sheets with the investigator, their special education teacher. Phase II followed the same steps except conferencing was reduced to two days a week, which were randomly selected by the researcher and Phase III conferencing was one random day a week. Maintenance data were taken over a two-to-three week period subsequent to the end of the intervention. Results of this study demonstrated self-monitoring substantially improved spelling and math homework completion and accuracy rates of students with disabilities in an inclusive...

The Use of a Computer Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Composition Writing by Hispanic Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Unzueta, Caridad H
Fonte: SelectedWorks Publicador: SelectedWorks
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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69.91416%
Many culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) struggle with the writing process. Particularly, they have difficulties developing and expanding ideas, organizing and elaborating sentences, and revising and editing their compositions (Graham, Harris, & Larsen, 2001; Myles, 2002). Computer graphic organizers offer a possible solution to assist them in their writing. This study investigated the effects of a computer graphic organizer on the persuasive writing compositions of Hispanic middle school students with SLD. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to examine its effects on six dependent variables: number of arguments and supporting details, number and percentage of transferred arguments and supporting details, planning time, writing fluency, syntactical maturity (measured by T-units, the shortest grammatical sentence without fragments), and overall organization. Data were collected and analyzed throughout baseline and intervention. Participants were taught persuasive writing and the writing process prior to baseline. During baseline, participants were given a prompt and asked to use paper and pencil to plan their compositions. A computer was used for typing and editing. Intervention required participants to use a computer graphic organizer for planning and then a computer for typing and editing. The planning sheets and written composition were printed and analyzed daily along with the time each participant spent on planning. The use of computer graphic organizers had a positive effect on the planning and persuasive writing compositions. Increases were noted in the number of supporting details planned...

The Relationship between the Use of Academic Text Talk and the Comprehension of Scientific Academic Language for Diverse Second Graders

Mandel, Peggy Lee
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Changing demographics impact our schools as children come from more linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The various social, cultural, and economic backgrounds of the students affect their early language learning experiences which expose them to the academic language needed to succeed in school. Teachers can help students acquire academic language by introducing words that are within their Zone of Proximal Development and increasing exposure to and use of academic language. This study investigated the effects of increasing structured activities for students to orally interact with informational text on their scientific academic language development and comprehension of expository text. The Academic Text Talk activities, designed to scaffold verbalization of new words and ideas, included discussion, retelling, games, and sentence walls. This study also evaluated if there were differences in scientific language proficiency and comprehension between boys and girls, and between English language learners and native English speakers. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the relationship between increasing students’ oral practice with academic language and their academic language proficiency. Second graders (n = 91) from an urban public school participated in two science units over an 8 week period and were pre and post tested using the Woodcock Muñoz Language Survey-Revised and vocabulary tests from the National Energy Education Project. Analysis of covariance was performed on the pre to post scores by treatment group to determine differences in academic language proficiency for students taught using Academic Text Talk compared to students taught using a text-centered method...

The Relationship of Instructor Technical Literacy to the Academic Performance of Students in Career Academies

Gomez, Jorge
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Career Academy instructors’ technical literacy is vital to the academic success of students. This nonexperimental ex post facto study examined the relationships between the level of technical literacy of instructors in career academies and student academic performance. It was also undertaken to explore the relationship between the pedagogical training of instructors and the academic performance of students. Out of a heterogeneous population of 564 teachers in six targeted schools, 136 teachers (26.0 %) responded to an online survey. The survey was designed to gather demographic and teaching experience data. Each demographic item was linked by researchers to teachers’ technology use in the classroom. Student achievement was measured by student learning gains as assessed by the reading section of the FCAT from the previous to the present school year. Linear and hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine the research questions. To clarify the possibility of teacher gender and teacher race/ethnic group differences by research variable, a series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted. As revealed by the ANOVA results, there were not statistically significant group differences in any of the research variables by teacher gender or teacher race/ethnicity. Greater student learning gains were associated with greater teacher technical expertise integrating computers and technology into the classroom...

The Response to an ESL Population Boom in the Beaufort County, South Carolina School System: A Case Study

de Varona, Amanda G
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The purpose of this case study was to examine the why the English language learners (ELLs) in the Beaufort County, South Carolina school system have been so successful. This school system has recently experienced a boom in its ESL student population, and this population has performed very well on standardized tests. This study used critical theory as its theoretical framework and examined why the students have been successful rather than marginalized in Beaufort County schools. This phenomenon was investigated using semi-structured interviews with the ESOL Coordinator for Beaufort County, 4 ESL-lead teachers, and 6 mainstream teachers. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with Sarah Owen, the Beaufort County ESOL, Gifted and Talented, and World Languages coordinator. Based on the results of her interview, 4 themes emerged that were used for the semi-structured interviews with ESOL and mainstream teachers. The interviews centered on the themes of ESL policy, ESL leadership, and teacher training. The ESL and mainstream teacher interviews also revealed several subthemes that included teacher attitude, why Beaufort County has been successful with the ELLs, and the teachers’ recommendations for other schools systems trying to successfully accommodate a large ESL student population in mainstream classrooms. The findings from the teachers’ interviews revealed that additional training for the teachers without ESL experience helped them become comfortable instructing ELLs. This training should be conducted by the ESOL teachers for those without ESOL certification or endorsement. As the teachers had more training...

Curriculum development in a heritage language community-based school: A Qualitative inquiry regarding a Brazilian-Portuguese program in South Florida

Boruchowski, Ivian Destro
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This research aimed to describe, understand, and discuss the curriculum development process of a Brazilian-Portuguese heritage language community-based school in South Florida. This study was guided by the following research questions: (a) What roles does this HL community-based school aim to play for its students? This investigation was also related to the subsidiary question: (b) How does this HL community-based school organize its curriculum development process? In order to explore these research questions, I observed and interviewed teachers and coordinators based on a qualitative research approach. I analyzed the interviews’ transcripts, and the program’s website with a central focus of describing and understanding their curriculum development process. Hopefully, the findings will help Brazilian and other HL community schools toward discussing and elaborating their own curriculum development, as well as to look for specific teacher training courses.

Challenging ESL Students to Avoid Plagiarism and Properly Summarize and Cite Articles

Hammill, Sarah J
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Research shows that plagiarism is a problem not only for English language learners but also for students whose first language is English. With the Internet and ease of copying and pasting information into a word document, plagiarism in on the rise (Maslen, 2003). Oftentimes, students are not aware they are doing something wrong. American students come into college with the cultural conditioning of knowing (perhaps not fully grasping) American academic standards (Gu & Brooks, 2007). International students have the additional disadvantage of not knowing the conventions, traditions, and values held in academic discourse (Gu & Brooks, 2007). Within American academic circles, plagiarism is considered “one of the worst crimes” a student can commit (Wheeler, 2008). However, outside the United States, plagiarism is culturally acceptable; in fact a moral transgression would be to not copy and paste the words of an expert (Wheeler, 2008). Most of the students in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at Miami-Dade College are planning on continuing their education once they finish the EAP program so it is essential that they are exposed to the issue of plagiarism. A number of faculty who teach in subject areas have complained that incoming students do not have the skills needed to succeed; these skills include how to cite sources and reference material. As a result of this...

English Language Learners: A Correlational Study of the Relationship Between A Proficiency Level Assessment and End of Course Test Scores at one Georgia High School

Ellis, Jacqueline Caroline
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Understanding the language of one’s cultural environment is important for effective communication and function. As such, students entering U.S. schools from foreign countries are given access to English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programs and they are referred to as English Language Learner (ELL) students. This dissertation examined the correlation of ELL ACCESS Composite Performance Level (CPL) score to the End of Course tests (EOCTs) and the Georgia High School Graduation Tests (GHSGTs) in the four content courses (language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies). A premise of this study was that English language proficiency is critical in meeting or exceeding state and county assessment standards. A quantitative descriptive research design was conducted using Cross-sectional archival data from a secondary source. There were 148 participants from school years 2011-2012 to 2013- 2014 from Grades 9-12. A Pearson product moment correlation was run to assess the relationship between the ACCESS CPL (independent variable) and the EOCT scores and the GHSGT scores (dependent variables). The findings showed that there was a positive correlation between ACCESS CPL scores and the EOCT scores where language arts showed a strong positive correlation and mathematics showed a positive weak correlation. Also...

Foreign Language Education in Colombia: A Qualitative Study of Escuela Nueva

Ramirez Lamus, Daniel A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Since 2004 the Colombian Ministry of Education has been implementing the Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo (PNB) with the goal of having bilingual high school graduates in English and Spanish by 2019. However, implementation of the PNB has been criticized by English Language Teaching (ELT) specialists in the country who say, among other things, that the PNB introduced a discourse associated exclusively with bilingualism in English and Spanish. This study analyzed interviews with 15 participants of a public school of the Colombian Escuela Nueva, a successful model of community-based education that has begun a process of internationalization, regarding the participants’ perceptions of foreign language education and the policies of the PNB. Six students, five teachers, and four administrators were each interviewed twice using semi-structured interviews. To offer a critique of the PNB, this study tried to determine to what extent the school implemented the elements of Responsible ELT, a model developed by the researcher incorporating the concepts of hegemony of English, critical language-policy research, and resistance in ELT. Findings included the following: (a) students and teachers saw English as the universal language whereas most administrators saw English imposed due to political and economic reasons; (b) some teachers misinterpreted the 1994 General Law of Education mandating the teaching of a foreign language as a law mandating English; and (c) some teachers and administrators saw the PNB’s adoption of competence standards based on the Common European Framework of Reference for languages as beneficial whereas others saw it as arbitrary. Conclusions derived from this study of this Escuela Nueva school were: (a) most participants found the goal of the PNB unrealistic; (b) most teachers and administrators saw the policies of the PNB as top-down policies without assessment or continuity; and (c) teachers and administrators mentioned a disarticulation between elementary and high school ELT policies that may be discouraging students in public schools from learning English. Thus...

A Historical Overview of the Challenges for African Americans K12 through College Education in America

Evans, Arthur C, III
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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The early American education system developed around the segregation of White and African American students. These differences in learning environment have led to inferior education for African Americans and can be linked to challenges still facing minorities in the current American education system.

Exploring Seventh Graders’ Perceptions of the Picture-word Inductive Model to their English Narrative Writing in China

Jiang, Xuan
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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In this exploratory study, the researcher interviewed 30 seventh graders in China about their perceptions of the newly tried method, Picture-word Inductive Model (PWIM), to their English narrative writing. Many student participants listed and exemplified positive influence of PWIM on their narrative writing in and from the PWIM trial.

Creating characters and reconstructing texts: Evaluation in children's oral narrative re-tellings

Sexton, Amy Leuchtmann
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 293 p.; application/pdf
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This research analyzes the use of evaluative features in English language oral narrative re-tellings among a multi-lingual population of ninety-eight 2nd and 4th grade students. The results of the analyses strengthen our understanding of the use of evaluation by child narrators, suggesting that younger narrators reconstruct stories through re-creating the characters, while older children focus more on (precisely) reconstructing the text itself. Parallels with particular approaches to cognitive/psychological development are outlined, as are preliminary ramifications for educational methodology. In the initial rounds of both qualitative and quantitative analyses, it was revealed that the employment of seven evaluative forms cited in earlier research (e.g., Peterson and McCabe 1983, Bamberg 1991, Reilly 1992) as among the most commonly used by the present age group (i.e., causals, compulsion words, emphatic pronunciation, gratuitous terms, hedges, lengthening, and negatives) was unable to account for differences in perceived narrative skill within the sample. The manipulation of these seven features was extremely homogenous across skill, age, and language groups. As a result, a second round of analyses was undertaken. Both qualitative and quantitative findings concurred that the use of two particular evaluative features (i.e....

Equity policy, educational practice, and limited english proficient (LEP) students in two high schools in Miami

Acherman-Chor, Dora
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Most studies of language minority students' performance focus on students' characteristics. This study uses qualitative methodology to examine instead how educational policies and practices affect the tracking of language minority students who are classified as limited English proficient (LEP). The placement of LEP students in core courses (English, Math, Social Studies, and Science) is seen as resulting from the interaction between school context and student characteristics. The school context includes factors such as equity policy requirements, overcrowding, attitudes regarding immigrants' academic potential, tracking, and testing practices. Interaction among these factors frequently leads to placement in lower track courses. It was found that the absence of formal tracks could be misleading to immigrant students, particularly those with high aspirations who do not understand the implications of the informal tracking system. Findings are discussed in relation to current theoretical explanations for minority student performance.

Women of African Descent: Persistence in Completing A Doctorate

Bailey-Iddrisu, Vannetta L.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003, p. 337).This study used Ellis’s (1997) Three Stages for Graduate Student Development as the conceptual framework to examine the persistent strategies used by these women to persist to the completion of their studies.

Higher Education in and for Rural Bolivia: Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of the Educational Experiences of Students who have Attended Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa.

Merisio, Claudio R
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Unidad Académica Campesina-Carmen Pampa (UAC-CP) is an institution of higher education located in the rural community of Carmen Pampa, in the Nor Yungas region of Bolivia. As articulated in its mission, the goal of UAC-CP is to prepare young Bolivians to serve their community as professionals with a commitment to bettering the lot of the poorest among them. This research attempted to answer a main question: What are the perceptions of key UAC-CP stakeholders of how the college prepares seniors and alumni to serve their communities as professionals? The sub-question was: What professional endeavors have seniors and alumni pursued upon completion of their course work or graduation from UAC-CP? In this qualitative single case study, the researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with a former director of UAC-CP, three UAC-CP founders, one senior and nine of the college’s alumni. In addition, the researcher conducted a document review and led a focus group session with seven UAC-CP faculty members. Upon analysis of the data collected in the interviews and document review, the researcher identified seven themes that are directly linked to the research question and sub-question: perceived strengths and weaknesses of the college, professional endeavors pursued by seniors and alumni...

The Effects of Trained Teachers’ Integration of Dialogic Reading Discourse on Hispanic English Language Learners’ Literacy Skills in Kindergarten

Rodriguez, Isela S.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This quasi-experimental Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) study explored whether the vocabulary and reading comprehension mean scores of Hispanic Kindergarten ELs whose teachers were trained to utilize Dialogic Reading (DR) discourse were higher than the mean scores of Hispanic ELs in kindergarten whose teachers were not trained to utilize DR discourse strategies. Sixty-three self-identified Hispanic, English Language Kindergarten students and four teachers participated in the study. The teachers were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (DR trained) or control group by drawing names from a hat. Student assignment to experimental versus comparison group was based on the teacher’s assignment to either the experimental or comparison group. Thirty-one were assigned to the control group and 32 to the experimental group. The teachers were instructed to read the story to a group of six students (maximum) at a time, utilizing the DR discourse strategies they had been trained to implement. Subjects were read a story each week during the 8-week duration of the study. Teachers in the experimental group collaboratively selected 10 words each week from the Read Together Talk Together (RTTT) instructional stories that were utilized for vocabulary instruction. A test of homogeneity was conducted to evaluate whether the variance among the dependent variables was the same across the groups. An Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to analyze students’ vocabulary and comprehension mean scores in the experimental group and the comparison group. The results of the study demonstrated a significant increase in the vocabulary and reading comprehension mean scores for the students whose teachers had been trained in DR discourse strategies. When comparing the two groups...

Effets de l’écriture de textes identitaires, soutenue par des ateliers d’expression théâtrale plurilingues, sur le rapport à l’écrit d’élèves immigrants allophones en situation de grand retard scolaire

Maynard, Catherine
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Le présent mémoire expose les effets de pratiques d’écriture de textes identitaires plurilingues, soutenues par des ateliers d’expression théâtrale plurilingues, sur le rapport à l’écrit d’élèves immigrants allophones nouvellement arrivés en situation de grand retard scolaire au secondaire, et ce, tout au long d’une recherche-action visant le développement de l’écriture. Puis, ces effets sont comparés avec ceux de pratiques traditionnelles d’enseignement de l’écriture. Un groupe expérimental et un groupe contrôle ont participé à cette étude de cas multiples. Des observations participantes et des entretiens individuels semi-dirigés ont permis de dresser le portrait du rapport à l’écrit des huit élèves participant à notre recherche. Dans ce rapport à l’écrit est considéré l’engagement dans la littératie des élèves, un concept clé à prendre en compte en didactique des langues secondes. Nous proposons ainsi l’étude d’une nouvelle notion : le rapport à l’écrit teinté du concept d’engagement (RÉ+). Les résultats de ce mémoire confirment la pertinence de l’approche novatrice mise en place, qui agit sur les quatre dimensions du RÉ+ (affective, praxéologique, conceptuelle et axiologique). Elle permet notamment aux élèves d’associer l’écriture à des sentiments positifs et les amène à poser un regard réflexif sur la langue associé au développement d’habiletés métacognitives. De tels effets sont différents de ceux de pratiques traditionnelles d’enseignement de l’écriture...

La identidad autóctona y el aprendizaje del español como segunda lengua en comunidades indígenas de Hispanoamérica : el caso de Ecuador

Dubeau, Geneviève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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Cette recherche se construit autour d’un travail de terrain réalisé dans trois communautés autochtones quichuas vivant au nord de l’Équateur. Il prétend étudier l’incidence que devrait avoir la diversité culturelle et linguistique dans les politiques éducatives en milieu plurilingue et multiculturel. En Amérique hispanique, l’éducation des peuples autochtones n’a jamais été très attentive à leurs besoins spécifiques en ce qui a trait à l’apprentissage de l’espagnol comme langue seconde. En effet, les motivations des apprenants, plus instrumentales qu’intégratives, prouvent que les autochtones apprennent la langue espagnole presqu’exclusivement pour communiquer, sans vraiment être intéressés au groupe natif de cette langue. De plus, notre recherche sur le terrain avec les apprenants du peuple Otavalo nous a démontré que leur très forte identification ethnique influence l’acquisition de l’espagnol. D’une part, ils sont plus enclins à se distinguer des autres, spécialement des hispano parlants, et de l’autre, ils réussissent plus difficilement à atteindre une compétence élevée dans la langue seconde. Notre recherche conclut donc que l’éducation, qu’elle soit issue du système national ou bilingue...