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Mild head injury in preschool children: evidence that it can be associated with a persisting cognitive defect.

Wrightson, P; McGinn, V; Gronwall, D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1995 Português
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27.373164%
This study describes the effect of mild head injury in preschool children on aspects of their cognitive performance in the year after injury and at the age of 6.5 years, with particular reference to the development of reading skills. Mild head injury was defined by diagnosis at a hospital emergency department of a head injury which was not severe enough to need admission for observation. Seventy eight such children were compared with a group of 86 with a minor injury elsewhere. The groups had similar developmental, family, and socioeconomic status. There were no differences in cognitive tests soon after the injury, but at six months and one year children with mild head injury scored less than controls on one test, solving a visual puzzle (visual closure); they were also more likely to have had another mild head injury. At 6.5 years of age they still scored less than controls, reading ability was related to their visual closure score at one year, and they were more likely to have needed help with reading. Mild head injury seems to be able to produce subtle but significant changes which can affect school performance.

Individual Differences in Metacognitive Responsiveness: Cognitive and Personality Correlates

WASHBURN, DAVID A.; SMITH, J. DAVID; TAGLIALATELA, LAUREN A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 Português
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Individuals differ not only in the ability to make decisions, but also in the degree to which they respond adaptively to uncertainty about those decisions. We examined how optimally 124 participants used an uncertain response on near-threshold trials of a psychophysical task. All participants showed overconfidence, but women tended to be more adaptive than men in responsiveness to uncertainty. Participants who responded to uncertainty most optimally exhibited more cognitive failures, fewer attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder symptoms, greater need for closure, better attention scanning skills, but larger effects of Stroop-task incongruity compared with participants who were least optimal in responsiveness to uncertainty. These data suggest that response competition might provide a mechanism for the cognitive experience of uncertainty.

Immediate catheterization laboratory management of acute femoral artery occlusion due to a vascular closure device

Chan, Albert W; Brown, Robert IG
Fonte: Pulsus Group Inc Publicador: Pulsus Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2008 Português
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Acute limb ischemia due to vascular closure devices is an infrequent complication. However, its incidence is increasing because the use of these devices has become commonplace after cardiac catheterization and coronary angioplasty. It is therefore important for interventional cardiologists to be acquainted with the knowledge and cognitive skills of managing this complication in the catheterization laboratory. The present report describes a strategy to manage this complication in a cardiac catheterization laboratory that is not equipped with standard fluoroscopic equipment for peripheral interventions.

The pitfalls of premature closure: clinical decision-making in a case of aortic dissection

Kumar, Bharat; Kanna, Balavenkatesh; Kumar, Suresh
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2011 Português
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Premature closure is a type of cognitive error in which the physician fails to consider reasonable alternatives after an initial diagnosis is made. It is a common cause of delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis borne out of a faulty clinical decision-making process. The authors present a case of aortic dissection in which premature closure was avoided by the aggressive pursuit of the appropriate differential diagnosis, and discuss the importance of disciplined clinical decision-making in the setting of chest pain.

Beliefs in conspiracy theories and the need for cognitive closure

Leman, Patrick J.; Cinnirella, Marco
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/06/2013 Português
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An important component of conspiracy theories is how they influence, and are influenced by, the evaluation of potential evidence. Some individuals may be more open minded regarding certain explanations for events whereas others may seek closure and thus cut off a conspiracy explanation. Two studies examined the relationship between the need for cognitive closure (NFCC), levels of belief in real world conspiracy theories, and the attribution of conspiracy theories to explain events. A first, small (N = 30) and preliminary study found no relationship between NFCC and beliefs in conspiracy theories, suggesting that both advocates and opponents of conspiracy explanations do not differ on this dimension. A second study (N = 86) revealed that evidence for and against conspiracy theories had an influence on attributions of the likelihood of a conspiracy to explain a novel event. Specifically, after reading evidence individuals with high levels of belief in conspiracy theories tended to rate a conspiracy explanation as more likely whereas those with low levels of belief rated it as less likely. However, when the need for cognitive closure (NFCC) was experimentally lowered the effects of prior beliefs in conspiracy theories diminished.

How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review

Besser, Jana; Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.
Fonte: SAGE Publications Publicador: SAGE Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition...

LGN activity patterns during ocular dominance plasticity in vivo; (cont.) These findings substantially alter the interpretation of previous studies and define the activity patterns that govern cortical plasticity in vivo. Furthermore, this work may have important implications for treatments of developmental disorders including ambylopia.

Linden, Monica L. (Monica Loryn)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 155 p.
Português
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37.033777%
Perturbations of sensory experience in young animals are known to cause lasting changes in adult brain function. For example, monocular visual deprivation by lid closure (MC) leads to a loss of cortical responsiveness of the deprived eye and a concomitant visual impairment. This ocular dominance (OD) plasticity is a well-studied model of experience-dependent cortical plasticity. While much is known about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes that occur in primary visual cortex following OD plasticity, the input patterns that lead to these changes have not been characterized. Visual input travels from the retina through the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the thalamus and then into visual cortex. Several models of the thalamic activity patterns which drive OD plasticity have been proposed, but the assumptions about the pattern and amount of input activity from thalamus to cortex during deprivation have not been experimentally validated. Therefore, we performed extracellular recordings from the dLGN of animals during periods of visual manipulation. Contrary to previous hypotheses, the present findings demonstrate that MC does not alter the overall firing rate of neural activity in the dLGN. Instead, MC alters the pattern of neural spike trains such that there is a decrease in simultaneous firing of neighboring neurons. Moreover...

Cognitive set, absorption, and achievement as moderators of the perceptual closure effect in picture priming /

Turner, Deborah L.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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The present study examined individual differences in Absorption and fantasy, as well as in Achiievement and achievement striving as possible moderators of the perceptual closure effect found by Snodgrass and Feenan (1990). The study also examined whether different instructions (experiential versus instrumental) interact with the personality variables to moderate the relationship between priming and subsequent performance on a picture completion task. 1 28 participants completed two sessions, one to fill out the MPQ and NEO personality inventories and the other to complete the experimental task. The experimental task consisted of a priming phase and a test phase, with pictures presented on a computer screen for both phases. Participants were shown 30 pictures in the priming phase, and then shovm the 30 primed pictures along with 30 new pictures for the test phase. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one of the two different instruction sets for the task. Two measures of performance were calculated, most fragmented measure and threshold. Results of the present study confirm that a five-second exposure time is long enough to produce the perceptual closure effect. The analysis of the two-way interaction effects indicated a significant quadratic interaction of Absorption with priming level on threshold performance. The results were in the opposite direction of predictions. Possible explanations for the Absorption results include lack of optimal conditions...

A measure of inspection time in 4-year-old children: The Benny Bee IT task

Williams, S.; Turley, C.; Nettelbeck, T.; Burns, N.
Fonte: British Psychological Soc Publicador: British Psychological Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.033777%
Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool children. N = 71 4-year-old children completed the new IT task and standardized measures of fluid ability, visuospatial ability, and speed of processing. N = 50 adults completed the same tasks and, additionally, a standard IT task. Results showed that the new IT task is a stable, reliable measure of IT in 4-year-old children. The new task had reasonable concurrent validity with the standard IT task in adults and the relationships between cognitive abilities, particularly general cognitive ability, and IT are sufficiently similar in young children and adults to suggest that the new IT task may be a useful tool for research in populations where IT was previously not measurable.; Sarah E. Williams, Christopher Turley, Ted Nettelbeck and Nicholas R. Burns; Copyright © The British Psychological Society

Acculturation attitudes, Need for Cognitive Closure and Adaptation of Immigrants

KOSIC, Ankica
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23207%
The author validated Berry’s model of acculturation (Berry, 1990a, 1990b, 1991; Berry, Kim, Power, Young, [amp] Bujaki, 1989) and examined the relation between acculturation attitudes and sociocultural and psychological adaptation among Croatian and Polish immigrants to Italy, 2 groups whose cultures are not very different from the Italian culture. Moreover, the author investigated the relation between the need for cognitive closure (NCC; Webster [amp] Kruglanski, 1994) and psychological and sociocultural adaptation. The participants completed a questionnaire including measures of sociocultural adaptation, psychological adaptation, social relationships, acculturation attitudes, and NCC. The results of a multivariate analysis of variance revealed main effects of acculturation strategies for both forms of adaptation and a main effect of NCC for psychological adaptation. The Croatian and Polish immigrants differed in the level of sociocultural adaptation but not in the level of psychological adaptation.

Need for Cognitive Closure and Coping Strategies

KOSIC, Ankica
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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This study investigates the hypothesis that the process of coping may be motivated by an interaction of directional motivational factors represented by job satisfaction/dissatisfaction and by non-directional or epistemological motivational factors represented by the level of Need for Cognitive Closure. Need for Cognitive Closure is based on two general tendencies: the urgency tendency (“to seize”) and the permanency tendency (to freeze”). More specifically, we predicted that if job satisfaction is low, the increased need for closure is related to the choice of problem-oriented coping strategies. Alternatively, we hypothesised with high job satisfaction that an increased need for closure is related to use of avoidance coping. Questionnaire pertaining to need for cognitive closure, to coping strategies and to a measure of job satisfaction were completed by a group of 146 Croatian immigrants living in Italy. Results of the analyses confirmed that when subjects were highly satisfied with their job, their primary concern was to preserve their position. So, here the high need for closure enhanced the tendency to freeze and induced the choice of avoidance coping strategies. On the other hand, our results confirmed that when persons are not satisfied with their job...

Cierre cognitivo, sexismo y religiosidad: diferencias y similitudes entre grupos de adolescentes con distinta cultura

Moyano Pacheco, Manuel; Exp??sito Jim??nez, Francisca; Trujillo, Humberto M.
Fonte: Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Desde el ??mbito de la cognici??n social motivada, la necesidad de cierre cognitivo emerge como una variable crucial para la mejor comprensi??n de las diferencias individuales en variables psicosociales asociadas a la cultura y, adem??s, susceptible de tener en cuenta en programas de intervenci??n cuyo objetivo vaya dirigido a modificar actitudes ancladas en el prejuicio y la discriminaci??n. En la presente investigaci??n se ha realizado un estudio de este constructo motivacional y su relaci??n con el sexismo y la religiosidad en una muestra de adolescentes cristianos y musulmanes, todos ellos residentes en un contexto social con un marcado car??cter multicultural. De acuerdo con los datos obtenidos, no se han encontrado diferencias entre musulmanes y cristianos en necesidad de cierre cognitivo y sexismo. Sin embargo, se han encontrado diferencias por sexo en sexismo hostil. La necesidad de cierre cognitivo correlacion?? de una forma estad??sticamente significativa con el sexismo (hostil y benevolente), y es un buen predictor. Los musulmanes puntuaron de una forma significativamente m??s elevada que los cristianos en los indicadores de religiosidad. Se discuten los resultados en el marco de investigaciones previas.; In the context of motivated social cognition...

Violencia de la mujer hacia el hombre, ??mito o realidad?

Aguilera Jim??nez, Adri??n; Barba Priego, Mar??a; Fuentes Guti??rrez, Marta; L??pez Molina, Elena; Villacreces Flores, Nerea Mar??a; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose Miguel
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.55094%
Art??culo revisado por: Marzia Fiorini. Grupo de Investigaci??n: Aprendizaje y Desarrollo en Contextos Educativos. Universidad de Granada | Jory Bolton. Trent University; El sexismo ambivalente afectan de manera inmediata y permanente interfiriendo en la necesidad de cierre cognitivo, generando confusi??n, ambig??edad e incertidumbre en las personas victimas de la violencia de g??nero. Este estudio explora la visi??n de que las mujeres puedan ejercer la violencia hacia los hombres. M??todo: Estudio exploratorio realizado en la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educaci??n de la Universidad de Granada. Cuarenta y nueve mujeres, cumplimentaron el Inventario de Sexismo Ambivalente y la escala de Necesidad de Cierre Cognitivo. Resultados: El an??lisis estad??stico muestra que no existen correlaciones significativas entre los resultados obtenidos. Conclusiones: La violencia de las mujeres hacia los hombres no es reconocida.; Abstract: Sexism affects victims in an immediate and permanent way, interfering with the need for cognitive closure and generating confusion, ambiguity and uncertainty in people victimized by gender-based violence. This study explores the idea that women can exercise violence against men. Method: Exploratory study carried out at the Faculty of Education of the University of Granada. Forty-nine women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and the Need for Cognitive Closure scale. Results: The statistical analysis shows that there is no significant correlation between the results obtained. Conclusions: Violence by women against men is not recognized.

Creativity & Cognitive Closure

Hazir, Melike; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose Miguel
Fonte: Universidad de Granada Publicador: Universidad de Granada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.848462%
Art??culo revisado por: Marzia Fiorini. Grupo de Investigaci??n: Aprendizaje y Desarrollo en Contextos Educativos. Universidad de Granada | Jory Bolton. Trent University; Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between the need for cognitive closure (NFC) and creativity. In light of previous research, a theoretical foundation is established for the term creativity. Next the social-cognitive phenomenon of the need for cognitive closure is explained based on the theory of Kruglanski and Webster, and considering the tendencies of urgency and permanency. Conclusion: The role of creativity is to control cognitive closure in order to solve problems that arise during the learning process and usually during the life. Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la relaci??n entre la necesidad de cierre cognitivo (NCC) y la creatividad. A la luz de las investigaciones realizadas, se establece la base te??rica para el t??rmino de creatividad y la explica del fen??meno socio-cognitivo de necesidad de cierre cognitivo en base a la teor??a de Kruglanski y Webster, teniendo en cuenta las tendencias de urgencia y permanencia. Conclusi??n: La creatividad tiene un papel importante de control del cierre cognitivo con el fin de resolver los problemas que surjan durante el proceso de aprendizaje y en general durante la vida.

Epistemic motivation affects the processing of negative emotional stimuli in interpersonal decisions

Wei, Zhenyu; Ruz, Mar??a; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.23207%
The present electrophysiological study investigated the role of the need for cognitive closure (NFC) in emotional processing. The NFC is conceptualized as an epistemic motive that is related to how and why people seek out information in social environments. Event-related potentials were recorded while individuals with high NFC (i.e., low epistemic motivation) or low NFC (i.e., high epistemic motivation) performed a modified Ultimatum Game, in which the emotions of happy or angry game agents were employed to predict their most likely offer. High-NFC participants more closely adhered to the decisions rules of the game than low-NFC individuals did. The electrophysiological results showed that the dispositional NFC modified early perceptual components (N170, N200, and P200). The potentials showed that high-NFC subjects had a processing bias to angry faces, whereas low-NFC individuals exhibited no such effects. These findings indicated that high-NFC individuals were more sensitive to negative emotional stimuli than low-NFC individuals in an interpersonal decision-making task.

The Social Cognition of Immigrants' Acculturation: Effects of the Need for Closure and the Reference Group at Entry

KOSIC, Ankica; KRUGLANSKI, Arie; PIERRO, Antonio; MANNETTI, Lucia
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.249888%
Three studies found support for the notion that the quality of immigrants’ acculturation to the host culture is interactively determined by these individuals’ need for cognitive closure (Kruglanski [amp] Webster, 1996) and the “reference group” they forge upon their arrival in the new land. If such reference group is fashioned by close social relations with the immigrants’ co-ethnics—the higher the immigrants’ need for closure the weaker their tendency to assimilate to the new culture, and the stronger their tendency to adhere to the culture of origin. By contrast, if the “reference group” on entry is fashioned by close relations with members of the host country—the higher their need for closure the stronger their tendency to adapt to the new culture, and the weaker their tendency to maintain the culture of origin. These findings obtained consistently across three immigrant samples in Italy, one Croatian and the two Polish, and across multiple different measures of acculturation.

Eye-closure increases children's memory accuracy for visual material

Mastroberardino, Serena; Vredeveldt, Annelies
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.519246%
Research shows that closing the eyes during retrieval can help both adults and children to remember more about witnessed events. In this study, we investigated whether the eye-closure effect in children is explained by general cognitive load, modality-specific interference, or a combination. 120 children (60 female) aged between 8 and 11 years viewed a 5-min clip depicting a theft and were questioned about the event. During the cued-recall interview, children either viewed a blank screen (blank-screen condition), kept their eyes closed (eye-closure condition), were exposed to visual stimuli (visual-distraction condition), or were exposed to auditory stimuli (auditory-distraction condition). Children in the blank-screen and eye-closure conditions provided significantly more correct and fewer incorrect responses about visual details than children in the visual- and auditory-distraction conditions. No advantage was found for auditory details. These results support neither a pure cognitive-load explanation (in which the effect is expected to be observed for recall of both visual and auditory details), nor a pure modality-specific account (in which recall of visual details should only be disrupted by visual distractions). Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

Autocatalytic closure in a cognitive system: A tentative scenario for the origin of culture

Gabora, L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/01/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.033777%
This paper presents a speculative model of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the transition from episodic to mimetic (or memetic) culture with the arrival of Homo erectus, which Donald [1991] claims paved the way for the unique features of human culture. The model draws on Kauffman's [1993] theory of how an information-evolving system emerges through the formation of an autocatalytic network. Though originally formulated to explain the origin of life, this theory also provides a plausible account of how discrete episodic memories become woven into an internal model of the world, or worldview, that both structures, and is structured by, self-triggered streams of thought. Social interaction plays a role in (and may be critical to) this process. Implications for cognitive development are explored.; Comment: 25 pages, HTML + 10 gif figures; Published version at http://www.cogsci.soton.ac.uk/cgi/psyc/newpsy?9.67 ; Version with more accessable figures at http://www.vub.ac.be/CLEA/liane/ACCS/ ; Submit Commentaries to psyc@coglit.soton.ac.uk

What a Difference a Tag Cloud Makes: Effects of Tasks and Cognitive Abilities on Search Results Interface Use

Gwizdka, Jacek
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/04/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.17942%
The goal of this study is to expand our understanding of the relationships between selected tasks, cognitive abilities and search result interfaces. The underlying objective is to understand how to select search results presentation for tasks and user contexts. Twenty three participants conducted four search tasks of two types and used two interfaces (List and Overview) to refine and examine search results. Clickthrough data were recorded. This controlled study employed a mixed model design with two within-subject factors (task and interface) and two between-subject factors (two cognitive abilities: memory span and verbal closure). Quantitative analyses were carried out by means of the statistical package SPSS. Specifically, multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures and non-parametric tests were performed on the collected data. The overview of search results appeared to have benefited searchers in several ways. It made them faster; it facilitated formulation of more effective queries and helped to assess search results. Searchers with higher cognitive abilities were faster in the Overview interface and in less demanding situations (on simple tasks), while at the same time they issued about the same number of queries as lower-ability searchers. In more demanding situations (on complex tasks and in the List interface)...

Cognitive closure and risk sensitivity in the fear of crime

Jackson, Jonathan
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.880093%
This study was designed to answer two questions. First, does the risk sensitivity model of worry about crime replicate in three European countries? Second, can the model be extended to include need for cognitive closure? Method A national probability survey in Italy, Bulgaria, and Lithuania measured worry about criminal victimization, risk perception, and need for cognitive closure. Additive and interactive relationships between latent constructs were tested using latent moderated structural equation modelling. Results First, perceived likelihood, control, and consequence were statistically significant additive predictors of worry about crime. Second, the association between subjective probability judgements and worry about crime was stronger among people who associated the uncertain event with serious personal consequences and among people who had a high need for cognitive closure. Third, need for cognitive closure was associated with greater perceived consequences of victimization, but not with different perceptions of the likelihood and controllability of personal victimization. Conclusions This study provides empirical support for an extended risk sensitivity model in three European countries. Findings suggest that risk perception involves multiple – and interacting – dimensions that constitute sensitivity to risk...