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Multivariable analysis of spectral measurements for the characterization of semiconductor processes

White, David A. (David Allan), 1966-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 357 p.; 3990082 bytes; 3989731 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The availability of affordable and reliable optical sensor technology and the abundance of data that these sensors now provide have created new opportunities to better characterize and control semiconductor processes in real-time. This thesis focuses on the analysis of multivariate methods and optical sensors for characterizing endpoint for two key processes: plasma etch and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). To extract meaning information in real-time from the volumes of acquired optical sensor data, chemometric methods including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) are developed and tailored for characterizing endpoint and uniformity for each particular process. The results of this research include one of the first demonstrations of 1% low open area endpoint detection for a production etch process using a chemometrics-based estimator as well as comprehensive analysis and comparison of two innovative sensors, optical reflectance and IR thermography, for measuring wafer-level uniformity in CMP. During 8-inch copper polish experiments, the optical reflectance sensor is shown to demonstrate superior spatial resolution to IR thermography and provide spatial endpoint detection sufficient for reducing dishing and erosion during CMP. However...

A forward model-based analysis of cardiovascular system identification methods

Mukkamala, Ramakrishna, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 221 p.; 8339285 bytes; 8339092 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Cardiovascular system identification is a potentially powerful approach for intelligent patient monitoring of cardiovascular function. Rather than merely recording hemodynamic signals, the signals are mathematically analyzed so as to provide a dynamical characterization of the physiologic mechanisms responsible for generating them. The fundamental aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate cardiovascular system identification methods based on a test bed of data generated from a forward model of the cardiovascular system whose dynamical properties are known. To this end, we developed a computer model of the human cardiovascular system which includes a lumped parameter model of the heart and circulation and a model of the short-term cardiovascular regulatory system continuously disturbed by resting physiologic perturbations. The short-term regulatory system consists of arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflex systems and a direct neural coupling mechanism between respiration and heart rate. The resting physiologic perturbations include respiratory activity and stochastic disturbances to total peripheral resistance (TPR) and heart rate representing, for example, autoregulation of local vascular beds and higher brain center activity. We demonstrated that this model emulates experimental data in terms of steady-state pulsatility...

Design automation and analysis of three-dimensional integrated circuits

Das, Shamik, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 176 p.; 10090764 bytes; 10112999 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This dissertation concerns the design of circuits and systems for an emerging technology known as three-dimensional integration. By stacking individual components, dice, or whole wafers using a high-density electromechanical interconnect, three-dimensional integration can achieve scalability and performance exceeding that of conventional fabrication technologies. There are two main contributions of this thesis. The first is a computer-aided design flow for the digital components of a three-dimensional integrated circuit (3-D IC). This flow primarily consists of two software tools: PR3D, a placement and routing tool for custom 3-D ICs based on standard cells, and 3-D Magic, a tool for designing, editing, and testing physical layout characteristics of 3-D ICs. The second contribution of this thesis is a performance analysis of the digital components of 3-D ICs. We use the above tools to determine the extent to which 3-D integration can improve timing, energy, and thermal performance. In doing so, we verify the estimates of stochastic computational models for 3-D IC interconnects and find that the models predict the optimal 3-D wire length to within 20% accuracy. We expand upon this analysis by examining how 3-D technology factors affect the optimal wire length that can be obtained. Our ultimate analysis extends this work by directly considering timing and energy in 3-D ICs. In all cases we find that significant performance improvements are possible. In contrast...

Practical robustness measures in multivariable control system analysis

Lehtomaki, Norman A. (Norman August)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 264 leaves; 14443831 bytes; 14443588 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Norman August Lehtomaki.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ENGINEERING.; Includes bibliographical references.

Emotional response modeling in financial markets : Boston Stock Exchange data analysis; Modeling of emotional responses in financial markets

McCaney, Patrick Michael, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58 leaves; 2232194 bytes; 2237263 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this thesis, physiological data is analyzed in the context of financial risk processing, specifically investigating the effects of financial trading decisions and situations on the physiological responses of professional market makers. The data for this analysis comes from an experiment performed on market makers at the Boston Stock Exchange. This analysis involved significant preprocessing of large financial and physiological data sets. Short-term and long term analysis of financial and performance based event markers of the data are performed and the results interpreted. There are two main conclusions. First, negative performance events are found to be the the main driver of physiological responses; positive performance events have minimal deviations from baseline physiological signals. Second, a long term analysis of events yield more substantial physiological changes than a short term analysis.; by Patrick Michael McCaney.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 57-58).

Analysis of critical points for nonconvex optimization

Şimşek, Alp
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 125 leaves; 1876940 bytes; 1831347 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In this thesis, we establish sufficient conditions under which an optimization problem has a unique local optimum. Motivated by the practical need for establishing the uniqueness of the optimum in an optimization problem in fields such as global optimization, equilibrium analysis, and efficient algorithm design, we provide sufficient conditions that are not merely theoretical characterizations of uniqueness, but rather, given an optimization problem, can be checked algebraically. In our analysis we use results from two major mathematical disciplines. Using the mountain pass theory of variational analysis, we are able to establish the uniqueness of the local optimum for problems in which every stationary point of the objective function is a strict local minimum and the function satisfies certain boundary conditions on the constraint region. Using the index theory of differential topology, we are able to establish the uniqueness of the local optimum for problems in which every generalized stationary point (Karush-Kuhn-Tucker point) of the objective function is a strict local minimum and the function satisfies some non-degeneracy assumptions. The uniqueness results we establish using the mountain pass theory and the topological index theory are comparable but not identical.; (cont.) Our results from the mountain pass analysis require the function to satisfy less strict structural assumptions such as weaker differentiability requirements...

Petscope : a standardized system for ballistic missile guidance data analysis; Standardized system for ballistic missile guidance data analysis

McNurlen, Austin Casey
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 37 p.; 1655264 bytes; 1654752 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis had the goals of standardizing and automating guidance data analysis at The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. (Draper). This was accomplished via, the first ever machine understandable knowledge of Portable Engineering Testing Stations (PETS) variables located in a comprehensive MySQL database. Automation was achieved via a MATLAB program designed to be flexible for a wide variety of inputs and outputs. The standardization required time-consuming interface analysis and a tedious programming effort, but has proved to be successful and is already streamlining the data collection and analysis process for another program at Draper.; by Austin Casey McNurlen.; Thesis (M. Eng. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 37).

A software toolkit for acoustic respiratory analysis

Yi, Gina Ann
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 147 p.; 8625770 bytes; 8631931 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Millions of Americans suffer from pulmonary diseases. According to recent statistics, approximately 17 million people suffer from asthma, 16.4 million from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 12 million from sleep apnea, and 1.3 million from pneumonia - not to mention the prevalence of many other diseases associated with the lungs. Annually, the mortality attributed to pulmonary diseases exceeds 150,000. Clinical signs of most pulmonary diseases include irregular breathing patterns, the presence of abnormal breath sounds such as wheezes and crackles, and the absence of breathing entirely. Throughout the history of medicine, physicians have always listened for such sounds at the chest wall (or over the trachea) during patient examinations to diagnose pulmonary diseases - a procedure also known as auscultation. Recent advancements in computer technology have made it possible to record, store, and digitally process breath sounds for further analysis. Although automated techniques for lung sound analysis have not been widely employed in the medical field, there has been a growing interest among researchers to use technology to understand the subtler characteristics of lung sounds and their potential correlations with physiological conditions. Based on such correlations...

A scalable mixed-level approach to dynamic analysis of C and C++ programs

Guo, Philip Jia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 112 p.
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This thesis addresses the difficult task of constructing robust and scalable dynamic program analysis tools for programs written in memory-unsafe languages such as C and C++, especially those that are interested in observing the contents of data structures at run time. In this thesis, I first introduce my novel mixed-level approach to dynamic analysis, which combines the advantages of both source- and binary-based approaches. Second, I present a tool framework that embodies the mixed-level approach. This framework provides memory safety guarantees, allows tools built upon it to access rich source- and binary-level information simultaneously at run time, and enables tools to scale to large, real-world C and C++ programs on the order of millions of lines of code. Third, I present two dynamic analysis tools built upon my framework - one for performing value profiling and the other for performing dynamic inference of abstract types - and describe how they far surpass previous analyses in terms of scalability, robustness, and applicability. Lastly, I present several case studies demonstrating how these tools aid both humans and automated tools in several program analysis tasks: improving human understanding of unfamiliar code, invariant detection...

Pointer analysis for Java programs : novel techniques and applications

Sălcianu, Alexandru D. (Alexandru Doru), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 200 p.
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This dissertation presents a pointer analysis for Java programs, together with several practical analysis applications. For each program point, the analysis is able to construct a points-to graph that describes how local variables and object fields point to objects. Each points-to graph also contains escape information that identifies the objects that are reachable from outside the analysis scope. Our pointer analysis can extract correct information by analyzing only parts of a whole program. First, our analysis analyzes a method without requiring information about its calling context. Instead, our analysis computes parameterized results that are later instantiated for each relevant call site. Second, our analysis correctly handles calls to unanalyzable methods (e.g., native methods). Hence, our analysis can trade precision for speed without sacrificing correctness: if the analysis of a call to a specific callee requires too much time, the analysis can treat that callee as unanalyzable. The results of our analysis enable standard program optimizations like the stack allocation of local objects. More interestingly, this dissertation explains how to extend the analysis to detect pure methods.; (cont.) Our analysis supports a flexible definition of method purity: a method is pure if it does not mutate any object that exists in the program state before the start of the method. Therefore...

Investments unwrapped : demystifying and automating technical analysis and hedge-fund strategies

Hasanhodzic, Jasmina, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 570 p.
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In this thesis we use nonlinear and linear estimation techniques to model two common investment strategies: hedge funds and technical analysis. Our models provide transparent and low-cost alternatives to these two nontransparent, and in some cases prohibitively costly, financial approaches. In the case of hedge funds, we estimate linear factor models to create passive replicating portfolios of common exchange-traded instruments, that provide similar risk exposures as hedge funds, but at lower cost and with greater transparency. While the performance of linear clones is generally inferior to their hedge-fund counterparts, in some cases the clones perform well enough to warrant serious consideration as low-cost passive alternatives to hedge funds. In the case of technical analysis - also known as "charting" - we develop an algorithm based on neural networks that formalizes and automates the highly subjective technical practice of detecting, with the naked eye, certain geometric patterns that appear on price charts and that are believed to have predictive value. We then evaluate the predictive ability of these technical patterns by applying our algorithm to stocks and exchange rates data for a number of stocks and currencies over many time periods...

Comparator design and analysis for comparator-based switched-capacitor circuits; Comparator design and analysis for CBSC

Sepke, Todd C. (Todd Christopher), 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 182 p.
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The design of high gain, wide dynamic range op-amps for switched-capacitor circuits has become increasingly challenging with the migration of designs to scaled CMOS technologies. The reduced power supply voltages and the low intrinsic device gain in scaled technologies offset some of the benefits of the reduced device parasitics. An alternative comparator-based switched-capacitor circuit (CBSC) technique that eliminates the need for high gain op-amps in the signal path is proposed. The CBSC technique applies to switched-capacitor circuits in general and is compatible with most known architectures. A prototype 1.5 b/stage pipeline ADC implemented in a 0.18 [mu]m CMOS process is presented that operates at 7.9 MHz, achieves 8.6 effective bits of accuracy, and consumes 2.5 mW of power. Techniques for the noise analysis of comparator-based systems are presented. Non-stationary noise analysis techniques are applied to circuit analysis problems for white noise sources in a framework consistent with the more familiar wide-sense-stationary techniques. The design of a low-noise threshold detection comparator using a preamplifier is discussed.; (cont.) Assuming the preamplifier output is reset between decisions, it is shown that. for a given noise and speed requirement...

Comparison of data-driven analysis methods for identification of functional connectivity in fMRI

Kim, Yongwook Bryce
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 p.
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Data-driven analysis methods, such as independent component analysis (ICA) and clustering, have found a fruitful application in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for identifying functionally connected brain networks. Unlike the traditional regression-based hypothesis-driven analysis methods, the principal advantage of data-driven methods is their applicability to experimental paradigms in the absence of a priori model of brain activity. Although ICA and clustering rely on very different assumptions on the underlying distributions, they produce surprisingly similar results for signals with large variation. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the factors that contribute to the differences in the identification of functional connectivity based on ICA and a more general version of clustering, Gaussian mixture model (GMM), and their relations. We provide a detailed empirical comparison of ICA and clustering based on GMM. We introduce a component-wise matching and comparison scheme of resulting ICA and GMM components based on their correlations. We apply this scheme to the synthetic fMRI data and investigate the influence of noise and length of time course on the performance of ICA and GMM, comparing with ground truth and with each other. For the real fMRI data...

Technical analysis : neural network based pattern recognition of technical trading indicators, statistical evaluation of their predictive value and a historical overview of the field; Neural network based pattern recognition of technical trading indicators, statistical evaluation of their predictive value and an historical overview of the field

Hasanhodzic, Jasmina, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 156 p.; 5236812 bytes; 5258020 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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We revisit the kernel regression based pattern recognition algorithm designed by Lo, Mamaysky, and Wang (2000) to extract nonlinear patterns from the noisy price data, and develop an analogous neural network based one. We argue that, given the natural flexibility of neural network models and the extent of parallel processing that they allow, our algorithm is a step forward in the automation of technical analysis. More importantly, following the approach proposed by Lo, Mamaysky, and Wang, we apply our neural network based model to examine empirically the ability of the patterns under consideration to add value to the investment process. We discover overwhelming support for the validity of these indicators, just like Lo, Mamaysky, and Wang do. Moreover, this basic conclusion appears to remain valid across different levels of smoothing and insensitive to the nuances of pattern definitions present in the technical analysis literature. This confirms that Lo, Mamaysky, and Wang's results are not an artifact of their kernel regression model, and suggests that the kinds of nonlinearities that technical indicators are designed to capture constitute some underlying properties of the financial time series itself. Finally, we complement our empirical analysis with a historical one...

The analysis of cryptographic APIs using the theorem prover Otter; Analysis of cryptographic application programming interfaces using the theorem prover Otter

Youn, Paul, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 81 p.; 3655429 bytes; 3664202 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In 2000, Bond and Anderson exposed a new family of attacks on application programming interfaces (APIs) of security modules. These attacks elicit compromising behaviors using an unexpected sequence of legal calls to the module, uncovering severe security flaws even in widely-deployed cryptographic hardware. Because these attacks do not depend on the underlying ryptographic mechanisms, they often succeed even under the assumption of ideal cryptographic primitives. This thesis presents a methodology for the automatic detection of API attacks. Taking a cue from previous work on the formal analysis of security protocols and noting these attacks' independence from precise cryptographic mechanisms, we model APIs opaquely, purely according to specifications. We use a theorem prover tool and adapt it to the security API context. Several specifications of Cryptographic APIs are implemented for analysis using a theorem prover known as OTTER. These implementations successfully found known attacks, and provide evidence that OTTER will also be able to find new attacks, and perhaps eventually verify security in arbitrary Cryptographic APIs. Based on these implementations, various strategies, potential problems, and solutions are discussed that can be applied towards the formal analysis of Cryptographic APIs. We detail how...

Full-wave algorithms for model order reduction and electromagnet analysis of impedance and scattering; New full-wave algorithms for model order reduction and electromagnet analysis of impedance and scattering

Klemas, Thomas J. (Thomas Jonas)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 178 p.; 9142640 bytes; 9150107 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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As technology advances and sophisticated electronic systems achieve ubiquity, the demand for thorough, efficient Electromagnetic (EM) analysis continues to rise. The prohibitive costs of constructing and maintaining measurement facilities and designing and buildin-l system prototypes has fueled even greater demand for Computational Electromagnetics (CEM). Today's CEM solvers can generate models that accurately characterize the EM behavior of an arbitrary structure presented for analysis. Two important applications for CEM are Scattering analysis of targets excited by EM waves and impedance modelling for the interconnect between the electronic components in Systems on Package (SoP) and Systems on Board (SoB). Often, the goal of analysis is to characterize behavior relative to parameters of interest. and EMI solvers can generate paralneter-depenldent models of the system. The complexity of structures has increased so much that solving the solver-generated models at numerous desired parameter-points is a daunting computational task. For example, using these models in a simulator would be infeasible.; (cont.) Instead, existing Model Order Reduction (MOR) algorithms can construct reduced order models (ROMs) that clharacterize the pararreter-dependent behavior of the original system. These existing methods are effective when the system of equations is linearly or weakly nonlinearly dependent on the parameters. When analyzing structures that are large compared to wavelengths of interest...

Design principles and patterns for computer systems that are simultaneously secure and usable

Garfinkel, Simson
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 472 p.; 29543936 bytes; 31405031 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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It is widely believed that security and usability are two antagonistic goals in system design. This thesis argues that there are many instances in which security and usability can be synergistically improved by revising the way that specific functionality is implemented in many of today's operating systems and applications. Specific design principles and patterns are presented that can accomplish this goal. Patterns are presented that minimize the release of confidential information through remnant and remanent data left on hard drives, in web browsers, and in documents. These patterns are based on a study involving the purchase of 236 hard drives on the secondary market, interviews conducted with organizations whose drives had been acquired, and through a detailed examination of modern web browsers and reports of information leakage in documents. Patterns are presented that enable secure messaging through the adoption of new key management techniques. These patterns are supported through an analysis of S/MIME handling in modern email clients, a survey of 469 Amazon.com merchants, and a user study of 43 individuals. Patterns are presented for promoting secure operation and for reducing the danger of covert monitoring. These patterns are supported by the literature review and an analysis of current systems.; (cont.) In every case considered...

Computer analysis, learning and creation of physical arrangements of information

Kahan, Michael Alan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 76 leaves; 3165294 bytes; 3168441 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Humans' ability to arrange the individual pieces of a set of information is paramount to their understanding of the set as a whole. The physical arrangement of pieces of information yields important clues as to how those pieces are related. This thesis focuses on computer analysis of physical arrangements and use of perceived physical relations, such as horizontal and vertical alignment, in determining which pieces of information are most likely related. The computer program described in this thesis demonstrates that once a computer can deduce physical relations between pieces of information, it can learn to order the information as a human would with great accuracy. The information analysis methods presented in this thesis are of benefit to projects that deal with user collaboration and the sorting of data based on relative importance, such as the Electronic Card Wall (EWall) project.; by Michael Alan Kahan.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 75-76).

Computational methods for multi-omic models of cell metabolism and their importance for theoretical computer science

Angione, Claudio
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Computer Science and Technology; Computer Laboratory Publicador: University of Cambridge; Faculty of Computer Science and Technology; Computer Laboratory
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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To paraphrase Stan Ulam, a Polish mathematician who became a leading figure in the Manhattan Project, in this dissertation I focus not only on how computer science can help biologists, but also on how biology can inspire computer scientists. On one hand, computer science provides powerful abstraction tools for metabolic networks. Cell metabolism is the set of chemical reactions taking place in a cell, with the aim of maintaining the living state of the cell. Due to the intrinsic complexity of metabolic networks, predicting the phenotypic traits resulting from a given genotype and metabolic structure is a challenging task. To this end, mathematical models of metabolic networks, called genome-scale metabolic models, contain all known metabolic reactions in an organism and can be analyzed with computational methods. In this dissertation, I propose a set of methods to investigate models of metabolic networks. These include multi-objective optimization, sensitivity, robustness and identifiability analysis, and are applied to a set of genome-scale models. Then, I augment the framework to predict metabolic adaptation to a changing environment. The adaptation of a microorganism to new environmental conditions involves shifts in its biochemical network and in the gene expression level. However...

A Framework in which to teach (technical) communication to computer science majors

Etlinger, Henry
Fonte: ACM: Proceedings of the 37th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education Publicador: ACM: Proceedings of the 37th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education
Tipo: Proceedings
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We describe a framework in which to consider designing an entire course for Computer Science majors that covers both technical communications as well as more general communication issues. By utilizing abstraction, we’re able to fashion a framework that allows instructors to design specific course elements that meet their needs or priorities. We take advantage of many other efforts reported upon in the past that discuss processes that students can follow in developing effective communication artifacts, blend writing or speaking assignments into individual courses, or talk about communication-intensive courses.; © ACM, 2006. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of ACM for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in the Proceedings of the 37th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education. "A framework in which to teach (technical) communication to computer science majors," Proceedings of the 37th SIGCSE technical symposium on Computer science education. Held in Houston, Texas, USA: 3-5 March 2006.