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Platform and Ecosystem Transitions: Strategic and Organizational Implications

Altman, Elizabeth J.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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58.02299%
By most conventional measures of corporate success (revenue, market capitalization, global brand growth, etc.) businesses operating as multi-sided platforms (MSPs) and their associated ecosystems constitute the majority of the fastest growing organizations in the global economy. In the strategy and economics fields there is a burgeoning literature related to MSP-governed businesses and their ecosystems primarily focused on pricing, growth, governance, and competitive considerations. Yet, in organizational studies and innovation there is a dearth of research analyzing characteristics of these businesses and their complementors and the managerial challenges they present. More specifically, an increasing number of mature incumbent organizations in a variety of industries are starting to operate in environments in which they either need to operate as MSP-based businesses, or join ecosystems governed by them to compete successfully and grow. This dissertation consists of two book chapters and one empirical project aligned with one overarching question: As information constraints approach zero and MSP-governed businesses and their complementors become increasingly more prevalent in the global economy, what are the strategic and organizational issues affecting incumbent organizations that choose to become MSPs or compete as complementors to them? The first chapter...

Essays on Human Capital and Executive Compensation

Lin, Eric
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation; text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.66052%
The contemporary executive career looks different from the “company man” era of post World War II. At that time, executives rose almost exclusively within a single firm, learning the business over many loyal years of service. Since the 1970s, firms have progressively relied more on external markets for filling its leadership ranks. As a result, the value of executives has become increasingly defined by capabilities portable across organizational settings. External markets have less information about executive abilities compared to incumbent employers, which strengthens the influence of externally observable signals of quality on executive career opportunities and compensation. Across three studies, this dissertation empirically explores how external markets value executive human capital attributes. In particular, this work focuses on how external markets differ from incumbent employers and explores implications for executives building their careers across multiple organizations.

Consequences of interorganizational information systems: An empirical investigation of the effects of EDI use on interorganizational relationships in the retail industry

Vijayasarathy, Leo Ramesh
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.531665%
This dissertation examines the consequences of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) use on interorganizational relations (IR) in the retail industry. EDI is a type of interorganizational information system that facilitates the exchange of business documents in structured, machine processable form. The research model links EDI use and three IR dimensions--structural, behavioral, and outcome. Based on relevant literature from organizational theory and marketing channels, fourteen hypotheses were proposed for the relationships among EDI use and the three IR dimensions.^ Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from key informants in 97 retail companies (19% response rate). The hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis. The analysis supports the following hypothesis: (a) EDI use is positively related to information intensity and formalization, (b) formalization is positively related to cooperation, (c) information intensity is positively related to cooperation, (d) conflict is negatively related to performance and satisfaction, (e) cooperation is positively related to performance, and (f) performance is positively related to satisfaction. The results support the general premise of the model that the relationship between EDI use and satisfaction among channel members has to be viewed within an interorganizational context.^ Research on EDI is still in a nascent stage. By identifying and testing relevant interorganizational variables...

A study of the relationship between U.S. hotel companies and travel agency companies: Determinants of the success of the relationship

Medina-Munoz, Diego Ramon
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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79.062993%
The primary objectives of this study were to describe the relationship that U.S. hotel companies have with travel agency companies and to identify the determinants of a successful relationship.^ The unit of analysis was hotel companies operating in U.S. One hundred and three hotel companies contributed information for this research. The data were collected through a questionnaire developed from previous empirical studies and from interviews with hospitality management professors and hotel sales and marketing directors.^ Simple and multiple regression analyses indicated that in order to have successful relationships with travel agency companies, hotel companies should (a) show more commitment or dedication to working with the travel agents, (b) have more trust in the travel agents themselves, and (c) be less dependent on any one travel agent for their business.^ Additionally, the results suggest that hotel companies who coordinate activities with travel agents companies and who communicate with them in a timely, accurate, adequate, complete and credible manner have more successful interorganizational relationships than those who do not.^ Furthermore, hotel companies who share proprietary sales and any other information with travel agents reported better relationships. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) ^

Customer relationship management: A content analysis of issues and best practices

Chakravorti, Samit
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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69.502314%
This dissertation is a study of customer relationship management theory and practice. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a business strategy whereby companies build strong relationships with existing and prospective customers with the goal of increasing organizational profitability. It is also a learning process involving managing change in processes, people, and technology. CRM implementation and its ramifications are also not completely understood as evidenced by the high number of failures in CRM implementation in organizations and the resulting disappointments. ^ The goal of this dissertation is to study emerging issues and trends in CRM, including the effect of computer software and the accompanying new management processes on organizations, and the dynamics of the alignment of marketing, sales and services, and all other functions responsible for delivering customers a satisfying experience. ^ In order to understand CRM better a content analysis of more than a hundred articles and documents from academic and industry sources was undertaken using a new methodological twist to the traditional method. An Internet domain name (http://crm.fiu.edu) was created for the purpose of this research by uploading an initial one hundred plus abstracts of articles and documents onto it to form a knowledge database. Once the database was formed a search engine was developed to enable the search of abstracts using relevant CRM keywords to reveal emergent dominant CRM topics. The ultimate aim of this website is to serve as an information hub for CRM research...

Shareholder ratification of the auditor and audit market competition

Dao, Mai
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.885444%
In my dissertation, I examine factors associated with firms’ submission of auditor selection for shareholder ratification and test if shareholder ratification of auditor selection is associated with the extent of price competition in the audit market (as measured by audit fees) and audit quality (as measured by clients’ earnings management). The dissertation is motivated from the recent recommendation of the U.S. Treasury’s Advisory Committee on Auditing Profession (ACAP) regarding the submission of auditor selection for shareholder ratification votes. The ACAP suggests that this practice may improve the competition in the audit market; yet, there is no empirical evidence supporting the ACAP’s recommendation. My dissertation attempts to fill the gap in the literature on an issue of current interest to the auditing profession. ^ I find that firm size, CEO-Chair duality, insider ownership and institutional ownership are associated with the submission of auditor selection for shareholder ratification vote. However, I do not find an association between audit committee variables and the submission of auditor selection for shareholder ratification vote. ^ The second essay investigates the association between auditor ratification and audit fees. Audit fees are higher in firms that submit auditor selection for shareholder ratification. The finding is not consistent with the increased price competition predicted by the ACAP. ^ The third essay of my dissertation examine whether the submission of auditor selection for shareholder ratification is associated with earnings management. I find that firms that submit auditor selection for shareholder ratification are more likely to have lower level of earnings management. ^ Overall...

How do partnerships lead to a competitive advantage? Applying the resource based view to nascent social ventures

Meyskens, Moriah Aurora
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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67.81834%
This dissertation is one of the earliest to systematically apply and empirically test the resource-based view (RBV) in the context of nascent social ventures in a large scale study. Social ventures are entrepreneurial ventures organized as nonprofit, for-profit, or hybrid organizations whose primary purpose is to address unmet social needs and create social value. Nascent social ventures face resource gaps and engage in partnerships or alliances as one means to access external resources. These partnerships with different sectors facilitate social venture innovative and earned income strategies, and assist in the development of adequate heterogeneous resource conditions that impact competitive advantage. Competitive advantage in the context of nascent social ventures is achieved through the creation of value and the achievement of venture development activities and launching. The relationships between partnerships, heterogeneous resource conditions, strategies, and competitive advantage are analyzed in the context of nascent social ventures that participated in business plan competitions. A content analysis of 179 social venture business plans and an exploratory follow-up survey of 72 of these ventures are used to analyze these relationships using regression...

In Favor of Hospitality-Management Education

Tews, Michael J.; Van Hoof, Hubert B.
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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68.573574%
Despite the almost one-hundred-year history of hospitality-management education; the hundreds of well-established two-year, four-year, and graduate programs worldwide; and the hundreds of thousands of graduates those programs have prepared for careers in the industry, hospitality-management education’s merit and place in higher education are still questioned at times, to the dismay of hospitality educators the world over. This article delineates several features of hospitality management that make these programs valuable and unique and provides compelling arguments in its favor. The arguments include: 1) courses tailored to the hospitality industry, the world’s largest industry; 2) focus on small-business management as well as corporate enterprises; 3) emphasis on services and service management, not manufacturing; 4) programs and coursework focused on people management, which it at the core of the hospitality businesses; 5) unique focus on the specific issues of food and beverage management, the largest component of the hospitality industry; and 6) transferability of graduates’ knowledge and skill sets, which are in high demand among other service industries. While business programs focus on the fundamentals of management and production...

Supply management in American public administration: Towards an academic discipline?

Rendon, Rene G.; Snider, Keith F.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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58.012827%
The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pursup.2010.03.009; This article examines the development of supply management in the U.S. to assess its progress towards academic disciplinary status. A comparison of the fields of business administration and public administration indicates that supply management is more developed in the former than in the latter, which inhibits its disciplinary status. Various reasons for this uneven development in the two fields are explored. The paper argues that a paradigm shift must occur for public supply management, which will re-orient it around the concept of the public interest. This will require public supply professionals to participate strategically in public policy-making in order to ascertain and promote the public interest. A policy framework is used to illustrate this re-orientation and to suggest directions for further research.

An analysis of United States Marine Corps Enlisted Entry-Level Training using supply chain and operations management

Alfonso, Steven; Oh, Dingjin; Younger, Larry M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xx, 84 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
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57.68695%
MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Enlisted Entry-Level Training (EELT) pipeline is a complex network that is of vital importance to the U.S. Marine Corps' ability to maintain a balanced force and serve as the nation's force in readiness. This report provides an all-inclusive description of the EELT pipeline by identifying the fundamental steps in the supply chain, analyzing the supply chain's critical characteristics, and providing informed recommendations related to operations and supply chain management in an effort to help synchronize the flow of human inventory through the EELT network. The report recommends six initiatives that have the potential to reduce queuing, minimize P2T2, and decrease total costs. The first proposed recommendation is to level load trainees to the training pipeline throughout the year; second, develop a pull inventory system by eliminating PEF code assignments and postponing trainee classification; third, decrease capacity at the recruit depots and increase capacity at Marine Combat Training schools; fourth, maximize training capacity during the ONDJ trimester by employing all available resources and reducing lost time during the year-end holiday break; fifth...

Analysis of Surface Warfare Enterprise's implementation of enterprise management practices

Castle, Brandon S.; Massie, James G.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Formato: xxii, 105 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
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57.642256%
MBA Professional Report; The Navy's future success relies on its ability to improve its current level of readiness in an environment of limited budgets. The enterprise concept has been the Navy's tool to meet this fiscal challenge. Through better resource allocation, Navy Enterprise seeks to maximize return on investment (ROI). Previous projects have analyzed the results from Sea Enterprise through 2005 and Naval Aviation Enterprise through 2007. Addressing enterprise management in the surface warfare community expands this body of knowledge. This project focuses on enterprise practices in the surface navy. It analyzes how the Surface Warfare Enterprise (SWE) is organized, governed, led and attempted to determine if changes in resource allocation can be attributed to these practices. The results of this project reveal that SWE's application of enterprise management practices through organization, governance, and leadership is largely consistent with corporate enterprise models and recommendations, but also identifies some areas of inconsistency and potential challenges unique to SWE that must be managed carefully. The project identifies some changes in resource allocation that can be attributed to SWE, but is largely inconclusive. Further research into this area is recommended and a course of action is provided.

Improving the SBA's Methodology for Setting Small Business Size Thresholds

Nancy Young Moore; Amy G. Cox; Lloyd Dixon; Clifford A. Grammich; Judith Mele
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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57.621187%
Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program); The Small Business Administration (SBA) recently developed a new method for determining whether a business is small or other-than-small for procurement purposes. The resulting firm-size thresholds determine whether a business is eligible for federal procurement preferences, as well as whether the Department of Defense meets its statutory goals for direct contract dollars with small businesses. The definition of what goods and services represent an industry, as well as what metric the SBA should use to measure firm size, affects the outcome of the method, as does the data that are used for it. If the industry definition is too broad or narrow, if the metric is inappropriate for the industry, or if the data is flawed because of how it is collected, the size threshold will be inappropriate. A method that more directly assesses industry characteristics, as well as reassesses the industry definition and metric used to measure firm size, would help improve the quality of the size-thresholds determination process.; Acquisition Research Program

Strategic positioning of Taiwan in the outsourcing market: Evidence from information technology services and electronic manufacturing outsourcing to China

Tseng, Sheng-Ying
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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78.84351%
In outsourcing relationships with China, the Electronic Manufacturing (EM) and Information Technology Services (ITS) industry in Taiwan may possess such advantages as the continuing growth of its production value, complete manufacturing supply chain, low production cost and a large-scale Chinese market, and language and culture similarity compared to outsourcing to other countries. Nevertheless, the Council for Economic Planning and Development of Executive Yuan (CEPD) found that Taiwan's IT services outsourcing to China is subject to certain constraints and might not be as successful as the EM outsourcing (Aggarwal, 2003; CEPD, 2004a; CIER, 2003; Einhorn and Kriplani, 2003; Kumar and Zhu, 2006; Li and Gao, 2003; MIC, 2006). Some studies examined this issue, but failed to (1) provide statistical evidence about lower prevalence rates of IT services outsourcing, and (2) clearly explain the lower prevalence rates of IT services outsourcing by identifying similarities and differences between both types of outsourcing contexts. This research seeks to fill that gap and possibly provide potential strategic guidelines to ITS firms in Taiwan. ^ This study adopts Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) as the theoretical basis. The basic premise is that different types of outsourcing activities may incur differing transaction costs and realize varying degrees of outsourcing success due to differential attributes of the transactions in the outsourcing process. Using primary data gathered from questionnaire surveys of ninety two firms...

Globalization of the Internet: Convergence or a multicultural community?

Zalka, Lori Marlene
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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68.378774%
The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate cross-cultural differences in the use of the Internet. Hofstede's model of national culture was employed as the theoretical foundation for the analysis of cross-cultural differences. Davis's technology acceptance model was employed as the theoretical foundation for the analysis of Internet use. ^ Secondary data from an on-line survey of Internet users in 22 countries conducted in April 1997 by the Georgia Tech Research Corporation measured the dependent variables of Internet use and the independent variables of attitudes toward technology. Hofstede's stream of research measured the independent variables of the five dimensions of national culture. ^ Contrary to expectations, regression analyses at the country level of analysis did not detect cultural differences. As expected, regression analyses at the individual level of analysis did detect cultural differences. The results indicated that perceived usefulness was related to the frequency of Internet shopping in the Germanic and Anglo clusters, where masculinity was high. Perceived ease of use was related to the frequency of Internet shopping in the Latin cluster, where uncertainty avoidance was high. Neither perceived usefulness nor perceived ease of use was related to the frequency of Internet shopping in the Nordic cluster...

Toward a unified theory of task -oriented and relationship -oriented leader behavior: A multi -country generalizability study

Drost, Ellen Antoinette
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.50763%
The theoretical foundation of this study comes from the significant recurrence throughout the leadership literature of two distinct behaviors, task orientation and relationship orientation. Task orientation and relationship orientation are assumed to be generic behaviors, which are universally observed and applied in organizations, even though they may be uniquely enacted in organizations across cultures. The lack of empirical evidence supporting these assumptions provided the impetus to hypothetically develop and empirically confirm the universal application of task orientation and relationship orientation and the generalizability of their measurement in a cross-cultural setting. Task orientation and relationship orientation are operationalized through consideration and initiation of structure, two well-established theoretical leadership constructs. Multiple-group mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses are used to simultaneously validate the generalizability of the two hypothesized constructs across the 12 cultural groups and to assess whether the similarities and differences discovered are measurement and scaling artifacts or reflect true cross-cultural differences. The data were collected by the author and others as part of a larger international research project. The data are comprised of 2341 managers from 12 countries/regions. The results provide compelling evidence that task orientation and relationship orientation...

Attributes of identity document credibility: A synthesis of expert knowledge

Henry, Kenneth Robert St. Leger
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.7879%
In broad terms — including a thief's use of existing credit card, bank, or other accounts — the number of identity fraud victims in the United States ranges 9-10 million per year, or roughly 4% of the US adult population. The average annual theft per stolen identity was estimated at $6,383 in 2006, up approximately 22% from $5,248 in 2003; an increase in estimated total theft from $53.2 billion in 2003 to $56.6 billion in 2006. About three million Americans each year fall victim to the worst kind of identity fraud: new account fraud. Names, Social Security numbers, dates of birth, and other data are acquired fraudulently from the issuing organization, or from the victim then these data are used to create fraudulent identity documents. In turn, these are presented to other organizations as evidence of identity, used to open new lines of credit, secure loans, “flip” property, or otherwise turn a profit in a victim's name. This is much more time consuming — and typically more costly — to repair than fraudulent use of existing accounts. ^ This research borrows from well-established theoretical backgrounds, in an effort to answer the question – what is it that makes identity documents credible? Most importantly, identification of the components of credibility draws upon personal construct psychology...

Effects of computer self efficacy and positive mood in business -to -business service encounters

Peart, Justin
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.73552%
Attempts to improve the level of customer service delivered have resulted in an increased use of technology in the customer service environment. Customer-contact employees are expected to use computers to help them in providing better service encounters for customers. This research study done in a business-to-business environment explored the effects of customer-contact employees' computer self efficacy and positive mood on in-role customer service, extra-role customer service and organization citizenship. It also examined the relationship of customer service to customer satisfaction and customer delight. ^ Research questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency distributions, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. Results indicated that computer self efficacy had a greater impact on extra-role customer service than it did on in-role customer service. Positive mood had a positive moderating influence on extra-role customer service but not on in-role customer service. ^ There was a significant relationship between in-role customer service and customer satisfaction but not between extra-role customer service and customer satisfaction. There was no significant relationship between in-role customer service and customer delight nor between extra-role customer service and customer delight. There was a statistically greater positive relationship between joy experienced by clients and customer delight than between pleasant surprise and customer delight. ^ This study demonstrated the importance of facilitating customer-contact employee positive mood on the job in order to improve the level of extra-role customer service delivered. It also showed that increasing the level of customer service does not necessarily lead to higher levels of customer satisfaction. ^

Global factors affecting women's participation in leadership

Bullough, Amanda M
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.86437%
This dissertation is a multi-level, cross-cultural study of women in leadership conducted with both macro-society data and individual-level data aggregated to the country level. The research questions are, “What macro and micro forces are hindering or advancing women into business or political leadership?” “How do these forces impact the level of women's involvement in business and political leadership in a particular country?” Data was collected from 10 secondary sources, available for 213 countries, and includes about 300 variables for business leadership (N=115) and political leadership (N=181). To date, most women in leadership research has been Western- or US-based, and little rigorous empirical, multi-level research has been done across countries. The importance of cross-cultural studies on women in leadership stems from the potential to better understand why some countries have more women in positions of both business and political leadership; and the factors that affect women's involvement in such positions in different countries. A “Levels of Women's Participation in Leadership” country model is tested using cluster and discriminant analyses. Results indicate that the factors that affect women?s participation in leadership in countries with fewer women leaders are different from the factors that affect women's participation in countries with high levels of participation. This dissertation proposes that initiatives to increase participation of women in leadership need to consider the relevant factors that significantly affect countries at certain Levels of Women's Participation in Leadership. ^

Inter-temporal Effect of Technological Capabilities on Firm Performance: a Longitudinal Study of the U.s. Computed Tomography Industry (1972-2002)

Chopra, Ankush
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 996067 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 07/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.71228%
In this dissertation, I investigate how capabilities drive firm performance as an industry evolves. I show that in spite of significant research on firm capabilities, we do not understand whether technological capabilities continue to drive firm performance as an industry evolves or whether they become weaker drivers of performance over time. This question is also important to managers because its answer would inform whether in a given context, firms should invest in building technological capabilities or not. I predict and find that in low complementarity contexts, as technology advances, customer demand for greater product performance becomes satiated. As a result, customers neither pay for greater product performance nor buy higher performing products pre maturely. As firms lose these two levers by which technological capabilities drive performance, they find that technological capabilities become weaker drivers of performance. I also propose that when technological capabilities become weaker drivers of performance, firm performance becomes more persistent, in the sense that past performance drives future performance. Through a rigorous quantitative analysis, complemented by an in-depth qualitative analysis of the US CT scanner industry from its inception...

Two Essays on Escalation of Commitment

Guha, Abhijit
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 651043 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.70546%

This dissertation focuses on managerial decision making, and specifically explores conditions wherein managers may increase their propensity to escalate commitment towards a failing project. Escalation researchers (e.g. Schmidt and Calantone, 2002) have listed four classes of factors that may impact a manager's propensity to escalate commitment towards a failing project, and have called for research into how exactly these factors impact escalation. In this dissertation, we explore two such factors. The first factor relates to the characteristics of the decision process used by firms to evaluate the project. Here, for example, researchers have looked at whether the manager was also involved in making decisions about the project in a prior period, and Boulding, Morgan and Staelin (1997) have shown that such manager's positive beliefs about the project (formed in a prior period) make a manager more likely to escalate commitment. The second factor relates to project characteristics. Here, for example, researchers have looked at whether or not the project relates to a product that is perceived as new, and Schmidt and Calantone (2002) have shown that managers are more likely to escalate commitment towards a failing project relating to a new product.

The first dissertation essay uses three experiments to examine how a hitherto unexplored characteristic of the decision process might lead to increasing escalation of commitment. Specifically...