Tese doutoramento em Educação - Especialidade de Desenvolvimento Curricular.; O trabalho que aqui se apresenta surge na sequência da dissertação de
mestrado que tivemos oportunidade efectuar - As dinâmicas dos conflitos
ideológicos e culturais na fundamentação do currículo1 - e propõe uma
análise em torno da contributo tanto do trabalho, como do pensamento de
Michael Apple no campo da educação, em geral e do currículo, em particular.
Para a consecução deste nosso objectivo estruturamos a nossa investigação
em 6 capítulos, a saber: Methodology and the Power of the Personal; Here I
Stand; General Tensions in the Curriculum Field I; General Tensions in the noção de cultura como artefacto ordinário. Um e outro, conferem ao
pensamento e obra de Michael Apple um cheque de credibilidade para os
argumentos que constrói e desconstroi em torno de determinadas questões,
nomeadamente, o conhecimento curricular e os fundamentos do triunfalismo
das políticas da Nova Direita.
Uma vez identificadas e tratadas não só a relevância curricular e o
conceitos de hegemonia como radicais inquestionáveis no pensamento e obra
de Michael Apple, como ainda a maternidade sócio política das três obras
Ideology and Curriculum...
In 2001, the Government of South Africa
launched the Dinaledi Schools program, aimed at increasing
the number of African and Indian secondary students entering
and succeeding in mathematics and physical sciences Senior
Certificate exams. The Dinaledi program provides selected
high schools with a combination of supplementary inputs,
including teachers, training, textbooks and calculators as
well as close monitoring by the National Department of
Education. This paper estimates the impact of the Dinaledi
program for about 350 schools assigned to the program in the
course of its expansion in 2005. It exploits administrative
panel data for the years 2005-07 using a
difference-in-difference estimation strategy. This is
combined with a propensity score matching approach that
compares Dinaledi schools with schools that are observably
similar prior to the implementation of the program.
The indicators, which were piloted in
Tanzania, provide a set of metrics to benchmark the
performance of schools and health clinics in Africa. The
indicators can be used to track progress within and across
countries over time, and aim to enhance active monitoring of
service delivery to increase public accountability and good
governance. The service delivery indicators project takes as
its starting point the literature on how to boost education
and health outcomes in developing countries. This literature
shows robust evidence that the type of individuals attracted
to specific tasks at different levels of the service
delivery hierarchy, as well as the set of incentives they
face to actually exert effort, are positively and
significantly related to education and health outcomes. To
evaluate the feasibility of the indicators, pilot surveys in
primary education and health care were implemented in
Tanzania in 2010. The results from the pilot studies
demonstrate that the indicators methodology is capable of
providing the necessary information to construct harmonized
indicators on the quality of service delivery...
Desegregation of social and public spaces was the most visible result of the Civil Rights Movement. After 1960, the integration of schools in Mississippi became a source of conflict. The social change of Civil Rights attacked the social order of White Resistance that supported the state superstructure. The public schools were a place for the discovery of identity for Blacks. The integrated on of the schools caused many Whites to leave rather than be integrated with Blacks. Desegregation of schools was also a slow process because the local and state government could not enforce the decisions of the US Courts, leading Blacks to realize their place in American society could only be secured through individual action. ^ This work explains the role of schooling during the integration of the Holly Springs Separate School System. The process of forging a new identity by local Blacks is examined against the forces of social change and resistance. I addition, this work examines the perils for the Blacks as they faced the uncertainty of change in the crucial Civil Rights years between 1964 and 1974. ^ This work analyzes how the Black community dealt with the problems triggered by the desegregation of the school system in Holly Springs, of a constructed social condition...
Exclusionary school discipline results in students being removed from classrooms as a consequence of their disruptive behavior and may lead to subsequent suspension and/or expulsion. Literature documents that nondominant students, particularly Black males, are disproportionately impacted by exclusionary discipline, to the point that researchers from a variety of critical perspectives consider exclusionary school discipline an oppressive educational practice and condition. Little or no research examines specific teacher-student social interactions within classrooms that influence teachers’ decisions to use or not use exclusionary discipline. Therefore, this study set forth the central research question: In relation to classroom interactions in alternative education settings, what accounts for teachers’ use or non-use of exclusionary discipline with students? A critical social practice theory of learning served as the framework for exploring this question, and a critical microethnographic methodology informed the data collection and analysis. ^ Criterion sampling was used to select four classrooms in the same alternative education school with two teachers who frequently and two who rarely used exclusionary discipline. Nine stages of data collection and reconstructive data analysis were conducted. Data collection involved video recorded classroom observations...
Exclusionary school discipline results in students being removed from classrooms as a consequence of their disruptive behavior and may lead to subsequent suspension and/or expulsion. Literature documents that nondominant students, particularly Black males, are disproportionately impacted by exclusionary discipline, to the point that researchers from a variety of critical perspectives consider exclusionary school discipline an oppressive educational practice and condition. Little or no research examines specific teacher-student social interactions within classrooms that influence teachers’ decisions to use or not use exclusionary discipline. Therefore, this study set forth the central research question: In relation to classroom interactions in alternative education settings, what accounts for teachers’ use or non-use of exclusionary discipline with students? A critical social practice theory of learning served as the framework for exploring this question, and a critical microethnographic methodology informed the data collection and analysis.
Criterion sampling was used to select four classrooms in the same alternative education school with two teachers who frequently and two who rarely used exclusionary discipline. Nine stages of data collection and reconstructive data analysis were conducted. Data collection involved video recorded classroom observations...
Current high school completion rates in Dade County and across the nation are considered to be unacceptable. This has led to the development of student assistance profiles to aid in the early identification of students considered to be at risk to allow for some form of intervention. The purpose of this research was to examine the current Dade County Public Schools profile as applied to one specific high school in which most of the students are Hispanic (mostly of Mexican descent) and Black (African-Americans, as well as recent Haitian immigrants). Additionally, the effectiveness of the alternative intervention program provided at this high school--a school within a school--were evaluated. School records of the 1992 in-coming ninth grade class became the initial data base. The individual student records of this cohort were then examined over a four-year period until their expected date or graduation. The DCPS profile used to identify potential dropouts from this group was evaluated, using chi-square and multivariate analysis, to determine its overall effectiveness, as well as the effectiveness of the individual indicators which comprise the profile. The Student Assistance Profile was found to an effective predictor, but it over-identified students from this cohort...
This study examined relationships among variables in the Pre-International Baccalaureate (Pre-IB) Program admissions criteria and the Pre-IB Program course grades to discriminate between recipient and non recipient groups of the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma award. The study involved a multiracial sample of 142 IB Diploma graduates between the years 1992 and 1996 from one IB magnet school. The IB school is located within an urban high school of a predominantly Black student enrollment. A discriminant function analysis found that the highest correlations between predictors and the discriminant function were 9th- and 10th-grade mathematics and 10th-grade science course grades. Ninth-grade course grades of science, 9th-grade and 10th-grade course grades of English, foreign language, and social studies, and 7th-grade Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) Reading Comprehension scores were also highly correlated to the discriminant function. The ITBS Battery and subscores of Vocabulary, Total Language, Total Work-Study, and Total Mathematics subscores in seventh grade and a grade point average from language arts, social studies, science, and mathematics in seventh grade were not highly correlated to the discriminant function. Recommendations were presented in the areas of curriculum and instruction...
The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to investigate variables associated with learning, and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The second purpose was to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and lastly, to provide a model that could be used to predict performance on the NCLEX-RN, with implications for admission and curriculum development. The study was based on school learning theory, which implies that acquisition in school learning is a function of aptitude (pre-admission measures), opportunity to learn, and quality of instruction (program measures). ^ Data utilized were from 298 graduates of an associate degree nursing program in the Southeastern United States. Of the 298 graduates, 142 were Hispanic, 87 were Black, non-Hispanic, 54 White, non-Hispanic, and 15 reported as Others. The graduates took the NCLEX-RN for the first time during the years 2003–2005. ^ This study was a predictive, correlational design that relied upon retrospective data. Point biserial correlations, and chi-square analyses were used to investigate relationships between 19 selected predictor variables and the dichotomous criterion variable...
This study tests Ogbu and Simons' Cultural-Ecological Theory of School Performance using data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study of 2001 (PIRLS), a large-scale international survey and reading assessment involving fourth grade students from 35 countries, including the United States. This theory argues that Black immigrant students outperform their non-immigrant counterparts, academically, and that achievement differences are attributed to stronger educational commitment in Black immigrant families. Four hypotheses are formulated to test this theory: Black immigrant students have (a) more receptive attitudes toward reading; (b) a more positive reading self-concept; and (c) a higher level of reading literacy. Furthermore, (d) the relationship of immigrant status to reading perceptions and literacy persists after including selected predictors. These hypotheses are tested separately for girls and boys, while also examining immigrant students' generational status (i.e., foreign-born or second-generation). ^ PIRLS data from a subset of Black students (N=525) in the larger U.S. sample of 3,763 are analyzed to test the hypotheses, using analysis of variance, correlation and multiple regression techniques. Findings reveal that hypotheses a and b are not confirmed (contradicting the Cultural-Ecological Theory) and c and d are partially supported (lending partial support to the theory). Specifically...
This study examines the educational persistence of women of African descent (WOAD) in pursuit of a doctorate degree at universities in the southeastern United States. WOAD are women of African ancestry born outside the African continent. These women are heirs to an inner dogged determination and spirit to survive despite all odds (Pulliam, 2003, p. 337).This study used Ellis’s (1997) Three Stages for Graduate Student Development as the conceptual framework to examine the persistent strategies used by these women to persist to the completion of their studies.
Advanced Placement is a series of courses and tests designed to determine mastery over introductory college material. It has become part of the American educational system. The changing conception of AP was examined using critical theory to determine what led to a view of continual success. The study utilized David Armstrong's variation of Michel Foucault's critical theory to construct an analytical framework. Black and Ubbes' data gathering techniques and Braun and Clark's data analysis were utilized as the analytical framework. Data included 1135 documents: 641 journal articles, 421 newspaper articles and 82 government documents. ^ The study revealed three historical ruptures correlated to three themes containing subthemes. The first rupture was the Sputnik launch in 1958. Its correlated theme was AP leading to school reform with subthemes of AP as reform for able students and AP's gaining of acceptance from secondary schools and higher education. The second rupture was the Nation at Risk report published in 1983. Its correlated theme was AP's shift in emphasis from the exam to the course with the subthemes of AP as a course, a shift in AP's target population, using AP courses to promote equity, and AP courses modifying curricula. The passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was the third rupture. Its correlated theme was AP as a means to narrow the achievement gap with the subthemes of AP as a college preparatory program and the shifting of AP to an open access program. ^ The themes revealed a perception that progressively integrated the program into American education. The AP program changed emphasis from tests to curriculum...
The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of success held by Black middle school students in a Miami-Dade County (FL) public school and how these perceptions influence academic performance. The study sought to determine if differences exist among African-American, Haitian-American, and Haitian immigrant subgroups of the Black student population. ^ The study combined qualitative and quantitative methodology in data collection and analysis. The qualitative data consisted of three focus group interviews. Using a semi-structured protocol, questions focused on the student's perceptions of the characteristics of successful people, definitions of success, behaviors associated with achieving success, and peer, family and school support. The quantitative data comprised the responses of 352 Black middle school students to the Inventory of Student Motivation (ISM) developed to measure mastery, performance and social goal orientations. Response similarities and differences were examined using a series of two-way ANOVAs on the success scales by gender and culture. A three-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on mastery, performance and social general goal scales by culture and gender. ^ The results of the ISM revealed no statistically significant differences among African-American...
The purposes of this study were: (a) to compare the impact of One-to-One (OTO) mentoring interventions administered in the high school setting, and the workplace of the students who participated in the School-to-Work (STW) transitional program, and (b) to identify how the participants perceived their experience in the OTO mentoring program and the STW transitional program. A qualitative approach was used to identify how participants perceived their mentoring experiences with the STW and OTO mentoring programs by utilizing focus groups and content analysis. A quantitative approach was used to compare the statistical differences of outcomes between the STW and OTO mentoring programs, by utilizing descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, chi-square analyses, and logistic regression. The sample was limited to participants in the STW and OTO mentoring programs resulting in 21 participants for the qualitative approach and 114 participants for the quantitative approach. ^ Results from the qualitative approach indicated that focus group participants in the STW program were satisfied with the program and the relationship with their mentors. They also suggested that the STW program be lengthened to include the entire academic year. Participants from the OTO focus group were dissatisfied with their program due to inadequate mentor involvement. Results from the quantitative approach showed that the increase in school attendance for the STW program's at-risk Black male youth was statistically significant compared to the OTO program participants; the STW program participants displayed a better outlook for attending college that was statistically significant compared to those in the OTO program; and the OTO program participants displayed a better outlook for permanent employment compared to those in the STW program. ^ Therefore...
The purpose of this study is two-fold: (1) to investigate the common factors positively influencing academically successful, highly motivated African-American high school students in their educational pursuits; and (2) to determine ways in which educators can facilitate an increased positive impact on minority students' achievement motivation and transition to higher education. ^ Three sources of data inform the qualitative study. Short autobiographical essays address the topic of antecedent factors influencing the students' selection of an academic program of study. Individual interviews using a semi-structured format elicit discussion of prior experiences and influences related to the research sub-questions. Focus group interviews elicit discussion of emergent patterns perceived by the researcher from the autobiographical essays and individual interviews. ^ Results indicate a generic model for success for high achieving African-American students. Students prioritize education as a means to success in life. They receive strong support for educational aspirations from at least one adult within the home. The students are focused on a professional career in the future. The students realize and desire the financial benefits of academic success. The students desire academic challenge. Students have feelings of control over their academic choices; however...
Literature addressing academic achievement orientation of Black adolescents in the United States often depicts poor school related attitudes and adaptation patterns, low academic achievement, and deficient family backgrounds. However, some researchers maintained that certain Black immigrant groups possessed positive academic achievement orientations and exemplary academic achievements (Ogbu, 1991; Gibson, 1991; Vernez, & Abrahamse, 1996). In this study, I attempted to combine qualitative data from multiple sources (surveys, interviews, observations, literature, and document analysis), using standard case study methodology and the constant comparative method of analysis to understand the relationship that existed between the academic achievement orientation of a select group of West Indian American parents and adolescents in Broward County, Florida. The sub-sample of 11 families, comprising 15 adolescents and 13 parents, was selected through maximum variation sampling from a pool of 23 families. The findings were presented as a single composite case study. The participants possessed specific, longstanding educational and career goals for the children. The parents were deeply involved and were knowledgeable of their children's schools and academic progress. While mothers were the parents most actively involved in the schools...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the common factors and experiences that contribute to the success of high ability Black students enrolled in Frank C. Martin Elementary School, the first school in Florida authorized to offer the International Baccalaureate (IB) Primary Years Programme (PYP). The study further sought to determine ways in which educators and stakeholders assisted in maintaining and in increasing Black students' achievement that motivated and encouraged them to pursue similar programs at the middle and high school levels. ^ Three sources of data were used: (a) individual interviews with fourth and fifth grade high ability Black students using a semi-structured format elicited discussion of their perceptions of the PYP and factors contributing to their success; (b) individual interviews with their fourth and fifth grade teachers elicited discussion of teacher expectations and effective instructional strategies; and (c) a questionnaire asked parents of the participating students their reasons for choosing the PYP, their perceptions of the program, and their own level of involvement in their child's learning. Three separate focus groups gathered further data. ^ The results revealed that the factors contributing to the success of high ability Black elementary school students are consistent with those of students in other racial groups. These are a challenging program...
This dissertation is the first study of this length to examine the ways adult African American men build community. It is also a new attempt to describe the pedagogical approaches these men use as educators, and to theorize how their life experiences and personal style impact their work in the classroom. The study centers on a group of African American football coaches, and expands from that critical site to the personal and professional lives of the educators on that staff.
Though Black men are often assumed to be emotionally inexpressive, I find that the coaches I work with expressed their most intimate emotion to select groups of trusted partners. These individuals actively built communities of love and support through processes of racial vetting and personal character evaluation, and took extended periods of time to develop close friendships. After reviewing the ways in which the social sciences have generally regarded Black males with varying degrees of contempt, fear and pity, I examine the ways the game of football and the "consensual violence" the football community fostered help build, rather than deconstruct, personal bonds. I use examples of roughhousing and interpersonal confrontation as ways to talk about how...