The challenge the community college faces in helping
meet the needs of the living open system of society is
examined in this study. It is postulated that internalization
student outcomes are required by society to reduce entropy
and remain self-renewing. Such behavior is characterized as
having an intrinsically motivated energy source and displays
the seeking and conquering of challenge, the development of
reflective knowledge and skill, full use of all capabilities,
internal control, growth orientation, high self-esteem,
relativistic thinking and competence.
The development of a conceptual systems model that
suggests how transactions among students, faculty and
administration might occur to best meet the needs of
internalization outcomes in students, and intrinsic motivation
in faculty is a major purpose of this study. It is a speculative
model that is based on a synthesis of a wide variety of
variables. Empirical evidence, theoretical considerations, and
speculative ideas are gathered together from researchers
and theoretici.ans who are working on separate answers to
questions of intrinsic motivation, internal control and
environments that encourage their development. The model
considers the effect administrators·have on faculty anq
the corresponding effect faculty may have on students. The
major concentration is on the administrator--teacher interface.For administrators the model may serve as a guide in planning
One hundred and thirty four subjects participated in this survey.
Quantitative data were obtained and correlational analyses were used
to test a model to study the relationships among the achievement of
work values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction and to
identify the moderating effects of the meaningfulness of work and
responsibility for work on these relationships. Part-time faculty in
the Faculty of Continuing Education of a community college were mailed
a questionnaire on all the variables of the model. Several reliable,
valid instruments were used to test the variables. Data analysis
through Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses
revealed that the achievement of the work values of recognition and
satisfaction with promotions did predict organizational commitment and
job satisfaction, although the moderating effects of the
meaningfulness of work and responsibility for work was not supported
in this study. This study suggests that the revised model may be used
for determining the relationships between the achievement of work
values and organizational commitment and job satisfaction in a
community college setting.
This study examined the perceptions of state governmental officials and administrators from the state university system, community college system, and independent institutions concerning the ability of various groups to influence state-level higher education policy formation. The study was conducted in Florida for the period 1989-94. Florida has a history of legislative involvement in higher education, a unique system of state universities and community colleges, and a limited number of private institutions of higher education. This study was grounded in the works of Mortimer and McConnell (1978), Millett (1987), Marshall, Mitchell, and Wirt (1989) and Finitfer, Baldwin, and Thelin (1991).^ The study represented the application of an embedded, single-case design. A survey was the primary collection instrument. Respondents were asked questions concerning: (a) personal involvement in higher education, (b) perceptions of the ability of various groups to influence higher education policy, (c) the names of particular individuals considered key players in higher education policy formation, (d) important state-level documents, (e) personal knowledge of key areas of policy formation, and (f) emerging higher education issues in Florida. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the different sections of the survey.^ The findings indicated that a power and influence hierarchy exists among the various groups that attempt to influence higher education policy and that this hierarchy is recognized by state government officials and higher education administrators. While an analysis of variance of the various groups revealed a few differences between state government officials and higher education personnel...
The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and use of critical thinking teaching strategies by full-time and part-time faculty in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs. ^ Sanders CTI (1992) instrument was adapted for this study and pilot-tested prior to the general administration to ADN faculty in Southeast Florida. This modified instrument, now termed the Burroughs Teaching Strategy Inventory (BTSI), returned reliability estimates (Cronbach alphas of .71, .74, and .82 for the three constructs) comparable to the original instrument. The BTSI was administered to 113 full-time and part-time nursing faculty in three community college nursing programs. The response rate was 92% for full-time faculty (n = 58) and 61% for part-time faculty (n = 55). ^ The majority of participants supported a combined definition of critical thinking in nursing which represented a composite of thinking skills that included reflective thinking, assessing alternative viewpoints, and the use of problem-solving. Full-time and part-time faculty used different teaching strategies. Full-time faculty most often used multiple-choice exams and lecture while part-time faculty most frequently used discussion within their classes. One possible explanation for specific strategy choices and differences might be that full-time faculty taught predominately in theory classes where certain strategies would be more appropriate and part-time faculty taught predominately clinical classes. Both faculty types selected written nursing care plans as the second most effective critical thinking strategy. ^ Faculty identified several strategies as being effective in teaching critical thinking. These strategies included discussion...
Hispanic Generation 1.5 students are foreign-born, U.S. high school graduates who are socialized in the English dominant K-12 school system while still maintaining the native language and culture at home (Allison, 2006; Blumenthal, 2002; Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 1999; Rumbault & Ima, 1988). When transitioning from high school to college, these students sometimes assess into ESL courses based on their English language abilities, and because of this ESL placement, Hispanic Generation 1.5 students might have different engagement experiences than their mainstream peers. Engagement is a critical factor in student success and long-term retention because students’ positive and negative engagement experiences affect their membership and sense of belonging at the institution. The purpose of this study was to describe the engagement and membership experiences of Hispanic Generation 1.5 students’ at a Massachusetts community college.
This study employed naturalistic inquiry within an embedded descriptive case study design that included three units of analysis: the students’ engagement experiences in (a) ESL courses, (b) developmental courses, and (c) mainstream courses. The main source of data was in-depth interviews with Hispanic Generation 1.5 students at Commonwealth of Massachusetts Community College. Criterion sampling was used to select the interview participants...
The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of community college professors regarding education for sustainable development (ESD). In-depth interviews with 14 professors from different disciplines were conducted. The participants taught at Miami Dade College, Florida, a Talloires Declaration signatory since 2006, and all had attended Green Studies professional development workshops. Written documents such as assignments and samples of student work were used for triangulation. The annual report of the college’s Earth Ethics Institute and its Web site served as additional sources. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for common themes. The Talloires Declaration’s 10-point action plan and the key characteristics of ESD (UN DESD, 2006) served as the conceptual framework.
The study found that the professors considered ESD an essential issue. The majority discussed the economic and social aspects of ESD; however, the environmental aspect was mentioned most frequently. The professors’ conceptualizations of ESD were influenced by their experiences and evidenced by the metaphors they used. Although their engagement with ESD differed, the professors expressed optimism toward ESD related teaching and learning. They regarded ESD as compatible with their subjects...
This research was undertaken to explore dimensions of the risk construct, identify factors related to risk-taking in education, and study risk propensity among employees at a community college. Risk-taking propensity (RTP) was measured by the 12-item BCDQ, which consisted of personal and professional risk-related situations balanced for the money, reputation, and satisfaction dimensions of the risk construct. Scoring ranged from 1.00 (most cautious) to 6.00 (most risky).^ Surveys including the BCDQ and seven demographic questions relating to age, gender, professional status, length of service, academic discipline, highest degree, and campus location were sent to faculty, administrators, and academic department heads. A total of 325 surveys were returned, resulting in a 66.7% response rate. Subjects were relatively homogeneous for age, length of service, and highest degree.^ Subjects were also homogeneous for risk-taking propensity: no substantive differences in RTP scores were noted within and among demographic groups, with the possible exception of academic discipline. The mean RTP score for all subjects was 3.77, for faculty was 3.76, for administrators was 3.83, and for department heads was 3.64.^ The relationship between propensity to take personal risks and propensity to take professional risks was tested by computing Pearson r correlation coefficients. The relationships for the total sample...
According to Venezia, Kirst, and Antonio (2003) and Barth’s 2002 Thinking K16 Ticket to Nowhere report, the disconnect between K-12 and postsecondary education was a contributing factor to high attrition rates. Since mathematics emerged as a primary concern for college readiness, Barth (2002) called for improving student transitions from K-12 to postsecondary institutions through the use of state or local data. The purpose of the present study was to analyze mathematics course-taking patterns of secondary students in a local context and to evaluate high school characteristics in order to explore their relationships with Associate degree attainment or continuous enrollment at an urban community college. Also, this study extended a national study conducted by Clifford Adelman (The Toolbox Revisited, 2006) as it specifically focused on community college students that were not included his study. Furthermore, this study used the theoretical framework that human capital, social capital, and cultural capital influence habitus—an individual’s or a group’s learned inclination to behave within the parameters of the imposed prevailing culture and norms. Specifically, the school embedded culture as it relates to tracking worked as a reproduction tool of ultimate benefit for the privileged group (Oakes...
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the Florida State-mandated Basic Skills Exit Tests (BSET) on the effectiveness of remedial instruction programs to adequately serve the academically underprepared student population. The primary research question concerned whether the introduction of the BSET has resulted in remedial completers who are better prepared for college-level coursework.
This study consisted of an ex post facto research design to examine the impact of the BSET on student readiness for subsequent college-level coursework at Miami- Dade Community College. Two way analysis of variance was used to compare the performance of remedial and college-ready students before and after the introduction of the BSET requirement. Chi-square analysis was used to explore changes in the proportion of students completing and passing remedial courses. Finally, correlation analysis was used to explore the utility of the BSET in predicting subsequent college-level course performance. Differences based on subject area and race/ethnicity were explored.
The purpose of this study was to explore how administrators’ perceived the campus and administrative cultures found on a single campus of a multicampus community college system. A review of the literature revealed that the culture found in higher education institutions contains a high degree of human interactions, has a myriad of cultures, and that individuals play a significant role in the maintenance or the evolution of the cultures present. The study site was Neighborhood Campus which is one campus of a large urban community college system containing a total of eight campuses, Urban College. Kuh’s conventional organizational models served to identify the model on Neighborhood Campus, Levin’s cultural definitions described the campus culture, and cultural definitions from Bergquist and Pawlak formed the framework for the administrative culture. The study was guided by the following research questions: What are the administrators’ perspectives of the campus culture on a community college campus and what are the administrators’ perspectives of the administrative culture on a community college campus? A qualitative case study method was used, data collection included interviews, document and videograph reviews, and observations of administrative meetings. The participants for the interview portion of the study included 10 individuals defined as administrators. ^ The study revealed that administrators’ perspectives of these cultures demonstrated five themes (student-centered...
The purpose of this study was to determine if higher academic performance was positively correlated to higher emotional intelligence among traditional age male and female college students enrolled in an Introduction to Business course at a large multi-campus state college in Florida. The Bar-On 2004 (Emotional Quotient Inventory) EQ-i 133-item inventory was used to assess students’ emotional intelligence. Within the scope of this ex-post facto study, a quasi-experimental design was included to further determine if emotional intelligence could be increased through the inclusion of a curricular component on emotional intelligence. Four groups of students (N=111) participated in the three-phase study over two semesters. ^ The first phase (pre-intervention) was limited to students with an established GPA and an attempted-to-completed credit hour ratio within the institution (N=82). Results showed a slight positive correlation between the two factors and the students’ emotional intelligence pretest assessment scores. The second phase of the study involved establishing a control and an experimental group in each of two semesters to compare the attainment of overall emotional intelligence scores as measured by the EQ-i. The third phase of the study examined four measures of academic success (GPA...
This study examined the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring system instruction, grounded in John Anderson's ACT theory of cognition, on the achievement and attitude of developmental mathematics students in the community college setting. The quasi-experimental research used a pretest-posttest control group design. The dependent variables were problem solving achievement, overall achievement, and attitude towards mathematics. The independent variable was instructional method.
Four intact classes and two instructors participated in the study for one semester. Two classes (n = 35) served as experimental groups; they received six lessons with real-world problems using intelligent tutoring system instruction. The other two classes (n = 24) served as control groups; they received six lessons with real-world problems using traditional instruction including graphing calculator support. It was hypothesized that students taught problem solving using the intelligent tutoring system would achieve more on the dependent variables than students taught without the intelligent tutoring system.
Posttest mean scores for one teacher produced a significant difference in overall achievement for the experimental group. The same teacher had higher means...
In an effort to improve instruction and better accommodate the needs of students, community colleges are offering courses delivered in a variety of delivery formats that require students to have some level of technology fluency to be successful in the course. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between student socioeconomic status (SES), course delivery method, and course type on enrollment, final course grades, course completion status, and course passing status at a state college. ^ A dataset for 20,456 students of low and not low SES enrolled in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) course types delivered using traditional, online, blended, and web enhanced course delivery formats at Miami Dade College, a large open access 4-year state college located in Miami-Dade County, Florida, was analyzed. A factorial ANOVA using course type, course delivery method, and student SES found no significant differences in final course grades when used to determine if course delivery methods were equally effective for students of low and not low SES taking STEM course types. Additionally, three chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to investigate for differences in enrollment, course completion and course passing status by SES...
A purpose of this research study was to demonstrate the practical linguistic study and evaluation of dissertations by using two examples of the latest technology, the microcomputer and optical scanner. That involved developing efficient methods for data entry plus creating computer algorithms appropriate for personal, linguistic studies. The goal was to develop a prototype investigation which demonstrated practical solutions for maximizing the linguistic potential of the dissertation data base. The mode of text entry was from a Dest PC Scan 1000 Optical Scanner. The function of the optical scanner was to copy the complete stack of educational dissertations from the Florida Atlantic University Library into an I.B.M. XT microcomputer. The optical scanner demonstrated its practical value by copying 15,900 pages of dissertation text directly into the microcomputer. A total of 199 dissertations or 72% of the entire stack of education dissertations (277) were successfully copied into the microcomputer's word processor where each dissertation was analyzed for a variety of syntax frequencies.
The results of the study demonstrated the practical use of the optical scanner for data entry, the microcomputer for data and statistical analysis, and the availability of the college library as a natural setting for text studies. A supplemental benefit was the establishment of a computerized dissertation corpus which could be used for future research and study.
The final step was to build a linguistic model of the differences in dissertation writing styles by creating 7 factors from 55 dependent variables through principal components factor analysis. The 7 factors (textual components) were then named and described on a hypothetical construct defined as a continuum from a conversational...
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if the academic assistance program Supplemental Instruction (SI) facilitates the acquisition of effective study behaviors through strategies that transcend simple double-exposure to the course material. Its advocates claim it increases academic achievement using learner-centered knowledge and acquisition of effective study behaviors. SI sessions are specifically related to particular courses that students are taking. Sessions are facilitated by the SI leader who has taken the subject matter course in the past. Students review the content of the previous subject matter class using collaborative learning strategies coordinated by a SI leader. In addition, the SI leader models appropriate study behaviors in his or her interactions with the students. ^ An instructor at a large Florida community college who taught five classes of an Anatomy & Physiology I course (traditionally supported by SI) was identified. Two of the classes were randomly selected to participate in SI activities, and two classes were random chosen to participate in alternate, computer-based activities that dealt with the course content, but did not include work in developing students' study behaviors. These treatments were carried out over the course of an entire semester. Participation was mandatory. ^ Data were collected on two variables. Academic achievement in anatomy and physiology content was measured both pre- and post-treatment using an instructor developed examination. Student study behaviors were measured using pre- and post-treatment administration of the Study Behavior Inventory...
This dissertation derived hypotheses from the theories of Piaget, Bruner and Dienes regarding the effects of using Algebra Tiles and other manipulative materials to teach remedial algebra to community college students. The dependent variables measured were achievement and attitude towards mathematics. The Piagetian cognitive level of the students in the study was measured and used as a concomitant factor in the study.^ The population for the study was comprised of remedial algebra students at a large urban community college. The sample for the study consisted of 253 students enrolled in 10 sections of remedial algebra at three of the six campuses of the college. Pretests included administration of an achievement pre-measure, Aiken's Mathematics Attitude Inventory (MAI), and the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT). Posttest measures included a course final exam and a second administration of the MAI.^ The results of the GALT test revealed that 161 students (63.6%) were concrete operational, 65 (25.7%) were transitional, and 27 (10.7%) were formal operational. For the purpose of analyzing the data, the transitional and formal operational students were grouped together.^ Univariate factorial analyses of covariance ($\alpha$ =.05) were performed on the posttest of achievement (covariate = achievement pretest) and the MAI posttest (covariate = MAI pretest). The factors used in the analysis were method of teaching (manipulative vs. traditional) and cognitive level (concrete operational vs. transitional/formal operational).^ The analyses for achievement revealed a significant difference in favor of the manipulatives groups in the computations by campus. Significant differences were not noted in the analysis by individual instructors.^ The results for attitude towards mathematics showed a significant difference in favor of the manipulatives groups for the college-wide analysis and for one campus. The analysis by individual instructor was not significant. In addition...
This study explored the effects of class size on faculty and students. Specifically, it examined the relationship of class size and students' participation in class, faculty interactive styles, and academic environment and how these behaviors affected student achievement (percentage of students passing).^ The sample was composed of 629 students in 30 sections of Algebra I at a large, urban community college. A survey was administered to the students to solicit their perceptions on their participation in class, their faculty interaction style, and the academic environment in their classes. Selected classes were observed to triangulate the findings. The relationship of class size to student participation, faculty interactive styles, and academic environment was determined by using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). A significant difference was found on the participation of students related to class size. Students in smaller classes participated more and were more engaged than students in larger classes.^ Regression analysis using the same variables in small and large classes showed that faculty interactive styles significantly predicted student achievement. Stepwise regression analyses of student and faculty background variables showed that (a) students' estimate of GPA was significantly related to their achievement (r = .63); (b) older students reported more participation than did younger ones...
Taiwan's technological five-year junior college (TFYJC) was founded in 1948 to train technicians to meet the demand coming from national construction. Site level professionals never were trained in curriculum development as this was under strict national control. The purpose of this study is to present an accurate narrative of Taiwan's TFYJC mechanical engineering curriculum development history in order to display the focus, rationale, and influencing forces of the evolving curriculum. This study employed historical research methodology and used document analysis as the primary approach.^ This analysis revealed that the target FYJC curriculum was manufacturing-oriented. The range of government control shifted from little, to full, then to partial control of the curriculum, from autonomy to uniformity then to partial autonomy. The intention of the target curriculum development was always to advance domestic economic development. Voices from the academia and government also influenced curriculum development decisions. Currently, the government has instituted a shift in focus and content causing individual institutions to develop curriculum responses addressing the challenge of advancing Taiwan's position in a global economy.^ Considering the shift in policy and practice...
The goal of this study is to provide a
better understanding of how a school system can operate
efficiently under adversity. The results of this work will
be useful in identifying relevant policies in the Middle
East and North Africa region. Palestine refugees are
achieving higher-than-average learning outcomes in spite of
the adverse circumstances they live under. Their education
system the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for
Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) operates one of
the largest non-governmental school systems in the Middle
East. It manages nearly 700 schools, has hired 17,000 staff,
educates more than 500,000 refugee students each year, and
operates in five areas, including the West Bank, Gaza,
Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. This study examines three: West
Bank, Gaza, and Jordan. Contrary to what might be expected
from a resource-constrained administration serving refugee
students who continually face a multitude of adversities,
UNRWA students outperform public schools in the three
regions the West Bank...